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Holocaust Notes “To learn from history, we must record its events as accurately and as specifically as possible. We must use words with precision. ”
Genocide n The deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. n Violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy their existence.
The Holocaust: the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. n Jews were the primary victims – six million were murdered n Other victims were: n – – – – Gypsies the handicapped Polish Homosexuals Jehovah's Witnesses Soviet prisoners of war Basically anyone who did not agree with the Nazi’s views or who the Nazis decided were inferior.
The Holocaust n The term holocaust, without a capital h, has a different meaning than Holocaust with a capital H. n The Holocaust refers to the statesponsored persecution and annihilation of European Jews by Nazi Germany, n The term holocaust is defined as complete destruction by fire or burning, or any widespread destruction/sacrifice by fire
Why is it important to learn about the Holocaust? n n n Gives you an understanding of the ramifications of prejudice, racism, and stereotyping in any society. It encourages tolerance of diversity in society. Holocaust history demonstrates how a modern nation can utilize its technological expertise and bureaucratic infrastructure to implement destructive policies ranging from social engineering to genocide. A study of the Holocaust helps you think about the use and abuse of power and the role and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and nations when confronted with civil rights violations and/or policies of genocide. Helps you to gain a perspective on how history happens and how a convergence of factors can contribute to the disintegration of civilized values. Part of one’s responsibility as a citizen in a democracy is to learn to identify the danger signs and to know when to react.
Victims, Perpetrators, Bystanders and Rescuers Victims - During the Holocaust, several groups of people were targeted as victims. They were targeted because of who they were or because of what they did. n Perpetrators - Perpetrators were the people who committed and executed the crimes against the various victim groups. People from all walks of life and educational levels were perpetrators. This group had several reasons for committing these crimes including a desire for power, financial gains, displaced anger, an ideology of racial cleansing, and “following orders. ” n Bystanders - People who did not openly persecute the Jews and other victim groups or did not actively help them are considered bystanders. Many bystanders complied with the laws against Jews and other victim groups; however, they tried to avoid terrorizing activities. Many were fearful of the consequences for helping and/or profited from the dispossession and murder of the Jews and others. n Rescuers/Helpers - This group was the smallest group of people during the Holocaust, but the most courageous. Rescuers took great personal risk to help members of the persecuted groups. Rescuers were politically driven, morally driven, or had established a relationship with a person or group. They did not view victims as the enemy, but as human beings. n
Pre-WWII n n n Jews were living in every country in Europe before the Nazis came into power in 1933 Approximately 9 million Jews Poland the Soviet Union had the largest populations Jews could be found in all walks of life: farmers, factory workers, business people, doctors, teachers, and craftsmen In Germany, there were about 500, 000, less than 1% of the German population.
Pre-War Group portrait of members of the Jewish community of Sighet in front of a wooden synagogue. 1930 -1939.
Anti-Semitism n Definition: prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as a national, ethnic, religious or racial group. n Have faced prejudice and discrimination for over 2, 000 years. n Were the scapegoats for many problems, such as the “Black Death” that killed thousands in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Anti-Semitism: Historically In 1879, German journalist Wilhelm Marr originated the term anti-Semitism, denoting hatred of Jews n Among the most common manifestations of anti-Semitism throughout the ages were pogroms (riots launched against Jews by local residents and frequently encouraged by the authorities). n Pogroms were often incited by blood libels, village rumors that Jews used the blood of Christian children for ritual purposes. n
Anti-Semitism in Germany The nineteenth century movement of German philosophers, scholars, and artists led to the notion of the Jews as “non-German. ” n People who supported this idea provided pseudoscientific backing. (a claim, belief or practice which is falsely presented as scientific, but cannot be reliably tested). n The Nazi party upheld these theories; they gained popularity by spreading anti-Jewish propaganda. n Political leaders used anti-Semitism as a tool, relying on the ideas of racial science to portray Jews as an inferior race instead of a religion. n
Anti-Semitism: Racism n In 1931, the SS established a Race and Settlement Office to conduct race “research” n During the war, Nazi physicians conducted bogus medical experiments seeking to identify physical evidence of Aryan superiority and non-Aryan inferiority; the Nazis could not find evidence for their theories of biological racial differences among human beings.
Weimar Republic After Germany lost World War I, a new government formed and became the Weimar Republic. (1919 -1933) n The capitol was in the city of Weimar. n Many Germans were upset not only that they had lost the war but also that they had to make reparations (repay) to all of the countries that they had “damaged” in the war. n The total bill that the Germans had to “pay” was equivalent to nearly $70 billion. n n The German army was also limited in size.
Weimar Republic The German mark (their currency) became worth less than the paper it was printed on n Nearly 6 million Germans were unemployed. n
Adolf Hitler With all of this unrest and fear, it offered fertile ground for the rise of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party. n Hitler was a powerful and spellbinding speaker who attracted a wide following of Germans desperate for change. n He promised the disenchanted a better life and a new and glorious Germany. n The Nazis appealed especially to the unemployed, young people, and members of the lower middle class (small store owners, office employees, craftsmen, and farmers). n
Adolf Hitler n On January 30, 1933 Hitler was appointed chancellor, the head of the German government.
Nazi Rule Guided by racist and authoritarian ideas, the Nazis abolished basic freedoms and sought to create a "Volk" community: one that united all social classes and regions of Germany behind Hitler. n The Third Reich (Germany) quickly became a police state, where individuals were subject to arrest and imprisonment. n Hitler and other Nazi propagandists were highly successful in directing the population’s anger and fear against the Jews n
Nazi Rule Organizations, political parties, and state governments were forced to align with Nazi goals and were placed under Nazi leadership. n Culture, the economy, education, and law came under greater Nazi control. n Trade unions were abolished and workers, employees, and employers were forced into Nazi organizations. n By mid-July 1933, the Nazi party was the only political party Permitted in Germany. n Hitler’s will became the foundation for government policy. n
Totalitarian State Germany became a Totalitarian State n Totalitarianism is the total control of a country in the government’s hands n It subjugates individual rights. n It demonstrates a policy of aggression. n Communists, Socialists, and other political opponents of the Nazis were among the first to be rounded up and imprisoned. n
Totalitarian State n In a totalitarian state, the government maintains total control through paranoia and fear. n The government is capable of indiscriminate killing. n During this time in Germany, the Nazis passed laws which restricted the rights of Jews: including the Nuremberg Laws.
Totalitarian State Jews, like all other German citizens, were required to carry identity cards, but their cards were stamped with a red “J. ” • This allowed police to easily identify them. • They were also forced to wear a star on their clothing •
Propaganda "Propaganda attempts to force a doctrine on the whole people. . . propaganda works on the general public from the standpoint of an idea and makes them ripe for the victory of this idea. “ n Adolf Hitler wrote these words in his book Mein Kampf (1926), in which he first advocated the use of propaganda to spread the ideals of National Socialism n Following the 1933 Nazi party rise to power, Hitler established a Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda headed by Joseph Goebbels. n The Ministry's aim was to ensure that the Nazi message was successfully communicated through art, music, theater, films, books, radio, educational materials, and the press. n
Propaganda One such book was the children’s book, The Poisonous Mushroom. n The book portrayed Jewish people in a negative, “poisonous” way. n This was done to create anti-Semitic views from a young age. n
Propaganda Films in particular played an important role in disseminating racial anti-Semitism, portraying Jews as "subhuman" creatures infiltrating Aryan society. n Newspapers in Germany printed cartoons that used anti-Semitic caricatures to depict Jews. n Later, as word of Nazi genocide spread to Allied nations, the Nazis used propaganda for a very different reason: to cover up atrocities. n The Nazis forced concentration camp prisoners to send postcards home, stating that they were treated well and living in good conditions. n
Nuremberg Laws: 1935 The Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their German citizenship. n These laws did not define a "Jew" as someone with particular religious beliefs, but rather as a member of a specific race n They were prohibited from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of “German or related blood. ” n
Photo: An instructional chart distinguishes individuals based on their “blood” n Anyone who had three or four Jewish grandparents was defined as a Jew, regardless of whether that individual identified himself or herself as a Jew or belonged to the Jewish religious community. n Many Germans who had not practiced Judaism for years found themselves caught in the grip of Nazi terror. Even people with Jewish grandparents who had converted to Christianity were defined as Jews. n The “Science” of Race
The Aryan Race The Nazis divided the world’s population into superior and inferior “races. ” n According to their ideology, the “Aryan race, ” to which the German people allegedly belonged, stood at the top of this racial hierarchy. n The Nazi ideal was the Nordic type, displaying blond hair, blue eyes, and tall stature. n Photo: Members of the Hitler Youth receive instruction in “racial hygiene” at a Hitler Youth training facility.
Kristallnacht n n n Kristallnacht was the “Night of Broken Glass” on November 9 -10, 1938 The Nazi regime unleashed anti-Jewish violence across Germany and Austria; they attacked synagogues and Jewish homes and businesses. Within 48 hours: – synagogues were vandalized and burned – 7, 500 Jewish businesses were damaged or destroyed, and looted. – 96 Jews were killed – Nearly 30, 000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps. – Jewish cemeteries were desecrated. The Nazis claimed that the Jews themselves were to blame for the pogrom. The Jewish community was fined and their insurance payments (to cover the damage) were confiscated.
Persecution The Nazi plan for dealing with the “Jewish Question” evolved in three stages: 1. Expulsion: isolation from non-Jews and pushing them out of Germany 2. Containment: Put them all together in one place – namely ghettos and camps 3. “Final Solution”: annihilation
Persecution/Anti-Jewish Measures n n n Following the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") pogrom of November 9 -10, 1938, Nazi leaders enforced measures that succeeded increasingly in physically isolating and segregating Jews from their fellow Germans. Jews were barred from all public schools and universities as well as from cinemas, theaters, and sports facilities. In many cities, Jews were forbidden to enter designated "Aryan" zones. Nazi decrees and ordinances expanded the ban on Jews in professional life. In January 1939, Jewish men and women bearing first names of "non-Jewish" origin were required to add "Israel" and "Sara, " respectively, to their given names.
U. S. and World Response n The Evian Conference took place in the summer of 1938 in Evian, France. n 32 countries, including the United States, met to discuss what to do about the Jewish refugees who were trying to leave Germany and Austria. n Despite voicing feelings of sympathy, most countries made excuses for not accepting more refugees.
SS St. Louis n In May 1939 the passenger ship St. Louis—seen here before departing Hamburg—sailed from Germany to Cuba carrying 937 passengers, most of them Jews. n Unknown to the passengers, the Cuban government had revoked their landing certificates.
SS St. Louis Since Cuba would not allow the Jewish passengers in, the ship then sailed toward Florida. n The US denied their request to be granted entry. n After the U. S. government denied permission for the passengers to enter the United States, the St. Louis returned to Europe. n Many ended up dying in concentration camps. n
Ghettos “The ghetto was a community ravaged by hunger, disease, and terror; a sealed-off community isolated from the world. It was a community about whose fate no one seemed to bother or care” –Nechama Tec n In an attempt to further control the Jewish population, Jews were forced to live in areas that were designated for Jews only, called ghettos. n Ghettos were established across all of occupied Europe, especially in areas where there was already a large Jewish population. n
Ghettos Many ghettos were closed by barbed wire or walls and were guarded by SS or local police. n Jews sometimes had to use bridges to go over Aryan streets that ran through the ghetto. n
Ghettos n Life in the ghettos was hard. n Food was rationed; people often starved. n Several families often shared a small space n Disease spread rapidly due to unsanitary conditions. n Heating, ventilation, and sanitation were limited; severe winter weather was a big issue. n Many children were orphaned in the ghettos.
Mobile Killing Squads Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads made up of Nazi (SS) units and police. n They killed Jews in mass shooting actions throughout eastern Poland the western Soviet Union. n About a quarter of all Jews who perished in the Holocaust were shot by SS mobile killing squads. n
Wannsee Conference n n n On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi officials met at a villa in Wannsee to discuss solving the “Jewish Question” Reinhard Heydrich held the meeting to involve key members of the German government; their cooperation was needed to implement the killing measures. Most of the people there were aware of the mass murder of Jews that had already gone on. No one objected to the policy that Heydrich announced. The meeting was not so much about deliberating whether such a plan should be undertaken, but rather a discussion of a decision that had already been made.
The Final Solution was the carefully planned destruction of European Jews: systematic mass murder. n It was outlined by Reinhard Heydrich, who detailed the plan to establish death camps with gas chambers. This included – Forced labor – Extermination – Medical experimentation n Heydrich said that about 11 million Jews were to be eventually subjected to the Final Solution, and that: “Under suitable supervision, the Jews shall be…taken to the East and deployed in appropriate work…able bodied Jews, separated by sex, will be taken to those areas in large work details to build roads, and a large part will doubtlessly be lost through natural attrition. The surviving remnants…will have to be treated appropriately…” n They used euphemisms in the protocols of the meeting, but the aim of it was clear: the coordination of a policy of genocide of European Jews. n
Deportation n Millions of people were crammed into rail cars, taking them from their homes and depositing them in the camps throughout Europe. • Commonly between 80 and 100 people were crammed into railcars of this type. • Deportation trains usually carried 1, 000 to 2, 000 people. • The conditions in the rail cars were horrible: too many people, often you couldn’t sit down, no bathroom, no food, no water. • Many died during the extreme conditions of the journey, and most survivors were murdered upon arrival at the killing centers.
Concentration/Work Camps The Germans established detention facilities to imprison and eliminate “enemies of the state”. n Early prisoners were Communists, Social Democrats, Roma Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals and persons accused of socially deviant behavior. n After Germany annexed Austria in March of 1938, they began arresting and imprisoning Jews as well. n In the camps, thousands died from exhaustion and starvation if they were not murdered by the Nazis n
Death Camps n n n Death camps were the means the Nazis used to achieve the “final solution. ” Their purpose was one thing: mass murder. There were six death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Chelmno, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Belzec. Each used gas chambers to murder the Jews. Almost all deportees who arrived at the camps were sent immediately to the gas chambers; a small number were chosen for special work.
Death Camps: Auschwitz n n n At Auschwitz, the largest of the death camps, up to 8, 000 Jews were gassed per day at the height of their killing. Over a million were killed there by the end of the war. The camp was made up of three parts: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (Birkinau) and Auschwitz III (Buno or Monowitz). Trains arrived daily When they arrived, they went through “selection” – The SS staff determined who was fit for work. – The majority were sent immediately to the gas chambers – They were told they were going to take a shower – The belongings of these people were confiscated, sorted, and sent back to Germany to be sold for profit. In January, 1945, the Soviet forces liberated the remaining prisoners, though 60, 000 had been sent on a death march and thousands had been killed in the camp in the days before liberation.
Auschwitz I: The Main Camp Construction began in May 1940 in Poland n It was primarily a concentration camp, although it did have a gas chamber and crematorium n Medical experiments were carried out in the Hospital/Block 10; pseudoscientific research on infants, twins, dwarfs, forced sterilizations, castrations and hypothermia experiments. n Held “The Black Wall” where thousands of executions were performed n
Auschwitz II/Birkinau n Construction began in October of 1941. n Held the most prisoners n Divided into 9 sections n Zyklon B was first used here n Held the four main gas chambers with a disrobing area, chamber and crematorium
Auschwitz III/Buno/Monowitz n Was established in nearby Monowitz to provide forced laborers for the Buna synthetic rubber works. n The factory was established to take advantage of the laborers available in the camp and the nearby coalfields n Prisoners selected forced labor were registered and tattooed with identification numbers on their left arm when they arrived at Auschwitz I, and then sent to Auschwitz III.
Gas Chambers Many of the gas chambers used carbon monoxide from diesel engines. n In Auschwitz “Zyklon B” pellets were used in the four gas chambers, which were a highly poisonous insecticide. n After the gassings, prisoners removed hair, gold teeth and fillings from the Jews before the bodies were burned in the crematoria or buried in mass graves. n
Labor Camps n At the forced labor camps, the focus was not to just exterminate prisoners. The focus was having them work. n The Nazis believed that hard manual labor was not only a means of punishing intellectual opponents, but also of “educating” them. n The ability to work often meant the potential to survive for the Jews; if you couldn’t work, you would be killed. n The labor was often pointless, humiliating and impossible without proper equipment, clothing, nourishment or rest. n Many people were literally worked to death. n The Nazis also exploited the forced labor for economic gain and to meet labor shortages in the German workforce. n Despite being “work” camps, people died from exposure, lack of food, extreme working conditions, torture, and executions.
Jewish Resistance Despite the high risk, some individuals attempted to resist Nazism. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising n From April-May in 1943. n At one point, 450, 000 Jews lived in 1. 3 square miles, with ten foot walls topped by barbed wire around it. n By May of 1943, only about 60, 000 were left in the ghetto. n The uprising began due to rumors that the remaining people in the ghetto would be deported to Treblinka extermination camp in Poland. n When the German forces entered the Ghetto, they were pelted with hand grenades and street battles. n It took 27 days for the Nazis to stop the uprising; they did this by going from building to building and setting them on fire. The ghetto was reduced to rubble. n The remaining 50, 000 Jews were then deported. n
Jewish Resistance n At Sobibor and Treblinka, concentration camps, prisoners stole weapons and attacked the guards. n Most of them were shot, though several dozen prisoners escaped. n At Auschwitz, four Jewish women who were assigned to forced labor helped Jewish crematorium workers to blow up one of the crematoriums using explosives smuggled into camp. n The four women were publically hanged.
Non-Jewish Resistance n n n The “White Rose” movement protested Nazism, though not Jewish policy, in Germany. The White Rose movement was founded in June 1942 by Hans Scholl, 24 -year-old medical student, his 22 -year-old sister Sophie, and 24 -year-old Christoph Probst. The White Rose stood for purity and innocence in the face of evil. In February 1943, Hans and Sophie were caught distributing leaflets and were arrested. They were executed with Christoph 4 days later.
Non-Jewish Resistance n In Denmark, a resistance movement began in 1940 with activities such as killing informers, raiding German military facilities, and sabotaging rail lines. n In Holland, in February 1941, the population mounted a general strike in protest against arrests and brutal treatment of Jews. n Czech agents assassinated Reinhard Heydrich.
Rescue Less than one percent of the non-Jewish European population helped any Jew in some form of rescue. n Denmark and Bulgaria were the most successful national resistance movements against the Nazi’s attempt to deport their Jews. n Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg worked in Hungary to protect thousands of Jews by distributing protective Swedish (a neutral country) passports. n
Rescue n Palestine took over 50, 000 German Jews in during the 1930’s. n Switzerland took in about 30, 000, but also turned thousands away. n Great Britain took in thousands of Jewish children, although they were strict about taking in other categories of refugees. n A small number of American religious groups coordinated relief activities and helped obtain entry visas for children.
Rescue For several weeks in October 1943, Danish rescuers ferried 7, 220 Jews to safety across the narrow strait to neutral Sweden. • As a result of this national effort, more than 90 per-cent of the Jews in Denmark escaped deportation to Nazi concentration camps. • The Danes proved that widespread support for Jews could save lives. This boat, now on display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C. , was used by a group of rescuers codenamed the “Helsingør Sewing Club. ”
Death Marches In response to the deteriorating military situation in late 1944, German authorities ordered the evacuation of concentration camp prisoners n This was done in an attempt to prevent the prisoners from falling into Allied hands; if they fell into the Allies hands, it would have provided further evidence of their mass murder. n Evacuated by train or ship, but mostly on foot, prisoners suffered from harsh Winter conditions, malnutrition/starvation, exhaustion, exposure and brutal mistreatment. n SS guards followed strict orders to shoot prisoners who could no longer walk or travel. n
Liberation Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate camp prisoners on July 23, 1944, at Maidanek in Poland. n British, Canadian, American, and French troops also liberated camp prisoners. n Troops were shocked at what they saw. n • • Photo: General Dwight D. Eisenhower and other high-ranking U. S. Army officers view the bodies of prisoners killed by German camp authorities during the evacuation of the Ohrdruf concentration camp. He publicly expressed his shock and revulsion, and he urged others to see the camps firsthand lest “the stories of Nazi brutality” be forgotten or dismissed as merely “propaganda. ”
After the Camps n Most prisoners were emaciated to the point of being skeletal. n Many camps had dead bodies lying in piles. n Many prisoners died even after liberation.
Displaced Persons n n n Many of the camp prisoners had nowhere to go, so they became “displaced persons” (DPs). These survivors stayed in DP camps in Germany and Austria, which were organized and run by the Allies and the UN It was expected that it would take six months of “Relief and Rehabilitation” A large number of the Jewish displaced persons were eager to leave Europe and the places their families had been mistreated and masscred; they became long term wards of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and the Allied forces. Initially, the conditions were often very poor in the DP camps because the army was not prepared to help out a million people.
Displaced Persons Relations between the DPs and the Allied militaries were strained; they had a curfew, limited rations, and were often housed with non-Jews. n President Truman and General Eisenhower responded to how the Jewish DPs were feeling, and put them in their own camp and aided them in their emigration out of Germany n Truman issued an executive order allowing Jewish refugees to enter the United States without normal immigration restrictions. n
DPs: Returning Home n After the camps, many survivors had nowhere to go because their homes and communities no longer existed; they had been looted, taken over by others, or destroyed in the war. n It was often dangerous to return home; people feared that they would reclaim their homes and belongings. As a result, there were anti-Jewish riots and attacks n As a result, many stayed in the DP camps, waiting to be allowed entry into other countries.
Nuremberg Trials • • n • • The Nuremberg Trials brought some of those responsible for the atrocities of the war to justice. Beginning in October 1945, 22 “major” war criminals were tried on charges of crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and conspiracy to commit such crimes. Crimes against humanity is defined as “murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation…or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds. ” They were tried by the Allies in the International Military Tribunal. Most claimed that they were only following orders, which was judged to be an invalid defense. 12 of those convicted were sentenced to death, 3 were acquitted, and the rest were sentenced to prison for 10 years to life.
Other Trials n n n Twelve subsequent trials followed as well as national trials throughout formerly occupied Europe. The Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings were of Gestapo, SS members and German industrialists for their roles in implementing the Nuremberg Laws, mass killings by the mobile killing squads and in the camps, deportations, forced labor, sale of Zyklon B and medical experiments. The majority of trials were for lower-level officials: camp guards, police officers, doctors, etc. Unfortunately, many Nazis didn’t receive severe sentences from the courts of the countries where they committed their crimes; they often got away with the excuse that they were just following orders. Many of the Nazi criminals returned to normal lives in German society.
Search for the Perpetrators n n n After the postwar trials, there was a continued search for perpetrators who had gotten away. Adolf Eichmann fled to Argentina and hid there until 1960 when he was captured; Israel had been searching for him for ten years. They sentenced him to death. Nazi Hunter Simon Wiesenthal helped to locate Fraz Stangle, Gustav Wagner, Franz Muerer and Karl Silberbauer, all who were involved in the camps, ghettos, and arrests of Jews. Joseph Mengele, the notorious SS doctor who performed medical experiments on prisoners in Auschwitz escaped to Argentina, then Brazil, and then Paraguay; it wasn’t known where he was for years. In 1985, an analysis of human remains confirmed that he had drowned in Brazil in 1979. The vast majority of Nazi offenders have escaped punishment.
Response to Genocide n n n Raphael Lemkin was a Jewish refugee who came up with the term genocide; before, there had been no term for an act involving mass murder, vandalism, and barbarity. Geno means race or tribe in Greek. Cide is a Latin word meaning killing. Lemkin presented this term to the delegates of the UN. In response to the Holocaust, the international community worked to create safeguards to prevent future genocides. In 1948, The Declaration of Human Rights was created by the United Nations. They voted to establish genocide as an international crime, calling it an “odious scourge” to be condemned by the civilized world.
Genocide After the Holocaust Despite this effort, genocide has continued, and it continues to threaten parts of the world even today. • Cambodia- When the Khmer Rouge took control of the Cambodian government in 1975 they began a "re -education" doctors, teachers and students suspected of receiving education were singled out for torture at the notorious Tuol Sleng prison. In four years 1. 7 -2 million were killed • Rwanda- Civil war broke out in Rwanda in 1990, exacerbating tensions between the Tutsi minority and Hutu majority. In 1994, returning from a round of talks, Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana was killed when his plane was shot down. His death provided the spark for an organized campaign of violence against Tutsi and moderate Hutu civilians across the country. •
Genocides After the Holocaust Bosnia- Beginning in 1991, Yugoslavia began to break up along ethnic lines. When the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) declared independence in 1992, fighting broke out. The Serbs targeted Bosniak and Croatian civilians in areas under their control in a campaign of ethnic cleansing. 100, 000 people died. • Darfur- the Government of Sudan carried out genocide against Darfuri civilians, murdering 300, 000 & displacing over 2 million people. In addition to the ongoing crisis in Darfur, forces under the command of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir have carried out attacks against civilians •