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History of GUI John Kelleher History of GUI John Kelleher

Why study HCI’s history? l l l Understanding where you’ve come from can help Why study HCI’s history? l l l Understanding where you’ve come from can help a lot in figuring out where you’re going repeat positive lessons “Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it” - avoid negative lessons Knowledge of an area implies an appreciation of its history 1

Context – Computing in 1945 l l l l Harvard Mark I 55 feet Context – Computing in 1945 l l l l Harvard Mark I 55 feet long, 8 feet high, 5 tons Ballistics calculations Physical switches (bef. microprocessor) Paper tape Simple arithmetic and fixed calculations (before programs) 3 seconds to multiply 2

Context – Computing in 1945 l l l First computer bug (Harvard Mark II) Context – Computing in 1945 l l l First computer bug (Harvard Mark II) Grace Murray Hopper Physical nanoseconds 3

Vannevar Bush (1890 -1974) l l “As we may think” - Atlantic Monthly, 1945 Vannevar Bush (1890 -1974) l l “As we may think” - Atlantic Monthly, 1945 Faculty member MIT Coordinated WWII effort with 6000 US scientists Social contract for science l l l Federal government funds universities Universities do basic research Research helps economy and national defense Identified the information storage and retrieval problem: new knowledge does not reach the people who could benefit from it “The World has arrivedbeen extended far beyond our “publication has at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability; and make real usebound to come of it. ” present ability to something is of the record” 4

Bush’s Memex l Conceiving Hypertext and the World Wide Web l l l l Bush’s Memex l Conceiving Hypertext and the World Wide Web l l l l a device where individuals stores all personal books, records, communications etc l Even contemplated wearable cameras (see work at MIT Media Lab) l Encyclopedia Britannica for a nickel l Automatic transcripts of speech items retrieved rapidly through indexing, keywords, cross references, . . . can annotate text with margin notes, comments. . . can construct a ‘Trails of discovery’ (a chain of links) through the material and save it acts as an external memory! Direct capture of nerve impulses! Bush’s Memex device based on microfilm records, not computers! l but not implemented Paper: http: //www. theatlantic. com/unbound/flashbks/computer/bushf. htm 5

Context – Computing in the 1960 s l Transistor (1948) l l Modern P Context – Computing in the 1960 s l Transistor (1948) l l Modern P 4 has about 15 million transistors (size of fingernail) ARPA (1958) l l l Advanced Research Projects Agency Founded immediately post-Sputnik Budget of only several million$ Modern DARPA budget about $2 Billion (2001) Modern NSF budget about $4. 5 Billion (2001) l Timesharing (1950 s) Terminals and keyboards l Computers still primarily for scientists and engineers l 6

J. C. R. Licklider (1915 -1990) l l “Lick” became director of ARPA in J. C. R. Licklider (1915 -1990) l l “Lick” became director of ARPA in 1962. With ARPA sponsorship, the first CS programs were created: l l Did self-observation of his daily work. l l Observed that much work was mundane and related to accessing and organizing information Proposed: l l l MIT, CMU, Berkeley, Stanford Digital libraries Display screens with pen input and character recognition Wall displays for collaborative work Speech recognition and production for HCI Outlined “man-computer symbiosis” “The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. ” 7

Licklider’s Goals l Produced goals that are pre-requisite to “man-computer symbiosis” l immediate goals: Licklider’s Goals l Produced goals that are pre-requisite to “man-computer symbiosis” l immediate goals: l l l intermediate goals: l l l time sharing of computers among many users electronic i/o for the display and communication of symbolic and pictorial information interactive real time system for information processing and programming large scale information storage and retrieval facilitation of human cooperation in the design & programming of large systems combined speech recognition, hand-printed character recognition & lightpen editing long term visions: l l l natural language understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics) speech recognition of arbitrary computer users heuristic programming 8

Ivan Sutherland (1938 -) l 1963 Ph. D MIT - Sketch. Pad Helped head Ivan Sutherland (1938 -) l 1963 Ph. D MIT - Sketch. Pad Helped head DARPA Info Processing Now a VP and Sun Fellow l Sketch. Pad - Sophisticated drawing package l l introduced many new ideas/concepts now found in today’s interfaces l hierarchical structures defined pictures and sub-pictures l object-oriented programming: master picture with instances l constraints: specify details which the system maintains through changes l icons: small pictures that represented more complex items l copying: both pictures and constraints l input techniques: efficient use of light pen l world coordinates: separation of screen from drawing coordinates l recursive operations: applied to children of hierarchical objects Parallel developments in hardware: l l l “low-cost” graphics terminals input devices such as data tablets (1964) display processors capable of real-time manipulation of images (1968) 9

Douglas Engelbart (1925 -) l l Strongly influenced by Bush’s article Stanford Research Institute Douglas Engelbart (1925 -) l l Strongly influenced by Bush’s article Stanford Research Institute (SRI) l l Augmentation Research Center 1962 Paper "Conceptual Model for Augmenting Human Intellect" “. . . increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems. . ” 10

Douglas Englebart l l 1968: NLS (o. NLine System) System, Fall Joint Computer Conference Douglas Englebart l l 1968: NLS (o. NLine System) System, Fall Joint Computer Conference (SF) document processing l l input/output l l l the mouse one-handed corded keyboard high resolution display view control (and windows) specially designed furniture shared work l l modern word processing hierarchical hypertext multimedia (mixed text and graphics) shared files personal annotations electronic messaging desktop conferencing (video/audio managed by computer) shared displays (what you see is what I see) multiple pointers user testing to see how people worked, need for training. . . All took place before Unix and C (1970 s), ARPAnet (1969) and later Internet 11

Douglas Englebart & NLS Douglas Englebart & NLS "If ease of use was the only valid criterion, people would stick to tricycles and never try bicycles. " Engelbart "I tell people: look, you can spend all you want on building smart agents and smart tools…" "I'd bet that if you then give those to twenty people with no special training, and if you let me take twenty people and really condition and train them especially to learn how to harness the tools…" "The people with the training will always outdo the people for whom the computers were supposed to do the work. " “At SRI in the 1960 s we did some experimenting with a foot mouse. I found that it was workable, but my control wasn't very fine and my leg tended to cramp from the unusual posture and task. ” 12

Alan Kay (1940 -) l l l Ph. D. 1969 (Utah) Computer Graphics In Alan Kay (1940 -) l l l Ph. D. 1969 (Utah) Computer Graphics In 1968, met Seymour Papert (LOGO) in the MIT AI Lab. - kids can program! Moved to Xerox PARC in 1972 l l l Started developing “Smalltalk”, in the Learning Research Group l First general OO programming language l Influenced by Simula Atari – Chief Science Officer Now a Disney Fellow "By the time I got to school, I had already read a couple hundred books. I knew in the first grade that they were lying to me because I had already been exposed to other points of view. School is basically about one point of view -- the one the teacher has or the textbooks have. They don't like the idea of having different points of view, so it was a battle. Of course I would pipe up with my five-year-old voice. " 13

Alan Kay l Dynabook vision (and cardboard prototype) of a notebook computer (conceived in Alan Kay l Dynabook vision (and cardboard prototype) of a notebook computer (conceived in 1968) “Imagine having your own self-contained knowledge manipulator in a portable package the size and shape of an ordinary notebook. Suppose it had enough power to out-race your senses of sight and hearing, enough capacity to store for later retrieval thousands of pageequivalents of reference materials, poems, letters, recipes, records, drawings, animations, musical scores. . . ” l Kay develops the Xerox Alto (1972)1 and Star (1981), the first real PCs "The best way to predict the future is to invent it" 1 Primary hardware developers: Butler Lampson & Chuck Thacker 14

Seymour Papert l Get children to program as a technique for learning l l Seymour Papert l Get children to program as a technique for learning l l Learn by doing Logo Professor MIT Media Lab Lego Mindstorms 15

Xerox PARC l Created in 1970 l l l Some early inventions l l Xerox PARC l Created in 1970 l l l Some early inventions l l "Architecture of information“ Camelot Era Ethernet Networking Laser Printer Desktop Computing These ideas seem ordinary today l Measure of success 16

Xerox Alto l First Personal Computer l l l local processor, bit-mapped display, mouse Xerox Alto l First Personal Computer l l l local processor, bit-mapped display, mouse modern graphical interfaces text and drawing editing, electronic mail windows, menus, scroll bars, mouse selection, etc local area networks (Ethernet) for personal workstations could make use of shared resources l 1972 Precursor to Xerox Star Internal only to PARC $45, 000 / PC l ALTAIR 8800 (1975) l l l Popular electronics article that showed people how to build a computer for under $400 Seed of Microsoft sown 17

Xerox Star l l l Commercial PC 1981 $16, 500 / PC First commercial Xerox Star l l l Commercial PC 1981 $16, 500 / PC First commercial personal computer designed for “business professionals” First comprehensive GUI used many ideas developed at Xerox PARC l l l l familiar user’s conceptual model (simulated desktop) promoted recognizing/pointing rather than remembering/typing property sheets to specify appearance/behaviour of objects what you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) small set of generic commands that could be used throughout the system high degree of consistency and simplicity modeless interaction limited amount of user tailorability 18

Screen shot of Xerox Star 19 Screen shot of Xerox Star 19

Xerox Star – Property Sheets 20 Xerox Star – Property Sheets 20

Xerox Star l First system based upon usability engineering l l l inspired design Xerox Star l First system based upon usability engineering l l l inspired design extensive paper prototyping and usage analysis usability testing with potential users iterative refinement of interface Commercial failure l cost ($15, 000) l l limited functionality l l l 3 rd party vendors could not add applications perceived as slow l l - e. g. , no spreadsheet closed architecture l l IBM had just announced a less expensive machine but really fast! slavish adherence to direct manipulation Steve Jobs and Apple engineers visited PARC in 1979, and that set the path for Apple l 15 PARC engineers migrated to Apple 21

Early Personal Computers l 1997 Apple II l 1979 Visi. Calc - “killer app” Early Personal Computers l 1997 Apple II l 1979 Visi. Calc - “killer app” for Apple II l 1981 IBM XT/AT 22

Apple Macintosh - 1984 l Aggressive pricing l l $2500 Good interface guidelines Third Apple Macintosh - 1984 l Aggressive pricing l l $2500 Good interface guidelines Third party applications Great graphics, laser printer 23

Apple (1981) l Apple Lisa (1983) l l Apple Macintosh (1984) l l based Apple (1981) l Apple Lisa (1983) l l Apple Macintosh (1984) l l based upon many ideas in the Star; predecessor of Macintosh, somewhat cheaper ($10, 000) commercial failure as well “old ideas” but well done! ‘Mac’ succeeded because: l l aggressive pricing ($2500) did not need to trailblaze l l learnt from mistakes of Lisa and corrected them; ideas now “mature” market now ready for them developer’s toolkit encouraged 3 rd party non-Apple software interface guidelines encouraged consistency between applications domination in desktop publishing because of affordable laser printer and excellent graphics 24