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Health Care’s Cost Effective Solution CONSIDER HOME CARE
Section 1 An Overview Why Home Care? And Why Now?
Why Home Care? Why Now? As part of a plan of skilled and supportive care, home health agencies have in place an infrastructure to: • • Fact: Innovative, low cost, evidenced- Reconcile and assure adherence to medications; Initiate personalized teaching and health coaching for chronic illness, selfmanagement support strategies; Conduct in-home safety evaluations, depression screening, and falls risk assessment; and Coordinate other non medical community resources; based practices are being used in home health care today to achieve the goals for safe, effective, patient-centered care that are at the heart of new global payment, medical home or accountable care contracts.
Why Home Care? High quality home health agencies have capacity to: ü Provide intense clinical interventions at home (e. g. , providing a patient after only two hospital days with a course of 14 days home IV antibiotic) ; ü To assist in managing risk (e. g. , this same patient has much lower risk of nosocomial IV line infection); and ü Because of their intense focus on patient and family goals, to improve patient satisfaction scores.
Together We Have a Lot of Work To Do Source: Medicare Hospital Quality Chart Book, 2012
And We Can Do Better…. . No. . . but, of 2, 836 hospitals included in the measure, 2. 7% performed better than the national rate of 5. 7%, and 1. 8% performed worse than the national rate. Four divisions (New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and East South Central) had more hospitals that performed worse than the national rate than hospitals that performed better.
Hospital Discharge Disposition - MA Data: January 2011 - December, 2011, Source: Masspro
Clinically and Cost Effective Placement Innovative approaches to the use of post-acute care could be key to improving patient care at a lower cost A recent study showed that patients with similar clinical and demographic characteristics are receiving post-acute care in various settings Example: Comparing average payments across first post acute settings, it is clear that home health is the most costeffective. For example, the average first setting Medicare payments for MS-DRG 470 (major joint replacement) are: Home Health $3, 267 Skilled Nursing Facilities $8, 981 http: //www. ahhqi. org/research/efficient-care IRF $13, 073 LTCH $27, 399
Section 2 Improving Care Transitions/Reducing Readmissions
Seamless Transitions A referral to home care following a hospital discharge or an emergency room visit gives patients the support and services they need to stay safe at home. At the time of the first home visit (usually within 24 hours), your patient’s: ü Home environment is assessed for hazards that might increase risk of a fall or other injury; ü Medications are reconciled and teaching is initiated to support compliance; and ü Need for referrals for therapy, home health aides, &/or social work are evaluated. Example: Complications of a late Friday discharge can be avoided with a homecare nurse or therapist visit the next day to ensure ordered medications are in the home, discharge instructions are in place and being followed, appointments are set as needed, direct care provided as ordered.
Preventing Re-hospitalization ü Massachusetts Medicare patients who are referred for post acute home health services will receive an average of 20 visits within 60 days of leaving the hospital; ü Patients leaving the hospital can also be referred for care transition support, outside of the Medicare benefit, on a fee for service basis for a one time home or medication evaluation, short term coaching or telephonic support, to support compliance with discharge orders, or setting up a private pay care plan. Example: A patient who has fallen at home once is more likely to do so again. Yet patients suffering from balance dysfunction can find it difficult to travel to outpatient rehabilitation programs because they are not mobile enough or cannot find a caregiver to transport them. A home-based falls risk assessment can evaluate and address changes to a cluttered living area, risks from medication side effects, or elevated blood pressure, as well as issues with strength or flexibility. The plan may involve home modification advice and balance therapy.
The Home Care Teamwork Approach In a post acute episode of care, home health is required to coordinate with the patient’s Primary Care Physician. The home care nurse or therapy team will: ü Contact the physician to establish patient-specific clinical parameters for notifying him/her of changes in vital signs or other clinical findings; ü Work with the patient and family on the importance of patient follow-up with the physician within 5 days of discharge and assure that appointments are set up; ü Provide patient/family instruction on “early indicators” of symptom exacerbation and whom to contact, what to do, and under what circumstances; and ü Collaborate on highest risk patients, including those who may not be able to access an MD office either permanently or temporarily.
Focus on Patient Education Example: Patients go to the ED when they can’t reach a professional caregiver. Home care teaches the patient/family to contact a member of “the home care team” first, for concerns about increasing symptoms or changes in their health status.
Section 3 Managing Chronic Illness
Managing Chronic Illness Studies show that as the number of chronic conditions increases so do hospitalizations. Beneficiaries with multiple chronic Illnesses account for the MAJORITY of all hospital readmissions. ü Only 4% of beneficiaries with 0 or 1 chronic condition were hospitalized and less than 1% were hospitalized 3 or more times during the year; ü Almost two-thirds of beneficiaries with 6 or more chronic conditions were hospitalized and 16% had 3 or more hospitalizations during the year.
A Picture Tells the Story
Home Care Knows Chronic Illness Management Home health care clinical teams, under directives from physicians, are able to help patients manage chronic disease effectively at home, resulting in significant reductions in unnecessary hospitalizations. The home care based chronic care model includes: ü High touch hands on care and teaching often from teams with specialty training and managing and teaching clients with diabetes, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder; ü Technology, in the form of remote monitoring or Telehealth that transmit vital signs daily providing for early identification of changes in condition and more timely interventions leading to reduced hospitalizations; and ü Self management support around management of a chronic illness.
Home Care Knows Chronic Illness Management Fact: Most physician groups are not equipped to effectively manage chronically ill patients. Home care can be the extension of the physician practice, providing the varied disciplines, patient education and in-home visits. Example For CHF patients, an HHA can provide critical services to prevent hospitalizations or ER visits, including: ü Conducting one on one education about the “CHF Zones of Management” and when and whom to call for help; ü Teaching how to take and manage medications and diet, especially sodium intake; ü Teaching use of oxygen in the home; ü Conducting in home or remote observation of weight, breathing, presence of edema or pulmonary crackles.
Section 4 Managing Advanced Illness
What is Palliative Care? • Specialized or generalist medical care for people with serious illness and their families; • Focused on improving quality of life as defined by patients and families; • Provided by an interdisciplinary team that works with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals to provide an added layer of support; and • Appropriate at any age, for any diagnosis, at any stage in a serious illness, and provided together with curative and life-prolonging treatments. Definition from public opinion survey conducted by ACS CAN and CAPC http: //www. capc. org/tools-for-palliative-careprograms/marketing/public-opinion-research/2011 -public-opinion-research-on-palliative-care. pdf Diane Meier, Center to Advance Palliative Care
Palliative Care Teams Address Three Domains 1. “Don’t ask what’s the matter with me. Ask what matters to me. ” Physical, emotional, and spiritual distress; 2. Patient-family-professional communication about achievable goals for care and the decision-making that follows; and 3. Coordinated, communicated, continuity of care and support for social and practical needs of both patients and families across settings.
Palliative Care at Home for the Chronically Ill Improves Quality, Markedly Reduces Cost Service Use Among Heart Failure, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or Cancer Patients While Enrolled in a Home Palliative Care Intervention or Receiving Usual Home Care, 1999– 2000 Source: KP Study Brumley, R. D. et al. JAGS 2007; Diane Meir, Center to Advance Palliative Care
Hospice/Palliative Care Screening 1) Advanced life-limiting illnesses? • • Severe dementia (unable to bathe, urinary incontinence, etc. ) Severe CNS disease (e. g. , recent acute stroke, progressive neurological decline) Cancer (with or without metastasis) Congestive heart failure (with marked activity limitation) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (requiring home O 2) AIDS (CD 4<200 or AIDS defining illness, progressive decline) Other advanced disease (pulmonary hypertension, CAD, other) 2) Has the patient had progressive losses of Activities of Daily Living and/or a severe decline in functional status? Yes / No 3) Does the patient demonstrate any of the following unmet needs? • • • Guidance with pain and/or non-pain symptom management Advance Care Planning/Advance Directives issues related to continuing health care needs Guidance with healthcare decision-making Bereavement Issues negatively impacting health status Frequent hospitalization for advanced illness If “Yes” to Questions 1 and 2: Patient/family would benefit from Hospice Consult. If “Yes” to Questions 2 and 3: Patient/family would benefit from Palliative Care Consult. Adopted from the Beth Israel Medical Center, New York ED Palliative Care Screening Tool; The Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC) Website
Home Care Delivers Satisfied Patients Would patients recommend the home health agency to friends & family? 83% 82% 81% 80% 79% 79% 78% State National
Patient Satisfaction Survey How do patients rate the overall care from the home health agency? 85% 85% 84% 84% 84% State National