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Happiness Causes Success: Incredible Customer Loyalty through Emotional Elevation. Lynn D. Johnson, Ph. D. Happiness Causes Success: Incredible Customer Loyalty through Emotional Elevation. Lynn D. Johnson, Ph. D. Dr. [email protected] com

Does Stress Cause Trauma? Does Stress Cause Trauma?

After 9 -11, many survivors of the Twin Towers disaster developed Post Traumatic Stress After 9 -11, many survivors of the Twin Towers disaster developed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – but not all of them. Why not? Dr. Barbara Fredrickson (U Mich) found: -- People high in happiness before the attack simply bounced back. -- But those whose preattack happiness levels were lower didn’t do as well. Highly unhappy people developed PTSD much more frequently.

Life Hurts Happiness is the cure • Very happy people have the same pain Life Hurts Happiness is the cure • Very happy people have the same pain and trauma. * • Their happy disposition helps them bounce back very quickly. ** *Bonanno, G. (2004) Loss, Trauma and Resilience. American Psychologist 58, 1, 20 -28. **Fredrickson, B. L. , Tugade, M. M. , Waugh, C. E. , & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotion following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11 th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365– 376.

Has Psychology been too Negative? Psychological Abstracts (1967 -2000) • Anger: 5, 584 • Has Psychology been too Negative? Psychological Abstracts (1967 -2000) • Anger: 5, 584 • Anxiety: 41, 416 • Depression: 54, 040 • Joy: 415 • Happiness: 1, 710 • Life satisfaction: 2, 582 Ratio: 21/1 Thanks to Tal Ben Shahar, Harvard U. for this slide

A self-described former grouch, world recognized expert on depression, Seligman shifted from studying what A self-described former grouch, world recognized expert on depression, Seligman shifted from studying what was wrong to studying positive psychology: What makes life worth living? Martin Seligman

Why does happiness matter? Why does happiness matter?

What Good is Happiness? • Happy people are shallow and uninteresting? (Woody Allen, Annie What Good is Happiness? • Happy people are shallow and uninteresting? (Woody Allen, Annie Hall) • Happy people are in denial? – The suffering artist, the anguished intellectual. • Happy people are passive?

What good is happiness? • Happy people are smarter and more creative. • Happy What good is happiness? • Happy people are smarter and more creative. • Happy people have more stable and happy marriages. • Happy people make more money. • Happy people are healthier and live longer. • Happy people are generous.

Sonja Lyubomirsky Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside Laura King Department of Psychological Sonja Lyubomirsky Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside Laura King Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri—Columbia and Ed Diener Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success? Psychological Bulletin November 2005 Vol. 131, No. 6, 803 -855

THERE was a time when meadow, grove, and stream, The earth, and every common THERE was a time when meadow, grove, and stream, The earth, and every common sight, To me did seem Apparell'd in celestial light, The glory and the freshness of a dream It is not now as it hath been of yore; — Turn wheresoe'er I may, By night or day, The things which I have seen I now can see no more.

The rainbow comes and goes, And lovely is the rose; The moon doth with The rainbow comes and goes, And lovely is the rose; The moon doth with delight Look round her when the heavens are bare; Waters on a starry night Are beautiful and fair; The sunshine is a glorious birth; But yet I know, where'er I go, That there hath pass'd away a glory from the earth -- Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of immortality. . .

“My father says that almost all the world’s asleep, everyone you know, everyone you “My father says that almost all the world’s asleep, everyone you know, everyone you see, everyone you talk to. He says that only a few people are awake, and that they live their lives in a state of constant, total amazement. ” -- Patricia Graynamore (Meg Ryan) in Joe Versus the Volcano. “I feel like I am sleeping, can you wake me? ” -- Joni Mitchell, in her album Court and Spark

HOW HAPPINESS HELPS HOW HAPPINESS HELPS

The Nun Study (Danner et al. , 2001) • Only positive feelings predicted longevity The Nun Study (Danner et al. , 2001) • Only positive feelings predicted longevity Age 85: 90% of most cheerful quartile alive; 34% of least cheerful quartile alive. Age 94: 54% of most cheerful quartile alive; 11% of least cheerful quartile alive

“God started my life off well by bestowing upon me grace of inestimable value. “God started my life off well by bestowing upon me grace of inestimable value. . . The past year which I spent as a candidate studying at Notre Dame has been a very happy one. Now I look forward with eager joy to receiving the Holy Habit of Our Lady and to a life of union with Love Divine. ” Celia O’Payne “I was born on September 26, 1909, the eldest of seven children, five girls and two boys. . . My candidate year was spent in the mother-house, teaching chemistry and second year Latin at Notre Dame Institute. With God’s grace, I intend to do my best for our Order, for the spread of religion and for my personal sanctification. ” Marguerite Donnelly

Both lived in the same monastery and had similar life conditions and yet, life Both lived in the same monastery and had similar life conditions and yet, life outcomes turned out to be very different for them. Sister Marguerite had a stroke at age 59 and died soon after. Sister Celia, as per the last report, is still alive at age 98 and has never been sick. http: //www. mindpub. com/art 458. htm Retrieved 7 Oct 2009

Optimism and Heart Attacks Erik Giltay et al. in the Netherlands found: - OPTIMISM Optimism and Heart Attacks Erik Giltay et al. in the Netherlands found: - OPTIMISM Top third of men 65 -80 had half the heart attacks than men in the bottom third. - Health, eating, activity were controlled for. Giltay, E. et al. , (2006). Dispositional Optimism and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death The Zutphen Elderly Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 431 -436.

Worry Raises Diabetes Risk Professor Anders Ekbom, from the Karolinska Institute, Sweden reported that Worry Raises Diabetes Risk Professor Anders Ekbom, from the Karolinska Institute, Sweden reported that men high in worry were 2. 2 times more likely to develop type II diabetes when followed over ten years. http: //news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/health/7524096. stm

Optimism Reduces Cancer Risk • Optimism in women reduced the risk of breast cancer Optimism Reduces Cancer Risk • Optimism in women reduced the risk of breast cancer by 25% – 622 women, between 25 and 45 years. – Optimists were 25% less likely – 2 or more traumatic events raised risk of breast cancer by 62%. – "The mechanism in which the central nervous, hormonal and immune systems interact and how behavior and external events modulate these three systems is not fully understood, " Peled states. Peled, R. (2008) Breast Cancer, Psychological Distress and Life Events among Young Women. BMC Cancer (8: 245)

PRINCIPLE: Happy people have significantly better health. Invest in health by investing in happiness PRINCIPLE: Happy people have significantly better health. Invest in health by investing in happiness

Harvard Professor Teresa Amabile has studied creativity for twenty years. Creative people are: - Harvard Professor Teresa Amabile has studied creativity for twenty years. Creative people are: - happier & likely to have a positive event the day before a creative breakthrough. She has shown that pressure, layoffs, and competition all reduce creativity. “Running scared” does NOT produce more creativity. A positive mood is a necessary precursor.

Do Happy Doctors make Better Doctors? * Forty-four internal medicine doctors asked to diagnose Do Happy Doctors make Better Doctors? * Forty-four internal medicine doctors asked to diagnose a difficult case. - One group first got a bag of candy. - One group first read positive statements about medicine. - One group was the “control group. ” *Isen, A. M. , Rosenweig, A. S. , & Young, M. J. (1991). The influence of positive affect on clinical problem solving. Medical Decision Making, 11, 221 -227

Depression hurts your brain. Take the hippocampus, the part of your brain that organizes Depression hurts your brain. Take the hippocampus, the part of your brain that organizes and keeps track of memories and their feelings: it shrinks when you are depressed. Hippocampus

Your brain grows like a muscle: London Cabbies: larger, thicker hippocampuses As they memorize Your brain grows like a muscle: London Cabbies: larger, thicker hippocampuses As they memorize all the streets of London, their brains literally grow to meet the challenge. . .

What’s Good About Positive Emotions? “We should work to cultivate positive emotions in ourselves What’s Good About Positive Emotions? “We should work to cultivate positive emotions in ourselves and in those around us not just as end states in themselves, but also as a means to achieving psychological growth and improved psychological and physical health over time. . . I call this the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions because positive emotions appear to broaden people’s momentary thought-action repertoires and build their enduring personal resources. . . Through experiences of positive emotions people transform themselves, becoming more creative, knowledgeable, resilient, socially integrated, and healthy individuals. ” Fredrickson, B. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, available at http: //www. unc. edu/peplab/publications/cultivating. pdf

Fredrickson’s argument: • Negative emotions are behaviorally predictive: – Anger: fight, hurt, defeat, kill. Fredrickson’s argument: • Negative emotions are behaviorally predictive: – Anger: fight, hurt, defeat, kill. – Fear: run, avoid, prevent harm. – Despair: freeze, play dead, survive by passivity. • Positive emotions are not predictive: – Interest and Curiosity? – Joy? – Contentment?

Principle: • Negative emotions (fear, anger, despair) help us SURVIVE • Positive emotions (curiosity, Principle: • Negative emotions (fear, anger, despair) help us SURVIVE • Positive emotions (curiosity, delight, interest, joy, etc) let us THRIVE

Measuring Happiness Measuring Happiness

ED DIENER’S SUBJECTIVE WELL BEING SCALE: On the next slide are five statements that ED DIENER’S SUBJECTIVE WELL BEING SCALE: On the next slide are five statements that you may agree or disagree with. Using the 1 - 7 scale below indicate your agreement with each item by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding. * 7 - Strongly agree * 6 - Agree * 5 - Slightly agree * 4 - Neither agree nor disagree * 3 - Slightly disagree * 2 - Disagree * 1 - Strongly disagree Pavot and Diener, 1993, Psychological Assessment. Dr. Ed Diener

____ In most ways my life is close to my ideal. ____ The conditions ____ In most ways my life is close to my ideal. ____ The conditions of my life are excellent. ____ I am satisfied with my life. ____ So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. ____ If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing. - 31 - 35 Extremely satisfied - 26 - 30 Satisfied (most common response range) - 21 - 25 Slightly satisfied - 20 Neutral - 15 - 19 Slightly dissatisfied - 10 - 14 Dissatisfied - 5 - 9 Extremely dissatisfied

Are we flourishing? • Flourishing Scale (FS) © Copyright by Ed Diener and Robert Are we flourishing? • Flourishing Scale (FS) © Copyright by Ed Diener and Robert Biswas-Diener, January 2009. Below are 8 statements with which you may agree or disagree. Using the 1 – 7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each item by indicating that response for each statement. 7 Strongly agree 6 Agree 5 Slightly agree 4 Mixed or neither agree nor disagree 3 Slightly disagree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly disagree

__I lead a purposeful and meaningful life. __My social relationships are supportive and rewarding. __I lead a purposeful and meaningful life. __My social relationships are supportive and rewarding. __I am engaged and interested in my daily activities __I actively contribute to the happiness and well -being of others __I am competent and capable in the activities that are important to me __I am a good person and live a good life __I am optimistic about my future __People respect me SCORING: 48+ is flourishing, below that suggests a need for improvement.

What we are born with; What we can develop. What we are born with; What we can develop.

What Can We Change? Under own control ~ 40% Genetics ~ 50% Positive Psychology What Can We Change? Under own control ~ 40% Genetics ~ 50% Positive Psychology has identified at least 14 interventions that raise happiness persistently. Circumstances ~ 10% Lyubomirsky, S. (2008) The How of Happiness. New York: Penguin.

Recent Seligman Research: • DEPRESSION: Several PP interventions are equal to or better than: Recent Seligman Research: • DEPRESSION: Several PP interventions are equal to or better than: – Treatment (therapy) as usual (TAU) – Combined medication and TAU • TOP TOOLS: Gratitude visit; Gratitude diary, Using personal strengths. Seligman, M. E. P. , Steen, T. A. , Park, N. , Peterson, C. (2005) Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist 60, 410 -421 Seligman, M. E. P. , Rashid, T. , & Parks, A. C. (2006) Positive Psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61, 774 -788.

Seligman, M. E. P. , Rashid, T. , & Parks, A. C. (2006) Positive Seligman, M. E. P. , Rashid, T. , & Parks, A. C. (2006) Positive Psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 61, 774 -788. Note: Acacia Parks tells me the PPT group has retained much – 55% sx free @ 4 yr

Gratitude A validated intervention for resiliency. Gratitude A validated intervention for resiliency.

Learning to be Grateful “You say grace before meals. All right. But I say Learning to be Grateful “You say grace before meals. All right. But I say grace before the concert and the opera, and grace before the play and pantomime, and grace before I open a book, and grace before sketching, painting, swimming, fencing, boxing, walking, playing, dancing, and grace before I dip the pen in the ink. ” “Gratitude produced the most purely joyful moments that have been known to man. ” G. K. Chesterton

“If the only prayer you said in life was ‘Thank you, ’ that would “If the only prayer you said in life was ‘Thank you, ’ that would suffice. ” Meister Eckhardt “Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all others”. Cicero

Who has been kind or helpful? • Jot down two or three people who Who has been kind or helpful? • Jot down two or three people who have been kind to you. – People you ought to thank. . . • How do you feel when you review those memories?

Gratitude Visit • Pick one person who has been helpful. Write a letter of Gratitude Visit • Pick one person who has been helpful. Write a letter of appreciation – one or two pages. • Laminate it or frame it. • Take it to that person, read the letter, and leave it.

Gratitude Experiment • Jot down three things, in the past 24 -48 hours, that Gratitude Experiment • Jot down three things, in the past 24 -48 hours, that you feel good about and would like to see continue. • Jot down one or two things you did that you feel were good, right, ethical, or noble, some things you approve of. • How do you feel?

Gratitude for Challenges • Jot down something that upset you. • Now try to Gratitude for Challenges • Jot down something that upset you. • Now try to brainstorm: How might this be a blessing in disguise? How could I turn it to my advantage? What could be good about this? • Rate your feelings now: 0 -10.

Ancient Wisdom: Bad to Good • Rabbi Nachum said: “Gam Zu l’ Tovah” – Ancient Wisdom: Bad to Good • Rabbi Nachum said: “Gam Zu l’ Tovah” – “ Even this can be good. ” – Students called him “Rabbi Nacham Ish Gam Zu” • Epictetus - Greek Stoic Philisopher: – “No matter what happens, it is within my power to turn it to my advantage. ”

The Gratitude Diary • Every few days, write 3 – 5 things that you The Gratitude Diary • Every few days, write 3 – 5 things that you liked. – What happened to me? How did it happen? – What did I do right? • Then write one thing that you didn’t like – Ask yourself: “And how is it also good, a blessing in disguise? ” – Find two or three ways it helps you.

How likely are you to do it? • Advantages of doing the gratitude diary? How likely are you to do it? • Advantages of doing the gratitude diary? • Disadvantages (or, the advantage of not doing it)? How likely are you to actually keep the gratitude diary?

Building on Strengths Key to Engagement and Meaning Building on Strengths Key to Engagement and Meaning

Values in Action • Created by Chris Peterson & Marty Seligman to “diagnose” strengths. Values in Action • Created by Chris Peterson & Marty Seligman to “diagnose” strengths. • Cross cultural • Six major areas • Twenty-four specific areas • Several studies show emphasizing strengths increases happiness.

Six Areas of Strength • Wisdom & Knowledge • Justice / fairness • Courage, Six Areas of Strength • Wisdom & Knowledge • Justice / fairness • Courage, firmness • Temperance • Love, warmth • Transcendence

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciation of excellence and beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality

Now pick three or four that best describe you. Assignment: Consciously increase the amount Now pick three or four that best describe you. Assignment: Consciously increase the amount of time and energy you give to your top strengths.

Use a Key Strength to Address your Largest Challenge Example: Your Strength is Kindness. Use a Key Strength to Address your Largest Challenge Example: Your Strength is Kindness. Your Challenge: A research paper.

Strengths Date • Diagnose your strengths and your partner’s strengths – www. authentichappiness. org Strengths Date • Diagnose your strengths and your partner’s strengths – www. authentichappiness. org Take the VIA Signature Strengths assessment (top five). • Plan a “date” or activity where you each express one of your top five strengths. Marty Seligman, 2005 TED conference. Go to www. ted. com

Savoring Building Appreciation for Life Savoring Building Appreciation for Life

“I wondered how it was possible to walk for an hour through the woods “I wondered how it was possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing of note. I who cannot see find hundreds of things: the delicate symmetry of a leaf, the smooth skin of a silver birch, the rough, shaggy bark of a pine. I who am blind can give one hint to those who see: use your eyes as if tomorrow you will have been stricken blind. Hear the music of voices, the songs of a bird, the mighty strains of an orchestra as if you would be stricken deaf tomorrow. Touch each object as if tomorrow your tactile sense would fail. Smell the perfume of flowers, taste with relish each morsel, as if tomorrow you could never taste or smell again. Make the most of every sense. Glory in all the facets and pleasures and beauty which the world reveals to you. ” Helen Keller

Homework • Focus on the sensory impressions in a moment-to-moment fashion. – Food – Homework • Focus on the sensory impressions in a moment-to-moment fashion. – Food – Activity (walking, running, sports) – Conversations – Friends – Recall & nostalgia

Random Kindness • Once day per week, do five acts of kindness. • Write Random Kindness • Once day per week, do five acts of kindness. • Write about it in your diary. • Result: Sustained increase in Well Being Lyubomirsky, S. , Sheldon, K. M. , & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111131.

Lifestyle Skills Lifestyle Skills

Activity • Physical activity is approximately equal in effect to antidepressants and anxiety medications. Activity • Physical activity is approximately equal in effect to antidepressants and anxiety medications. • Ten minutes a day is sufficient to produce the effect; thirty minutes may be optimal. Salmon, P. (2001) Effects of Physical Exercise on Anxiety, Depression, and Sensitivity to Stress: A Unifying Theory. Clinical Psychology Review 21, 33 -61 Hansen CJ, Stevens LC, Coast JR (2001) Exercise Duration and Mood State: How Much is Enough to Feel Better? Health Psychology 20, 267 -275

Mediterranean Diet & Depression • A total of 10, 094 initially healthy Spanish participants. Mediterranean Diet & Depression • A total of 10, 094 initially healthy Spanish participants. • After a median follow-up of 4. 4 years, 480 new cases of depression were identified. • Inverse dose-response relationships were found for fruit and nuts, monounsaturated- to saturated- fatty-acids ratio, and legumes. (PUFAS) • Q. E. D. : DIET affects mood Sánchez-Villega, A et al. (2009). Association of the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern With the Incidence of Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 6, 10.

Depression & Diet Link • British study: followed 3486 participants five years; assessed depression Depression & Diet Link • British study: followed 3486 participants five years; assessed depression CES-D • Two diet patterns (assigned to tertiles): – Whole foods: High fruits, vegetables, fish – Processed foods: heavily loaded by sweetened desserts, fried food, processed meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products. • Conclusion: Diet strongly predicts depression Akbaraly, TM et al. (2009) Dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in middle age. The British Journal of Psychiatry 195: 408 -413

Good Diet = Less Prison Fights • Double blind study in British prison – Good Diet = Less Prison Fights • Double blind study in British prison – Multi-vitamins & healthy oils / Omega 3 – OR, placebo and corn oil • Prisoners getting diet supplements: – Fewer fights: 31% fewer in two weeks of starting supplementation. Gesch, C. B. et al. (2002) Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, 1 8 1, 2 2, 2 8

Fulfilling Work • Identify your strengths (VIA) – www. authentichappiness. com – Top five Fulfilling Work • Identify your strengths (VIA) – www. authentichappiness. com – Top five strengths • Find ways to harness your strengths in your daily work. • Practice happiness at your current job – “practice respect” story Seligman, M. (2001) Authentic Happiness.

The Future Diary • “Future Diary” helps patients discover their own goals; develops optimism. The Future Diary • “Future Diary” helps patients discover their own goals; develops optimism. • Describe your future state – Present tense “I am doing X, achieving Y. . . ” – How did I do it? • Write once a week or so. – Go out: Six months to five years

Connection with Others Connection with Others

No Happy Hermits • Very happy persons have much wider range of friends. • No Happy Hermits • Very happy persons have much wider range of friends. • Spend more time with others. • Connection skills: – How can I help others? – Enjoy others as they already are. – Create time with friends.

Duchenne Smiles & Marriage • Duchenne Smiles: 1960 Mills College Yearbook: – Women with Duchenne Smiles & Marriage • Duchenne Smiles: 1960 Mills College Yearbook: – Women with Duchenne smiles were more likely to have married, stayed married, and rated their lives as happy thirty years later, Harker, L & Keltner, D. (2001). Expressions of Positive Emotion in Women's College Yearbook Pictures and Their Relationship to Personality and Life Outcomes Across Adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 80, No. 1, 112 -124

Which is the genuine (“Duchenne”) smile and which is the social (“Pan American”) smile? Which is the genuine (“Duchenne”) smile and which is the social (“Pan American”) smile?

Smile Assignment • Practice smiling more on random days. – Magic coin flip technique Smile Assignment • Practice smiling more on random days. – Magic coin flip technique – Recall happy times, and then smile. • How does smiling more affect you? – Track experiences in your gratitude diary.

“Smiling is yoga for the mouth” - Thich Nhat Hahn “Smiling is yoga for the mouth” - Thich Nhat Hahn

3 Positive to 1 Negative: The Magic Ratio Fredrickson and Losada reviewed high functioning 3 Positive to 1 Negative: The Magic Ratio Fredrickson and Losada reviewed high functioning individuals, families, and work teams. When we observe the positive to negative communications, a common fact emerges: Barbara Fredrickson Languishing: >1: 1 Flourishing: < 2. 9: 1 Ideal: 4 or 5: 1 Marcial Losada Fredrickson, B. L. & Losada, M. F. (2005) Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing. American Psychologist. 60(7), 678 -686

Active and Constructive • Research on marriage: Four styles of response to positive news: Active and Constructive • Research on marriage: Four styles of response to positive news: – Active, constructive: “That’s great! I knew you could do it” • Draw out and expand “How did that happen? ” – Passive, constructive: “That is good, I guess. ” – Active, devaluing: “Don’t get too confident, this could still go badly. ” – Passive, devaluing: “I need to go to the store. ” • Only active, constructive predicts a good marriage. Gable, S. (2004) What Do You Do When Things Go Right? The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Benefits of Sharing Positive Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 228 -245.

"We who lived in concentration camps can remember the people who walked through the huts comforting others, giving away their last piece of bread. They may have been few in number, but they offer sufficient proof that everything can be taken from a person but one thing: the last of the human freedoms -- to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one's own way. " --Viktor Frankl (1905 -1997)

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