Скачать презентацию GTECH 201 Lecture 02 The computing environment in Скачать презентацию GTECH 201 Lecture 02 The computing environment in

82bf10ec9bae1b58e296da59e7ad3047.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 34

GTECH 201 Lecture 02 The computing environment in the geography department GTECH 201 Lecture 02 The computing environment in the geography department

Technical Prelims n Data versus programs n Operating systems n Maneuvering the Windows desktop Technical Prelims n Data versus programs n Operating systems n Maneuvering the Windows desktop n Files and directories n Networks and the Internet

Data on a Computer n n Data is a gathered body of observations To Data on a Computer n n Data is a gathered body of observations To use on a computer, data has to be translated into binary digital form

Computer n n Takes data and manipulates it for some result based on a Computer n n Takes data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed Computers usually include the means for storing data (including the program, which is also a form of data)

Digital n Describes electronic technology that processes data in terms of two states: n Digital n Describes electronic technology that processes data in terms of two states: n Positive = 1 n Non-positive = 0 n Data is expressed as a string of 0's and 1's n Each of these state digits is referred to as a bit

Binary and Hexa-decimal n Power of 2 (instead of power of 10) n n Binary and Hexa-decimal n Power of 2 (instead of power of 10) n n Decimal = 21 Binary = 10101 The numbers 0 -15 in decimal, binary, and hexa-decimal notation:

Program n n A program is a specific set of ordered operations for a Program n n A program is a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform It is special kind of data that tells a computer how to operate on user data n n Interactive (user-driven) programs Batch programs, scripts

Programming n n n When you write a program, you do so in a Programming n n n When you write a program, you do so in a formalized way that is still readable for humans It then has to be translated into binary form to be executed by the computer Examples for programming languages: n n Fortran Java n n C# Perl n n Python Visual Basic

Operating System (“OS”) n n n The program that manages all the other programs Operating System (“OS”) n n n The program that manages all the other programs in a computer The other programs are called applications or application programs In addition, it provides the following services: n It manages the sharing of internal memory among multiple applications. . continued on next slide

OS continued n n n It handles input and output to and from hard OS continued n n n It handles input and output to and from hard disks and printers It sends messages to each application or interactive user about the status of operation and any errors that may have occurred In a multitasking operating system, where multiple programs can be running at the same time, the operating system determines which applications should run in what order and how much time should be allowed for each application before giving another application a turn

OS Examples n n n Windows 98, NT, XP Linux, Unix, AIX, Sun. OS OS Examples n n n Windows 98, NT, XP Linux, Unix, AIX, Sun. OS Apple Macintosh OS 9, or OS 10 Palm OS, Windows CE OS/400 MVS

Multi-user / Multi-tasking n Windows is a multi-tasking OS allowing one user to perform Multi-user / Multi-tasking n Windows is a multi-tasking OS allowing one user to perform more than one computer task at a time n n E. g. , when you open your Web browser and then open word at the same time Linux is a multi-user OS allowing several people to share the computer’s resources at the same time

Multi-user OS n Each user has an account n n Has a home (personal Multi-user OS n Each user has an account n n Has a home (personal space on some hard disk) Has privileges (and constraints) n n n What programs can be run How much disk space is allotted Has a login consisting of n n User name (account name) Password

Differences between Windows and Unix n n Windows XP allows many users but only Differences between Windows and Unix n n Windows XP allows many users but only one at a time That one user has sole access to all computer resources (within the limits of the privileges of the account) In Unix, monitor, mouse and keyboard form a terminal that is usually (but not necessarily) used by only one user Other resources, e. g. hard disk or memory are shared between users

Computer Resources n n n n Monitor – screen size, resolution Keyboard and mouse Computer Resources n n n n Monitor – screen size, resolution Keyboard and mouse Memory – volatile, measured in MBytes Hard disk(s) – permanent, GBytes Diskette, CD-ROM, DVD drives Graphics card, network card Printer(s) USB (Firewire, Bluetooth) devices

Windows Desktop Windows Desktop

Windows Desktop n Desktop icons Start menu Quick launch icons n User data vs. Windows Desktop n Desktop icons Start menu Quick launch icons n User data vs. application programs n n

Start Menu Start Menu

All Programs All Programs

What is a File? n n Everything An entity of data that is capable What is a File? n n Everything An entity of data that is capable of being manipulated as an entity (for example, moved from one file directory to another) Must have a unique name within its own directory Name suffix describes a given format or use n For example, a program or executable file is sometimes given or required to have an ". exe" suffix

ASCII n n n American Standard Code for Information Interchange The most common format ASCII n n n American Standard Code for Information Interchange The most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet Each alphabetic, numeric, or special character is represented with a 7 -bit binary number n 128 possible characters are defined

Binary File n n n A file whose content must be interpreted by a Binary File n n n A file whose content must be interpreted by a program that understands exactly how it is formatted The file is not in any externally identifiable format so that any program that wanted to could look for certain data at a certain place within the file A program has to know exactly how the data inside the file is laid out to make use of the file

Directory n n n In MS Windows, a folder is a named collection of Directory n n n In MS Windows, a folder is a named collection of related files that can be retrieved, moved, and otherwise manipulated as one entity The folder and file terms were chosen to be consistent with the metaphor that the user interface is a desktop In some other operating systems, such as DOS, or most Unix-based operating systems, the term directory is used rather than folder

Directories and Drives n In Windows, a way to organize data on a large Directories and Drives n In Windows, a way to organize data on a large hard disk

Directory Structure Directory Structure

Directory Paths n n n Hierarchical directory structure From root of directory tree to Directory Paths n n n Hierarchical directory structure From root of directory tree to chosen leaf In Windows: C: My DocumentsGTECH 201week 01 In Unix: /courses/GTECH 201/week 01. . signifies parent directory

File Sizes n n n Bit 0 or 1 = 2 states Byte 8 File Sizes n n n Bit 0 or 1 = 2 states Byte 8 bit = 256 (28) states Kilobyte 1024 (210) Bytes (typical page) Megabyte 1024 Kilobytes (short novel) Gigabyte 1024 Megabytes (Great Books) Terabyte 1024 Gigabytes (large library)

File Permissions (Unix) n Three categories of file users n n n group n File Permissions (Unix) n Three categories of file users n n n group n world Three types of access n n owner n write n execute read All three can be encoded in one octal number with r=4, w=2 and x=1 755 means owner can do everything, while group and world can read and execute 644 means owner can read and write, while all others can only read the file

Networks n n n Computers and other devices interconnected by communication paths Networks can Networks n n n Computers and other devices interconnected by communication paths Networks can interconnect with other networks and contain sub-networks A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (e. g. , within a building)

Mapping Network Drives Mapping Network Drives

Internet n n Network of networks in which users at any one computer can Internet n n Network of networks in which users at any one computer can get information from any other connected computer Backbone for email and the WWW n The WWW is the universe of networkaccessible information accessible through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Internet Names and Numbers n n Internet addresses need to be unique Internet Protocol Internet Names and Numbers n n Internet addresses need to be unique Internet Protocol (IP) address is a dotted quad notation of decimal numbers representing 8 bits n n 146. 95. 2. 10 (easily readable by computers) Domain names (geo. hunter. cuny. edu) are assigned hierarchically and read right-to-left n n . edu, . com, . org are top-level domains cuny, amazon, microsoft are 2 nd-level domains

Email n n n The exchange of computer-stored messages over a network (of networks) Email n n n The exchange of computer-stored messages over a network (of networks) Usually in ASCII, although binary attachments (ÐÏ à¡± á allowed ) are Messages are sent to a person’s email address or an email reflector n n Email address: [email protected] cuny. edu Reflector: [email protected] hunter. cuny. edu

Creating Web Pages n Your website /data/moon/array 2/aa/fbaggins/public_html/index. html n Accessing files on your Creating Web Pages n Your website /data/moon/array 2/aa/fbaggins/public_html/index. html n Accessing files on your website www. geo. hunter. cuny. edu/~fbaggins/Lab 02. html n File permissions n chmod 644 and 755