Скачать презентацию Grid Pix for Dual Phase LAr LXe experiments Скачать презентацию Grid Pix for Dual Phase LAr LXe experiments

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Grid. Pix for Dual Phase LAr/LXe experiments Grid. Pix for Dual Phase LAr/LXe experiments

Micro Patterned Gaseous Detectors GEM • High field created by Gas Gain Grids • Micro Patterned Gaseous Detectors GEM • High field created by Gas Gain Grids • Most popular: GEM & Micromegas Ideally: each grid hole red out by a pad Pad size ~ hole pitch ! VLSI pixel readout chip

1. 2 mm Grid. Pix and Gas On Slimmed SIlicon Pixels Gossip: replacement of 1. 2 mm Grid. Pix and Gas On Slimmed SIlicon Pixels Gossip: replacement of Si tracker Essential: thin gas layer (1. 2 mm)

The Medi. Pix 2 pixel CMOS chip 256 x 256 pixels pixel: 55 x The Medi. Pix 2 pixel CMOS chip 256 x 256 pixels pixel: 55 x 55 μm 2 per pixel: - preamp - shaper - 2 discr. - Thresh. DAQ - 14 bit counter - enable counting - stop counting - readout image frame - reset We apply the ‘naked’ Medi. Pix 2 chip without X-ray convertor!

Wafer post-processing: In. Grid Hex / Pillars Grids Silicon wafer HV biasing In. Grid: Wafer post-processing: In. Grid Hex / Pillars Grids Silicon wafer HV biasing In. Grid: an Integrated Grid on Si (wafers or chips) l l perfect alignment of grid holes and pixel pads small pillars Ø, hidden pillars, full pixel area coverage Sub-micron precision: homogeneity Monolithic readout device: integrated electron amplifier

Full post-processing of a Time. Pix • Timepix chip + Si. Prot + Ingrid: Full post-processing of a Time. Pix • Timepix chip + Si. Prot + Ingrid: 14 mm MESA+ “Uniform” IMT Neuchatel Charge mode

A “scratch” occurred during the construction of Ingrid; Loose parts removed. Ingrid working! A “scratch” occurred during the construction of Ingrid; Loose parts removed. Ingrid working!

90 Sr β events Gas: Ar/i-butane 80/20 B = 0. 2 T 90 Sr β events Gas: Ar/i-butane 80/20 B = 0. 2 T

Testbeam April 2008 PS/T 9: electrons and pions, 1 – 15 Ge. V/c L=30 Testbeam April 2008 PS/T 9: electrons and pions, 1 – 15 Ge. V/c L=30 mm V 0 V 1 f Transition Radiator 0. 05 mm

Particle Identification Samples pions (left) and electrons (right) 6 Ge. V/c …broke Time. Pix Particle Identification Samples pions (left) and electrons (right) 6 Ge. V/c …broke Time. Pix chip in Xe: 490 V on grid…

Analysis of test beam data and cosmic muon data with Grid. Pix Colloquium Lucie Analysis of test beam data and cosmic muon data with Grid. Pix Colloquium Lucie de Nooij, Tuesday 13 January, 15 h, H 331

GOSSIP-Brico: PSI-46 (CMS Pixel FE chip) First prototype of GOSSIP on a PSI 46 GOSSIP-Brico: PSI-46 (CMS Pixel FE chip) First prototype of GOSSIP on a PSI 46 is working: • 1. 2 mm drift gap • Grid signal used as trigger • 30 µm layer of Si. Prot

We can see tracks! (Frame # 17 is really great) 7. 8 mm Animated We can see tracks! (Frame # 17 is really great) 7. 8 mm Animated GIF of 100 hits on the PSI 46 brico, 30µm Si. Prot. (if this does not animate, drop the picture into a web browser)

Gas instead of Si Pro: - no radiation damage in sensor: gas is exchanged Gas instead of Si Pro: - no radiation damage in sensor: gas is exchanged - modest pixel (analog) input circuitry: low power, little space - no bias current: simple input circuit - low detector material budget: 0. 06 % radiation length/layer typical: Si foil. New mechanical concepts - low power dissipation : little FE power (2 μW/pixel); no bias dissipation - operates at room temperature (but other temperatures are OK) - less sensitive for neutron and X-ray background - 3 D track info per layer if drift time is measured - gas is cheap (and very cheap wrt. Si sensors!), and light Con: - Gaseous chamber: discharges (sparks): destroy CMOS chip - gas-filled proportional chamber: ‘chamber ageing’ - limit in spatial resolution due to low primary gas-particle interaction statistics - Needs gas flow - Parallax error: 1 ns drift time measurement may be required - diffusion of (drifting) electrons in gas limit spatial resolution

But, are these good enough? 2006 -2007 dead chips everywhere 2007 -2008 spark protection But, are these good enough? 2006 -2007 dead chips everywhere 2007 -2008 spark protection and Ingrid 2008 -2009 characterizing performance of Grid. Pix Cathode - Drift volume (~0. 1 -few k. V/cm) Grid - Gain region (~50 -150 k. V/cm) Pixel readout chip 17

July 2008: protection layer made of Si 3 N 4 (Silicon Nitride), only 7 July 2008: protection layer made of Si 3 N 4 (Silicon Nitride), only 7 µm thick 3 Si. H 4 + 4 NH 3 Si 3 N 4 + 12 H 2 - Silicon Nitride is often applied as passivation layer: top finish of chips. - With overdose of Si. H 4: conductivity: high resistivity bulk material - Favored material for bearings in turbo chargers, jet engines 5 layers of Si 3 N 4 In. Grid + a-Si: H

Discharge (protection) studies: Martin Fransen Discharge (protection) studies: Martin Fransen

Lorentz Force Skin Effect F=E. q I = ~ 3 A ! Improvement with Lorentz Force Skin Effect F=E. q I = ~ 3 A ! Improvement with Si Nitride

Chips still die after month of full-scale exposure (Thorium induced) discharges -discharges along non-protected Chips still die after month of full-scale exposure (Thorium induced) discharges -discharges along non-protected paths (edges, peripherals) - Pinholes in Si 3 N 4 layer Highest priority to solve: !!!! In. Grid made of Si 3 N 4 !!!!

Twin. Grid Gem. Grid Triple. Grid Gem. Grid with Si. O 2 insulator Twin. Grid Gem. Grid Triple. Grid Gem. Grid with Si. O 2 insulator

Grid. Pix at Test Beam @ CERN Test of Gossip detector Low mass rad Grid. Pix at Test Beam @ CERN Test of Gossip detector Low mass rad hard vertex detector. use ~1 mm gas instead of silicon Time. Pix chips 3 X Gossip and DICE in series DICE 19. 5 mm drift gap Gossips: 1 and 1. 5 mm drift 23

l 1. Working point (cntd) gas mixture Not Gossip but Grid. Pix with 19. l 1. Working point (cntd) gas mixture Not Gossip but Grid. Pix with 19. 3 mm drift gap Ar/i. C 4 H 10 80/20 (June 2009 testbeam) Our favourite is presently DME/CO 2 50/50 l Low diffusion (70 – 100 µm/√cm) l Low Lorentz angle (9º @ 2 T) l Good cluster density (45 cl/cm) l 125 electrons/cm CO 2/DME 50/50 09 20 ff. r be e- e m pte ingle Se s m %) a 8 tbe d (3 s Te ite Lim in agreement with simulations 80 pixels (4. 4 mm)

Electronics GOSSIPO-1: test of preamp-shaper-discriminator for GOSSIP ‘Multi. Project. Wafer’ in 0. 13 μm Electronics GOSSIPO-1: test of preamp-shaper-discriminator for GOSSIP ‘Multi. Project. Wafer’ in 0. 13 μm technology Cfb Input pad Cpar = 10 f. F… 50 f. F LM Iin(t) M 6 Ground plane Output M 2 M 1 Substrate Cpar A Output Open loop voltage gain of the OPAMP Ground M 3 Rfb Qin Cfb=1 f. F Very low (parasitic) capacitance at the input (Cpar → 10 f. F). Coaxial-like layout of the input Parasitic metal-to-metal interconnection. fringe capacitances.

Triple well layout in 130 nm (IBM) technology: isolation of digital and analog sections Triple well layout in 130 nm (IBM) technology: isolation of digital and analog sections VDD_ana Guard rings Digital N-type FET area GND_ana GND Analog N-type FET area Analog P-type FET area P-well N-well substrate current P-type substrate

- match extreme small source capacity: 15 f. F - peaking time: 40 ns - match extreme small source capacity: 15 f. F - peaking time: 40 ns - noise (expected: 60 e- input eq. ) - power: 2 μW/pixel (!) GOSSIPO chip Submitted December 2005. - Input noise eq. reached - No effect of digital switching within pixel Multi. Project Wafer: Vladimir Gromov/NIKHEF CERN Micro-electronics group

GOSSIPO-2 test of preamp-shaper-discriminator + 700 MHz TDC per pixel • 0. 13 μm GOSSIPO-2 test of preamp-shaper-discriminator + 700 MHz TDC per pixel • 0. 13 μm technology • containing 16 x 16 pixels • Submission Nov 2006 • Can be used for GOSSIP demo!

1 ns TDC per pixel Oscillator on pixel Time Over Threshold 40 MHz BX 1 ns TDC per pixel Oscillator on pixel Time Over Threshold 40 MHz BX

New CMOS pixel chip: Time. Pix-2 600 MHz osc in each pixel Low-noise, low New CMOS pixel chip: Time. Pix-2 600 MHz osc in each pixel Low-noise, low power analog input Medipix-1 Medipix-2 Gossipo-2 MPW 250 nm technology Time. Pix Medipix-3 Time. Pix-2 130 nm technology Time. Pix-2: - TDC per pixel: σ = 1 ns - ‘ADC’ per pixel: Time. Over. Threshold - noise: 80 e- eq. - discharge protection circuit - fast (trigger enabled) readout Essentially ALL info on primary electrons in gas is extracted!

WIMP search, bi-phase Xenon l Grid. Pix TPC as WIMP / DBD Source: Direct WIMP search, bi-phase Xenon l Grid. Pix TPC as WIMP / DBD Source: Direct Searches for Dark Matter, Elena Aprile, EPS - HEP, July 21 2009, Krakow, Poland detector 4 th RD 51 Collaboration Meeting Maarten van Dijk

Gridpix in Xenon: Test setup l Collaboration DARWIN/XENON Columbia Univ. , N. Y. 4 Gridpix in Xenon: Test setup l Collaboration DARWIN/XENON Columbia Univ. , N. Y. 4 th RD 51 Collaboration Meeting Maarten van Dijk

Now operational: UV photon Grid coated with 200 nm Cs. I mesh cathode with Now operational: UV photon Grid coated with 200 nm Cs. I mesh cathode with V = Vcat (gas ambient) primary e− SU‑ 8 pillar region with no or very low E field: transfer of primaries region with high E field: amplification region Joost Melay, Univ. Twente, MESA+ Jurriaan Schmitz’ STW project ‘There is plenty of room at the top’ With Amos Breskin, Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel ,

Expanding Grid. Pix? l l Photoelectric effect Future possibility: Cs. I layer on grid Expanding Grid. Pix? l l Photoelectric effect Future possibility: Cs. I layer on grid 4 th RD 51 Collaboration Meeting Maarten van Dijk

Photosensitive Grid. Pix Univ. Twente and Weizmann institute In. Grid with Cs. I on Photosensitive Grid. Pix Univ. Twente and Weizmann institute In. Grid with Cs. I on alu. anode Detect by means of gasgain Better anode readout Time. Pix UV light 200 -400 nm First test, In. Grid without Cs. I UV well absorbed by my fingerprint photon transfer of primary e− 38 mesh cathode In. Grid (Al) coated with 200 nm Cs. I