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Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Missions and Opportunities for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Missions and Opportunities for the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch Mark Schoeberl

Missions and HQ Goddard Space Flight Center Ø There appears to be a lot Missions and HQ Goddard Space Flight Center Ø There appears to be a lot of confusion at HQ about new missions Mike Freilich wants to stick to the Decadal Survey (DS) mission set Ø Some new money to begin work on Phase A for Ice. Sat II and SMAP NASA studies suggest that DS mission costs are too low by 1. 5 -2 x Ø Griffin is openly hostile to doing Earth Science missions because it would take money from Exploration Ø Stern (from the planetary side) can’t understand why we are so expensive - GSFC is responding to this. Lost of pressure from everywhere to have NASA do more Earth Science Change in Administration will probably help Ø What are our instrument strengths UV-Vis (ACAM, Geo-Spec) ØWhat else can we do? OSSE’s for Geo or Leo missions ØNeed to define the goal of the OSSE Ø Simulate what the instrument will see Ø Determine if the information useful for assimilation Ø Figure out what else needs to be measured 2

Decadal Survey Missions & Venture Class Goddard Space Flight Center Other NPOESS mission opportunities… Decadal Survey Missions & Venture Class Goddard Space Flight Center Other NPOESS mission opportunities… 3

NAS Missions HQ Sup. GSFC Sup. Goddard Space Flight Center Mission Name (GSFC Lead) NAS Missions HQ Sup. GSFC Sup. Goddard Space Flight Center Mission Name (GSFC Lead) WAG Cost (K) Comment CLARREO (Platnick) 450? ? SMAP [Hydros] (O’Neill) 412 Expecting pre-Phase A money. JPL is mission lead. DESDyn. NI (Ranson) 760? ? Need to develop separate multi-beam lidar mission decoupled from JPL radar. Orbits for radar not optimal for lidar. Costs unrealistic. ICESat II (Waleed) 500 Good IMDC and Center support ACE (Schoeberl) 1600 IMDC and Center support. Need follow on studies. Partner with JPL? 4 instruments need to be worked at GSFC (polarimeter, µ-wave radiometer, ORCA, MBL) Hysp. IR (Ranson) 470 Linkage to HI-ER, competition from JPL. Could play here if we wanted to. SWOT (Jasinski) 450 JPL only mission. Dual SAR. Minimal GSFC interest unless community wants a lidar Geo. Cape (Kawa) 1300 Need to develop a joint effort with Langley and APL. Need stronger HQ leadership ASCENDS (Abshire) 500 Competes with Berrien Moore ITT concept. With Moore leaving for Google and Browell retiring may have more opportunity. GRACE II (Rodell) 300 -500 SLCP (Kim) 300 -500 GACM (Bhartia) >1000 3 satellites, 2 instruments -FTIR thermal, VIS-NIR unknown. NOAA CLARREO (TSIS) could be covered by CASS (VC). Notional mission is µ-wave, but Laser ranging opportunity Radar, radiometer combination (GSFC provides the radiometer) (at JPL) IIP for high resolution UV/VIS, also see CASS for stratospheric portion LIST(Harding) PATH GWOS (3 d winds) (Gentry) 800 IIP, Active NOAA interest, international collaboration, working of aircraft demo, IIP 4

Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission (GEO-CAPE) Ø Mission Type: Decadal Survey, mid Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission (GEO-CAPE) Ø Mission Type: Decadal Survey, mid time frame Ø Mission Lead: GSFC Ø Mission Goals: Sources, transport, and chemistry of atmospheric pollution Coastal ocean dynamics and biophysics Ø Notional Payload: 1. Medium-resolution (7 km) scanning UV-Vis spectrometer 2. Very high-resolution (300 m) programmable UV-Vis-NIR imager 3. CO imager in reflected sunlight and thermal emission Goddard Space Flight Center Ø Competition/collaboration: Langley - competing for atmos. component JPL - compete for hi-res (ocean) imager? CSA- provide CO detector? ØCenter Support (IRAD’ 08): Optics and detector testing; pointing system design study; science requirements definition. Ø HQ Support: Workshop/working group being discussed Ø Next Steps/Issues: Mission too expensive Ø Explore Geo. Quik. Ride Ø Refine discipline requirements Ø Key Themes: Target processes occur rapidly at small scales: 1 -3 hour sampling. Terrestrial biosphere objectives should be included. Very high-resolution, geosynchronous multi-disciplinary observatory is a shared resource for regular observations, special observing studies, and emergencies. 8ºx 8º Ø Status: HQ mission studies (Geo. MAC and integrated #5) done Ø Cost: $0. 55 to 1. 3 B Ø Launch: 2013 -2016 Ø Contact: stephan. r. [email protected] gov ØScience Leads: Kawa, Janz, Pickering, Mannino, Middleton, Bhartia, Gleason, Rodriguez 5

Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM) Ø Mission Type: Decadal Survey (2016 -2020) Ø Mission Global Atmospheric Composition Mission (GACM) Ø Mission Type: Decadal Survey (2016 -2020) Ø Mission Lead: GSFC Instruments #1 a/o 2 (below) could be built at GSFC Ø Mission Goals: Ozone Recovery Intercontinental transport of pollution Ø Notional Payload: 1. Limb-viewing Microwave Spectrometer (JPL) 2. UV/VIS Spectrometer (GSFC) 3. SWIR & TIR Spectrometer (Lockheed) Ø Key Themes: Use the limb instrument to study the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Use UV/VIS to study O 3, SO 2, NO 2, HCHO and aerosols. O 3 and HCHO measurements may be enhanced by using SWIR/TIR channels. Use SWIR/TIR to study CO. Goddard Space Flight Center Ø Competition/collaboration: JPL - TES team is designing a interferometer to cover UV to TIR bands. KNMI/NL- may provide UV/VIS instrument CSA - may provide the CO instrument ØCenter Support (IRAD’ 08): Design of a high spatial resolution UV/VIS spectrometer to determine plume height by stereo viewing. Ø HQ Support: HQ POC - Jucks, Hilsenrath Ø Next Steps/Issues: Mission too expensive Ø explore using limb IR instrument instead of limbmicrowave or keeping microwave vertical resolution same as Aura/MLS NO 2 over India Ø Status: HQ mission studies considered both SSO and non-SSO Ø Cost: $1 B+ Ø Launch: 2018 Ø Contact: P. K. Bhartia (pawan. [email protected] gov) ØMission Science Definition Team: Herman, Joiner, Chance, Torres, Krotkov, Gleason, Duncan, Pickering, Janz, Livesy, Jacob 6

Goddard Space Flight Center Non Decadal Survey Missions 7 Goddard Space Flight Center Non Decadal Survey Missions 7

Chemical and Aerosol satellite Sounding System (CASS) Goddard Space Flight Center ØMission Justification/Type: Ø Chemical and Aerosol satellite Sounding System (CASS) Goddard Space Flight Center ØMission Justification/Type: Ø Collaboration: Obligation to Congress – Monitor stratospheric GSFC – Overall mission management, Project Scientist constituents ARC - Build/buy spacecraft & integration ØMission Lead: GSFC La. RC – Refurbish SAGE III ØMission Goals: CSA – Build ACE II, no cost to NASA Ozone & important constituent monitoring Ozone hole recovery monitoring Upper tropospheric changes ØNotional Payload Instrument Kaley Walker (U. of Toronto) Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment – SAGE III Joseph Zawodny (La. RC) *Total Solar Irradiance Sensor TSIS Peter Pilewskie (U. of Colorado) Is HQ interested in monitoring stratosphere? Need IMDC study for cost evaluation Could involve Naval Research Laboratory (NRL); may be able to provide Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM IV) at no cost to NASA NOAA provide TSIS? Contact Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – ACE II ØCenter support - ? Ø HQ Support - ? Ø Next steps/Issues ØStatus Ø GSFC Contact: C. Jackman Ø HQ Contact: E. Hilsenrath HQ PPT Report, presentation ØScience team leads Jackman, Walker, Zawodny, Pilewskie, Mc. Cormick, Bernath, Schoeberl, Melo, Prather Cost: $120 - 200 M ØLRD: 2013 * Optional instrument since Sun-pointing CASS is modeled on the Canadian SCISAT 8

Goddard Space Flight Center Geo-View ØMission Justification/Type: Venture Class High risk-reward science objective Complementary Goddard Space Flight Center Geo-View ØMission Justification/Type: Venture Class High risk-reward science objective Complementary to GEO-CAPE Decadal Survey Mission ØMission Lead: GSFC-Ames collaboration ØMission Goals: Demonstrate ability to determine air pollution sources, transport, and chemical transformations from geosynchronous orbit. Measure O 3 near the Earth surface at high temporal/spatial resolution over North America ØNotional Payload: Instrument Contact NIR Total Column O 3 Detector J. Kumer (LMATC) UV Upper Trop/Lower Strat O 3 Ø Competition/collaboration: Include La. RC, science community analysis ØCenter support needed (IRAD) UV instrument testing (GSFC) Determine commercial vendor for launch/bus (ARC) Design, build, and test NIR O 3 detector (ARC/LMATC) Ø HQ Support: Venture Mission AO Ø Next steps/Issues Finding a ride to Geo High altitude aircraft instrument and retrieval algorithm demo needed S. Janz (GSFC) Measurement Approach Piggy-back spacecraft and launch to be provided by commercial communication satellite ØStatus ARC-GSFC mission summary, presentation to HQ 12/07 ØCost: $180 M (est. ) ØLRD: 2013 ØScience Team Leads: S. R. Kawa (GSFC 613. 3), R. B. Chatfield (ARC) Contact: S. Randy Kawa, stephan. r. [email protected] gov 301/614 -6004 Difference between solar IR total column and UV partial column is most sensitive to O 3 near the surface. 9

Goddard Space Flight Center Other Relevant Missions 10 Goddard Space Flight Center Other Relevant Missions 10

Aura Validation Experiment on an Unmanned Aircraft System (AVE-UAS) Goddard Space Flight Center ØMission Aura Validation Experiment on an Unmanned Aircraft System (AVE-UAS) Goddard Space Flight Center ØMission Justification/Type: Ø Collaboration: First demonstration of Global Hawk UAS. Funded by GSFC – Project Scientist, flight planning, HQ Airborne Sciences instruments ARC - ESPO ØMission Lead: GSFC Dryden - GH platform ØMission Goals: NOAA - project scientist, instruments Aura Validation NCAR - dropsonde Investigation of polar ozone depletion on the NH midlatitudes Estimating the cross-Pacific transport of air pollution and aerosols Studying atmospheric rivers and their impact on the U. S. West Coast ØNotional Payload H 2 O, O 3, Long-lived gases (GC), Aerosols: (0. 008 - 2µm & 0. 09 - 1µm), Cirrus ice particles, UV-Vis spectrometer, Meteor. Obs. , dropsondes, cloud lidar, Vis-IR imager ØStatus Ø Center support - none Ø HQ Support - yes Ø Next steps/Issues Will GH be flight ready by Feb. 2009 Enough time for integration Can instruments produce real time data for demo purposes Ø GSFC Contact: P. Newman Ø HQ Contact: H. Maring Funded, to be flow Mar. -Apr. 2009 ØScience team leads Project scientists: Paul Newman & David Fahey 11

Goddard Space Flight Center ASCENDS (CO 2 via Lidar) Mission Ø Mission Type: Decadal Goddard Space Flight Center ASCENDS (CO 2 via Lidar) Mission Ø Mission Type: Decadal Survey, 2 nd group CO 2 Laser Sounder in near Polar Orbit Ø Mission Lead: GSFC Ø Mission Goals: Accurately Map sources and sinks of atmospheric CO 2 with global coverage, 1 -2 ppm. V resolution Ø Notional Payload: 3 band lidar (all operate continuously): CO 2 absorption measurements at 1572 nm, pulsed O 2 (atmospheric pressure) measurements at 765 nm Surface height and aerosol profiles at ~1060 nm ~500 km circular polar orbit Ø Key Themes: Mapping CO 2 mixing ratio to improve understanding (spatial distribution & dynamics) of CO 2 sinks Significant extension to initial samples made with OCO Approach offers continuous measurements day and night, all seasons & over oceans Measurements to cloud tops, through cirrus clouds and over oceans Ø Status: Prior work in DDF, IRAD, ESTO ATI and IIP programs Demonstrated CO 2 field measurements & O 2 from lab Ø Mission Cost: ~500 M$ Ø Launch: 2013 -2016 Ø Contact: james. [email protected] nasa. gov Ø Competition/collaboration: Competition: ITT & Berrien Moore - CW approach at 1570 nm JPL - CW approach at 2 um Collaborations: Wofsy (Harvard), Fung (Berkeley), Denning, OBrien (CO State), Randerson (UC) ESA (ASCOPE mission) - potential ØPresent GSFC Support IRAD’ 08 - support for O 2 channel Requested support for ASCENDS IDC study Ø HQ Support: ESTO IIP-04 program - 3 rd year of funding Submitted proposal for ESTO IIP-07 program Ø Next Steps/Issues: IDC studies for payload and mission Airborne Co 2 measurements (summer 2008) ØScience Leads: Abshire, Kawa, Collatz, Riris, Allan, Sun, Wofsy 12

Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) ØMission Justification/Type: NAS Dec. Survey ØMission Lead: GSFC ØMission Goals: Aerosol impact Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) ØMission Justification/Type: NAS Dec. Survey ØMission Lead: GSFC ØMission Goals: Aerosol impact on clouds and precip Ocean biology ØNotional Payload (dual spacecraft) Instrument Contact Polarimeter J. V. Martins (UMBC) Multi-beam Lidar E. Welton Dual Freq. Radar G Heymsfield Ocean Color Spectrometer C. Mc. Clain Low freq. µ-radiometer* G. Skofronick-Jackson High freq µ radiometer* D. Starr Stereo IR Camera D. Starr Goddard Space Flight Center Ø Competition/collaboration: JPL - compete for polarimeter, radar Langley - compete for HSRL lidar High freq µ-radiometer - joint JPL ØCenter support (IRAD) Multi-beam lidar, ORCA, high frq µ-wave, radar Ø HQ Support: IMDC, follow on studies Ø Next steps/Issues Mission too expensive - follow on studies to reduce costs (HQ Supporting) Ø Explore international collaboration Ø Combining instruments Ø RSDO Bus Ø GSFC Contact: M Schoeberl Ø HQ Contact: H. Maring, P. Bontempi ØStatus White paper to HQ PPT Report, presentation ØScience team (Y) leads Schoeberl, Remer, Mc. Clain, Kahn, Mischenko ØCost: $1. 6 B ØLRD: 2015 * Optional instruments desired by the Science Team 13

Who’s working on what Mission Worker bees Geo-Trace Kawa, Gleason, Bhartia, Janz Geo-view Kawa, Who’s working on what Mission Worker bees Geo-Trace Kawa, Gleason, Bhartia, Janz Geo-view Kawa, Gleason, Bhartia, Janz GACM Bhartia, … CASS Jackman, Schoeberl AVE-UAS Newman, cast of thousands CO 2 -Lidar Abshire, Kawa, cast of thousands ACE Goddard Space Flight Center Schoeberl, cast of thousands 14

Summary Goddard Space Flight Center Ø Lots of mission opportunities DS near term focus Summary Goddard Space Flight Center Ø Lots of mission opportunities DS near term focus on GEO ØGeo-CAPE - issues with Langley Opprotunity for LEO instruments less clear ØNPOESS ØClimate mission 1 ØGACM Ø Need to spread the work around a little 15