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Globalisering och utveckling Karlstad Universitet, HT 2010 F 7: Ekonomisk Integration Per-Åke Andersson 031 Globalisering och utveckling Karlstad Universitet, HT 2010 F 7: Ekonomisk Integration Per-Åke Andersson 031 -786 1353 per-ake. [email protected] gu. se 2018 -03 -19 www. handels. gu. se

THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) Table 9. 3 GATT and WTO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) Table 9. 3 GATT and WTO Multilateral Trade Negotiations Multilateral Trade Round Dates Pre-GATT 1934 -1947 33. 2% 23 Tariffs First Round 1947 21. 1 23 Tariffs Second Round 1949 1. 9 13 Tariffs Third Round 1950 -1951 3. 0 38 Tariffs Fourth Round 1955 -1956 3. 5 26 Tariffs Dillon Round 1961 -1962 2. 4 26 Tariffs Kennedy Round 1964 -1967 36. 0 62 Tariffs, Agriculture, Dumping Tokyo Round 1974 -1979 29. 6 99 Tariffs, NTBs Uruguay Round 1987 -1994 38. 0 125 Tariffs, Services, Agriculture Millennium Round 1999 Doha Round 2001 - 142 See Text for Details Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Tariff Cuts # of Countries Major Negotiations Aborted 9– 2

THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS • The major issues are • International Trade THE FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS • The major issues are • International Trade in Agricultural Products • Market Access – The WTO describes tariff reduction • • • as market access International Trade in Services covered in the General Agreement of Trade in Services (GATS) Trade-Related Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9– 3

Regionala initiativ • GATT introducerade MFN, men ett undantag var den regionala klausulen. –Most Regionala initiativ • GATT introducerade MFN, men ett undantag var den regionala klausulen. –Most favored nation => a trade concession to one country has to be given to all other countries as well. –The regional clause = groups of countries willing to start trading arrangements may do so without MFN if they form a substantial freetrade zone within their bloc. www. gu. se

INTRODUCTION Figure 10. 1 Number of Regional Trade Agreements Goods Services Copyright © 2009 INTRODUCTION Figure 10. 1 Number of Regional Trade Agreements Goods Services Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Accessions 20 05 20 01 19 95 19 91 19 85 19 81 19 75 19 71 19 65 19 59 32 – 30 – 28 – 26 – 24 – 22 – 20 – 18 – 16 – 14 – 12 – 10 – 8– 6– 4– 2– 0– Cumulative 10 – 5

DEGREES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Figure 10. 2 Levels of Economic Integration Common Economic Policies DEGREES OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Figure 10. 2 Levels of Economic Integration Common Economic Policies and Common Currency Intragroup Capital and Labor Mobility Common External Tariff Removal of Intragroup Tariffs Reduction of Some Intragroup Tariffs Preferential Free-Trade Customs Trade Area Union Agreement Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Common Market Economic Union 10 – 6

Ekonomisk integration • Developed countries: EU, NAFTA, APEC • Latin America: Andean Pact, CACM, Ekonomisk integration • Developed countries: EU, NAFTA, APEC • Latin America: Andean Pact, CACM, MERCOSUR, Group of three, LAIA, CARICOM • Africa: cross-border initiative, East African Cooperation, Economic and monetary community of Central Africa, ECOWAS, Common Market for eastern and Southern Africa, Indian Ocean Commission, SADC, Economic Community of West Africa. Economic Community of the Great Lakes. • Asia: ASEAN, GCC, South Asian Association for regional cooperation, ANZCERTA www. gu. se

TRADE EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Figure 10. 3 Price of Cars in Mexico $25, TRADE EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Figure 10. 3 Price of Cars in Mexico $25, 000 – Price of Car 20, 000 – 15, 000 – 10, 000 – 5, 000 – 0– U. S. Car Non-U. S. Car Cost Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Tariff 10 – 8

THE STATIC EFFECTS OF A CUSTOMS UNION Figure 10. 4 Static Welfare Effects of THE STATIC EFFECTS OF A CUSTOMS UNION Figure 10. 4 Static Welfare Effects of a Customs Union Price of Cars SM P 4 Sus + tariff P 3 Sj+ tariff b P 2 a Sus c P 1 Sj DM Q 1 Q 2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Q 3 Q 4 Quantity of Cars 10 – 9

Europeiska unionen: 500 miljoner människor – 27 länder EU-länder Kandidatländer Europeiska unionen: 500 miljoner människor – 27 länder EU-länder Kandidatländer

THE EUROPEAN UNION Table 10. 1(a) Chronological Development of the European Union European Coal THE EUROPEAN UNION Table 10. 1(a) Chronological Development of the European Union European Coal and Steel Community ECSC 1951 Belgium, France, Lux, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany European Atomic Energy Community EURATOM 1957 European Economic Community EEC 1957 Treaty of Rome provided elimination of tariffs and nontariff barriers and the institution of a common external tariff Received GATT waiver under the Lome Convention European Free Trade Area EFTA 1960 Most European countries not included in the EEC provided for free trade in nonagricultural products Common Agriculture Policy CAP 1962 European Community EC 1967 Combined EEC, ECSC, and EURATOM Added The UK, Ireland, and Denmark Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1973 10 – 11

THE EUROPEAN UNION Table 10. 1(b) Chronological Development of the European Union Added Greece THE EUROPEAN UNION Table 10. 1(b) Chronological Development of the European Union Added Greece 1981 Added Spain and Portugal 1986 Added East Germany 1990 European Union Added EU Finland, Austria and Sweden European Monetary Union 1993 1995 EMU 1999 EU Added Cyprus, Estonia, Czech Rep, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia 2004 Added Bulgaria and Romania 2007 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10 – 12

NAFTA AND OTHER U. S. TRADE AGREEMENTS • In 1989 the U. S. and NAFTA AND OTHER U. S. TRADE AGREEMENTS • In 1989 the U. S. and Canada signed a free-trade • • • agreement that phased in tariff reductions over 10 years Covered trade in goods and services, investment and eliminated national preference on most government contracts Freed U. S. and Canada from the few remaining restrictions on trade In 1992 this was broadened to include Mexico Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 10 – 13

APEC • Samarbetsorganisationen för Asien och Stillahavsregionen (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) har 21 medlemmar: APEC • Samarbetsorganisationen för Asien och Stillahavsregionen (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) har 21 medlemmar: • Australien, Brunei, Chile, Filippinerna, Hongkong, Indonesien, Japan, Kanada, Kina, Malaysia, Mexiko, Nya Zeeland, Papua Nya Guinea, Peru, Ryssland, Singapore, Sydkorea, Taiwan, Thailand, USA och Vietnam. • Apec-medlemmarna har tillsammans omkring 41 procent av världens befolkning och står för drygt hälften av världens bruttonationalprodukt och 44 procent av världens handel www. gu. se

APEC • Apec enades vid sitt helgtoppmöte (13/11/2010) i Yokohama om att nu ta APEC • Apec enades vid sitt helgtoppmöte (13/11/2010) i Yokohama om att nu ta konkreta steg för att bygga vidare på det frihandelsembryo som än så länge kallas TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership). Där är ännu bara Brunei, Chile, Singapore och Nya Zeeland med, men giganten USA och flera andra stormakter är uttalat intresserade. • Det största frågetecknet är Kina, som tros vara tveksamt till förhandlingarna om en förvandling av TPP till FTAAP (Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific) eftersom USA i ett sådant forum kan sätta ytterligare tryck på Peking att låta valutan yuanen försvagas mot dollarn. www. gu. se