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Global Cyber Innovation Sponsored by Lockheed Martin and the Canadian Embassy Dynamic Identity Verification and Authentication (DIVA) Dynamic Distributed Key Infrastructures (DDKI) (Interoperable, scalable, secure software frameworks using DIVA) AT&T Certified Secure File Interchange 2 Oct 2010 Whitenoise Laboratories Canada Inc. Global Security Challenge Cyber Security Grand Finalists Nov 2010
Problem defined by the ITU There is an urgent need for large, dynamic, on-line authentication systems where there is only partial disclosure of credentials for distributed platforms and services (DAPS) These are cyber security requirements necessary for all cyber contexts. q q q q identity management securing the internet and enterprise networks secure cloud computing/endpoint authenticated encryption secure critical infrastructures secure identity based telecommunications secure smart grids prevention of malwares and spam
Market Universe for DIVA Cyber Security Wikipedia defines cyber security as protection against attacks over the Internet: “Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. ” The United Nations speaks of our growing reliance on the Internet of Things. q Everything is integrated now. q Critical infrastructures rely on broadband Internet because of cost and scalability. Cyber Security MUST address the Internet of Things. Internet 4. 5 billion people E-com, e-gov, e-health 7 trillion machine-to-machine devices 65% of all new electronics are smart Critical infrastructures – smart grids Cloud computing
Secure networks require only three things It is not daunting to either fix or harmonize all network communications. 1. All components of the network are identified by a unique key 2. All persons/devices are identified dynamically and continuously 3. All usage is logged
Devices only require three things For perfect identity management and security a device only needs 1. A little bit of storage space for keys 2. 3. 158 bytes of key DNA creates a 100 billion byte keystream because of exponentialism 2. Write back capacity to update dynamic offsets 3. An internet connection or connectivity
Disruptive technology contained within your innovation Dynamic identity verification and authentication [DIVA] is an identity-based, software protocol that can be used in any digital context that addresses all security requirements: q dynamic and continuous authentication q authorization q revocation q repudiation q inherent intrusion detection q DRM q digital signature q secure network access Users are pre-authenticated and keys are pre-distributed (distributed keys eliminates PKI attacks) Ø end-to-end authentication Ø it operates as a one-time pad Ø perfect identity for persons and devices üpseudo-identity üanonymity.
80 requirements to secure Next Generation Networks (NGN) DDKI/DIVA satisfy all ITU/ISO requirements for Identity (Id. M) and Privacy by Design protocols. Ø operate on any kind of digital network Ø any computer operating system like Windows Ø in any kind of network model: federated silo centralized user-centric Ø It can be used with PKI or in lieu of PKI.
Testimonial DIVA and DDKI provide a completely interoperable and scalable software framework that isn’t hardware dependent. “Whitenoise Laboratories (Canada) Inc. has developed a leading edge technology that is ripe and ready for large scaled distributed dynamic authentication and enablement of secure on-line transactions. ” Dr. Abbie Barbir • Dr. Barbir is an advisor and is: • Chair of International Telecommunications Union Technology Identity Management Question • Steering Committee for the OASIS IDtrust Member Section • Chair for the Kantara Initiative Privacy, OASIS, W 3 C, WS-I, OMA, ITU-T, Canadian Advisory Committee (CAC) JTC 1 SC 6, Standards Council of Canada • IETF, Parlay and IPSphere • System administration Bank of America abbie. [email protected] com
How does DIVA work? Both server and endpoint have a copy of the account identity management key. The server sends a request to the endpoint for an identification token of a specific length, in this case twenty-five bytes. It is not sending across either an offset or a key with this request. Last valid offset Device state 1 a 22 1 F CB FE FA 17 F 2 8 E A 5 F 0 8 A E 1 55 D 6 DD 36 13 73 E 2 9 A 65 2 F F 6 EA 71 FE F 7 D 7 B 8 28 5 D 26 8 B 93 64 16 03 Keystream is a minimum of 1060 bytes in length. We are continuously and dynamically comparing tokens to insure the correct identity of the network user. A token is an unused segment of key stream of an arbitrary length. It is random and has the equivalency of being encrypted – it cannot be guessed or broken and it is only used once. The endpoint replies by sending a 25 -byte token beginning at its last valid offset. Last valid offset plus token Device state 1 b 22 1 F CB FE FA 17 F 2 8 E A 5 F 0 8 A E 1 55 D 6 DD 36 13 73 E 2 9 A 65 2 F F 6 EA 71 FE F 7 D 7 B 8 28 5 D 26 8 B 93 64 16 03 length = 25 bytes This is arbitrary and scalable depending on security requirements.
DIVA dynamic update of offset Server authenticates user/device by comparing the received token bit-by-bit to the token generated at the server for this account/person/device. q Server acknowledges by sending authorization q Both server and endpoint update dynamic offset independently Last offset Device state 2 New offset = last offset + token + 1 22 1 F CB FE FA 17 F 2 8 E A 5 F 0 8 A E 1 55 D 6 DD 36 13 73 E 2 9 A 65 2 F F 6 EA 71 FE F 7 D 7 B 8 28 5 D 26 8 B 93 64 16 03 length = 25 bytes This is arbitrary and scalable depending on security requirements. The system is synchronized for the next continuous authentication query. The account is automatically locked if the comparison of tokens fails. This would happen if someone has copied a key and the offsets are not synchronous.
100% Accuracy - Only two DIVA outcomes Someone tries to steal a key. 1. The legitimate user logs back onto the network first. • The legitimate key and server offset dynamically updates with this use independently. • The pirated or spoofed key (if possible) is no longer synchronized with the server and the legitimate key. • The pirate will be detected if he makes a login attempt. • The pirate can’t access network. Stolen copy is useless. • No theft has occurred. This is the likely scenario the vast majority of the time.
2. The pirate logs onto the network first. • The offset at the server and pirated key updates with this use. Simple customer service Reactivate the account Re-issue a new device • The legitimate key is no longer synchronized with the server. • The next time the legitimate owner logs onto the secure network, the server recognizes that the offset is no longer synchronized because of the pirated key. • The account is automatically locked. • System Administrator and client know that their account has been accessed. • The logs know the exact duration of the event and the exact transactions within that time beginning at the last time the server and client were synchronized and ending at the point in time when the account was locked. The pirate I P address is known for law enforcement use. Gotcha Hacker!
Everyone wants disruptive technology without the disruption. The only step required to implement DIVA is to integrate the DIVA call into a Single-Sign-On login protocol for network or application access. When a network is configured to require DIVA at login, an Identity Information Service (ISS) protocol is invoked to provide complete network security. This can be either remotely provided or internal to an enterprise.
Public Key systems will be safely transitioned in disruption Note: there will not be a single, secure PKI network on earth within five years when quantum computing arrives because of the fixed keys sizes. Ø PKI was an ad hoc approach implemented after the fact Ø PKI was never scientifically qualified to be a ubiquitous framework Ø PKI is ALWAYS vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks Ø PKI is ALWAYS vulnerable to side channel attack classes Ø After 40 years < 10% of North American use enterprise PKI servers Ø We need fundamental, safe, disruptive shift to DDKI Ø PKI will be used in limited, specific contexts that DIVA can secure because a key cannot be stolen or copied without being detected when DIVA is present: q one-time key exchange q additional authentication factor
Middle layer secure network providers like Verisign, RSA and Entrust will be disrupted because: Telecoms like AT&T will be able to sell secure network services and complete secure networks (provisioned/trained overnight/over the phone), directly. Even if public key systems could provide an equivalent level of security as dynamic distributed key frameworks, DDKI and DIVA provide the: • lowest cost - < 10% the cost of comparable PKI systems • simplest remote provisioning, installation and enrollment • simplest security to understand, train and manage • simplest framework to configure for international commerce while satisfying needs of different countries to control their own national security and dialing in their own unique approach
Ad Hoc approaches to cyber security will be disrupted (treating a symptom not curing the cause) The biometric (biological), behavioral (person or code) and heuristic (experience based) conundrum q A person distributes a scan of a biometric (fingerprint, face scan etc. ) to the server one time. q A scanner takes a “snapshot” and compares specific co-ordinates against the stored copy. The more points compared, the greater the accuracy and fewer false positives – but the greater the cost. Mass market biometrics compare fewer points but have more false positives. This defeats the purpose. Note: DIVA and Whitenoise can be used to randomize the coordinates that are compared between an endpoint scanner and minimize the number of coordinates that need to be compared (because it is now operating like a one-time-pad) in order to get an acceptable level of assurance while minimizing the attendant costs of utilizing biometric information.
Biometric binds identity to an account This can be done with 100% accuracy with digital keys using ISO/ITU Level 4 assurance which requires: Ø Identity proofing must be local (same as biometrics) Ø Dynamic verification of reputation material • Biometrics/behavior/heuristics - one additional authentication factor. • Biometrics - market universe is human (disregards machine-to-machine) • Safeguarding biometric information is not addressed. ALL cyber security is dependent on secure communications (internally + externally). Example of seriousness: On October 27, 2010 CNN reported that the US lost communications with approximately 10% of its nuclear arsenal.
Specific products services deploying DDKI/DIVA Secure Session Manager – all identity management and network access security Secure File Interchange 2 (managed) – secure transfer of files and data Secure File Interchange 2 Enterprise (self contained) - both All products/services are less than 5% -10% the cost of competing products. AT&T has certified Secure File Interchange 2 Nov 2, 2010 Immediate market AT&T ecosystem (largest telco in the US) Bell (largest telco in Canada) Use Wavefront, a commercialization centre accelerating the growth of Canadian wireless companies, to facilitate international market linkages and business opportunities.
Achievements Whitenoise technologies are patented in countries with 2/3 of the world population and economic activity including: EU, USA, China, India, Canada, Japan, South Korea etc. Whitenoise is recognized internationally: Aug 2009 - White House OSTP invitation to the US National Cyber Leap Year Summit. Apr 2010 - invited by the United Nations International Telecommunications Union - UN-ITU – for identity management and identity systems moving towards standardization. Jun 2010 - invited to Commonwealth Telecommunications Organization on cyber security Jun 2010 - named subject matter experts by the International Standards Advisory Council of Canada for the Global Standards Collaboration plenary working groups Spring 2010 - named by Industry Canada as a delegate to UN-ITU June 2010 - finalist BCTIA technology award Fall 2010 – release of the book In Denial: Code Red Memberships International and national standards organizations Canadian Advisory Council CAC/JTC 1/SC 27 WG 2 and WG 5 for contributions to ISO/ITU 2010/2011 Canadian National Organization for the International Telecommunications Union/Industry Canada Standards Council of Canada International Standards Advisory Council of Canada Information Technology Association of Canada Cyber Security Committee Information Technology Association of Canada National Identity Management Committee Information Technology Association of Canada Radio Frequency Committee Computer Systems Training Advisory Committee at the British Columbia Institute of Technology Information Technology Association of Canada Cryptography Committee Information Technology Association of Canada Cyber Security Forum, Electronic Commerce Protection (Anti-Spam) Subcommittee Information Technology Association of Canada Cyber Security Forum, Privacy Subcommittee
Thank you Whitenoise is controlled static Presentation by André Brisson and Stephen Boren Co Founders Whitenoise Laboratories (Canada) Inc.