GIS For Location Based Services Shashika Biyanwila Independent

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GIS For Location Based Services Shashika Biyanwila Independent Study Presentation As partial fulfillment of GIS For Location Based Services Shashika Biyanwila Independent Study Presentation As partial fulfillment of M. Sc. Degree

Outline § What is LBS? § What is GIS? § Desktop GIS § Web Outline § What is LBS? § What is GIS? § Desktop GIS § Web GIS § Mobile GIS § Summary GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ? q Provide personalized services to mobile users based on their What is LBS ? q Provide personalized services to mobile users based on their current location § Where am I? § What is the nearestaurant, cinema ect. Tracking Operator services Assistance Range of applications Monitoring GIS for Location Based Services Information

What is LBS ? Mobile Devices http: //www. geo. unizh. ch/ GIS for Location What is LBS ? Mobile Devices http: //www. geo. unizh. ch/ GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ? … q Definition 1 (Virrantaus et al. 2001) LBSs are What is LBS ? … q Definition 1 (Virrantaus et al. 2001) LBSs are information services accessible with mobile devices through the mobile network and utilizing the ability to make use of the location of the mobile device. q Definition 2 (OGC, 2005 ) A wireless-IP service that uses geographic information to serve a mobile user. Any application service that exploits the position of a mobile terminal. GIS for Location Based Services

What is LBS ? … q LBS as an intersection of three technologies http: What is LBS ? … q LBS as an intersection of three technologies http: //www. geo. unizh. ch/publications/cartouche/ lbs_lecturenotes_steinigeretal 2006. pdf q LBS need to deal with GIS … GIS for Location Based Services

What is GIS ? “A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized collection of What is GIS ? “A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, methods, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze and display all forms of geographically referenced information” [ESRI, 1996]. q. GIS services (Open. GIS Guide [Buehler & Mc. Kee, 1998]) § Geodata Services § Geoprocessing Services GIS for Location Based Services

Key Features of GIS q Information from different sources §Computer databases § Digital maps Key Features of GIS q Information from different sources §Computer databases § Digital maps § GPS receiver § Satellite image q Data integration http: //erg. usgs. gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/ GIS for Location Based Services

Key Features of GIS … q Projection q Information retrieval q Data output q. Key Features of GIS … q Projection q Information retrieval q Data output q. Overlay q Topological modeling http: //erg. usgs. gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/ GIS for Location Based Services

Data Representation q Raster Data § Represent images as a collection of pixels § Data Representation q Raster Data § Represent images as a collection of pixels § A grid of cells covering an image / area § Higher data volume § Example of raster formats § Geo. Tiff § ARC/INFO ASCII Grid § ARC/INFO GRID § ECW § IMG GIS for Location Based Services

Data Representation… q Vector Data § Use geometrical shapes (Lines, Points, Polygons) § Low Data Representation… q Vector Data § Use geometrical shapes (Lines, Points, Polygons) § Low data volume § Example of vector formats § Shape files § Map. Info TAB § NTF § TIGER GIS for Location Based Services

Types of GIS Desktop GIS Web GIS Mobile GIS q GIS is moving from Types of GIS Desktop GIS Web GIS Mobile GIS q GIS is moving from Desktop systems to Distributed system Open. GIS concept q Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) [http: //www. opengeospatial. org] Develop specifications to increase the interoperability of geospatial data and geoprocessing software components GIS for Location Based Services

Desktop GIS q Represents the real world on a computer q Limited to the Desktop GIS q Represents the real world on a computer q Limited to the desktop Computer q Not everyone can access the applications q Desktop GIS Functionalities §View data on a map § Analyze data § Create publication quality, professional maps GIS for Location Based Services

Desktop GIS Software q. GIS Software Proprietary Software - Arc. GIS Desktop (ESRI) - Desktop GIS Software q. GIS Software Proprietary Software - Arc. GIS Desktop (ESRI) - Envision (Autodesk) - Map. Info Professional Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) - GRASS GIS - Quantum GIS (QGIS) GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop (ESRI) q Includes four software components. § Arc. Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop (ESRI) q Includes four software components. § Arc. Reader § Arc. View § Arc. Editor § Arc. Info http: //www. esri. com/products. html GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop … § Arc. Reader -An easy-to-use desktop mapping Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop … § Arc. Reader -An easy-to-use desktop mapping application - Allow users to view, explore and print maps § Arc. View - A full featured GIS software - Allow users to view, analyze, manage and create geographic data GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop … § Arc. Editor - A powerful GIS Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop … § Arc. Editor - A powerful GIS desktop system - Provide all the functionality of Arc. View - Provide data edit capability - Supports single user editing OR collaborative process GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop… § Arc. Info - The most complete GIS Proprietary Software 1. Arc. GIS Desktop… § Arc. Info - The most complete GIS - Includes all the functionality of Arc. Editor, Arc. View, and Arc. Reader - Provide advanced spatial analysis, extensive data manipulation, and high-end cartography tools GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 2. Envision (Autodesk) q Integrates GIS spatial data and Auto. Cad design Proprietary Software 2. Envision (Autodesk) q Integrates GIS spatial data and Auto. Cad design data q Perform civil engineering tasks such as - calculating elevations - cut/fill volumes -running flood analyses q Auto. Desk Raster Design is used to edit, modify, and enhance raster data GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary Software 3. Map. Info Professional q A full featured Desktop geospatial solution q Proprietary Software 3. Map. Info Professional q A full featured Desktop geospatial solution q Comes with easy-to-use software and a powerful software tool q Vertical Mapper third party add-on for raster data GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software 1. GRASS GIS q GRASS - Geographic Resources Analysis Support System q FOSS Software 1. GRASS GIS q GRASS - Geographic Resources Analysis Support System q Supports various platforms q Supports for both raster & vector formats GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software 1. GRASS GIS… q Functionalities - geospatial data management and analysis - FOSS Software 1. GRASS GIS… q Functionalities - geospatial data management and analysis - image processing - graphics/maps production - spatial modeling - visualization GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS Software 2. Quantum GIS (QGIS) q Support multiple platforms - Linux, Unix, Mac FOSS Software 2. Quantum GIS (QGIS) q Support multiple platforms - Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, and Windows q Support multiple data formats -vector, raster, database formats -GRASS layers http: //qgis. org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en. pdf q Extendable functionality using plug-ins GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS q Issues… §Limited to a Desktop PC §Cannot access remotely q Applicability for LBS q Issues… §Limited to a Desktop PC §Cannot access remotely q LBS deals with mobile users §Need remote access to GIS §Transfer information between user and the GIS Desktop GIS not suitable for LBS GIS for Location Based Services

Web GIS “Web GIS is a Geographic Information System distributed across a networked computer Web GIS “Web GIS is a Geographic Information System distributed across a networked computer environment to integrate, disseminate, and communicate geographic information visually on the World Wide Web over the Internet. ” [Gillavry, 2000] q. Disseminate geospatial data and processing tools q Possible to Process geo-related information with no location restrictions. GIS for Location Based Services

Web GIS Architecture Web GIS Client-Server Architecture Distributed Architecture GIS for Location Based Services Web GIS Architecture Web GIS Client-Server Architecture Distributed Architecture GIS for Location Based Services

1. Client – Server Architecture q Geoprocessing Server side & Client side tasks q 1. Client – Server Architecture q Geoprocessing Server side & Client side tasks q Typical three tier architecture 1. Presentation tier 1. - Contains user interface 2. Application logic tier 1. - Model & process GIS data 3. Storage tier - Databases that store GIS data GIS for Location Based Services

1. Client – Server Architecture … q A typical client-server architecture Client Server Middle 1. Client – Server Architecture … q A typical client-server architecture Client Server Middle Ware Spatial request Web Browser Internet Web Server Internet Map Server (IMS) HTML, Image, Map. . q Two types - Thin client architecture - Thick client architecture GIS for Location Based Services GIS software GIS database

2. Distributed Architecture q Both data and processing components are distributed q The client 2. Distributed Architecture q Both data and processing components are distributed q The client and server do not refer to a specific machine q “Geodata anywhere, Geoprocessing anywhere” model q Distributed object architectures - Microsoft's Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) - Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) - Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI) GIS for Location Based Services

IMS Software q Allow users to access spatial data via a web browser interface IMS Software q Allow users to access spatial data via a web browser interface q Interact with web server and spatial database Proprietary software FOSS software - Arc. View IMS (ESRI) - Minnesota Map Server - Map. Objects IMS (ESRI) - Open-GIS Multiviewer - Arc. IMS (ESRI) - GIS Viewer - Map. Guide (Autodesk) GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software 1. Arc. View IMS (ESRI) § Extension of ESRI's Desktop-GIS application- Arc. Proprietary software 1. Arc. View IMS (ESRI) § Extension of ESRI's Desktop-GIS application- Arc. View § One of the first available Map Server systems § Requires an open session of Arc. View running on the Web server with IMS Arc. View middleware § Client cannot change the composition of the received map GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software 2. Map. Objects IMS (ESRI) § Integrate three applications : Map. Objects Proprietary software 2. Map. Objects IMS (ESRI) § Integrate three applications : Map. Objects IMS, Map. Objects Professional, and Arc. Explorer § Can consider as a programming platform § For GIS applications - Visual Basic, Visual C + +, Delphi § For client applications - HTML (Java. Script), Active. X § Supports Windows or UNIX-based Web servers § Uses modern three-tier architecture GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software 3. Arc. IMS (ESRI) § Most widely used Proprietary IMS software § Proprietary software 3. Arc. IMS (ESRI) § Most widely used Proprietary IMS software § A three tier architecture http: //gisweb. ciat. cgiar. org/sig/ims-technology-esri. htm GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software 3. Arc. IMS … § The components of the Arc. IMS server Proprietary software 3. Arc. IMS … § The components of the Arc. IMS server : - Spatial Server - Applications Server - Connectors to the Applications Server [Servelets, Cold. Fusion, Active. X ] - Administrator § Tool for designing map services need not to program client § Client receives instructions suitable for processing GIS for Location Based Services

Proprietary software 4. Map. Guide (Autodesk) § Similar capacities to those of Arc. IMS Proprietary software 4. Map. Guide (Autodesk) § Similar capacities to those of Arc. IMS § Provide tools for basic geographical operations § Own data format –SDF § Extensions required to convert other formats to SDF format GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server § World’s leading open source Web-Mapping tool § FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server § World’s leading open source Web-Mapping tool § Originally developed for the University of Minnesota (UMN) § Supported platforms : Linux/Apache, Windows NT/98/95 § A CGI program that sits inactive on a Web Server § Uses information passed in the URL and the Map File to process the request GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… § The Map. Server architecture § Client - FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… § The Map. Server architecture § Client - Web browser § Server - HTTP Server (Apache, IIS) - Map. Server CGI (mapserve. exe) - Map Files - Geographic Data [ESRI Shape files, Geo. TIFF] Illustrated according to diagram from http: //mapserver. gis. umn. edu/new_users/msappdiagram/ GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… How Map. Server works? http: // <location of FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… How Map. Server works? http: // http: //192. 8. 10. 52/cgi-bin/mapserve. exe? map=/ms 4 w/apps/app 1/htdocs/test. map Web Browser Request Web Server Request Mapserver (CGI) test. map Mapfiles GIS for Location Based Services Result

FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… q Advantages of using Map. Server - Comes FOSS software 1. Minnesota Map Server… q Advantages of using Map. Server - Comes as a standard package which bundles Map. Server and many required supporting tools - No dedicated hardware is required - Client is only a web browser - Not bounded to any specific language - Compliant to the OGC Specification - Support for database access (Post. GIS, My. Sql) GIS for Location Based Services

FOSS software 2. GIS VIEWER § Developed by the University of California, Berkeley at FOSS software 2. GIS VIEWER § Developed by the University of California, Berkeley at "UC Berkeley Digital Library Project” § Supported platforms : Unix, Linux, Windows NT § Display geographical information by means of a window (viewfinder) GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS § Key features of web GIS: - Distribute geospatial data over Applicability for LBS § Key features of web GIS: - Distribute geospatial data over the Internet or an Intranet - Limited to hardwired networks § Features of Mobile devices: - Use wireless Internet (low bandwidth, low connection speed) - Limited processing power - Diversity nature Web GIS not suitable for LBS GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS “Mobile GIS is an integrated software/hardware framework for the access of geospatial Mobile GIS “Mobile GIS is an integrated software/hardware framework for the access of geospatial data and services through mobile devices via wireline or wireless networks. ” [http: //map. sdsu. edu/publications/Tsou 2 -Ca. GISfinal-short. pdf] q Mobile GIS can be taken as a sub new research area in Web GIS q Address issues such as…. - moving client side - wireless internet - limited hardware resources in moving client side GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Architecture Client: - Mobile GIS receiver - Positioning System - Mobile GIS Mobile GIS Architecture Client: - Mobile GIS receiver - Positioning System - Mobile GIS software Server : - Geospatial data - GIS content server http: //map. sdsu. edu/publications/Tsou 2 -Ca. GIS-final-short. pdf q Similar to the traditional client/server architecture in Web GIS q Use “ Thin Client” structure GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Applications q Two major application areas: 1. Location Based Services 2. Field Mobile GIS Applications q Two major application areas: 1. Location Based Services 2. Field based GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Technologies for LBS q LBS deals with cellular phones and vehicle based Mobile GIS Technologies for LBS q LBS deals with cellular phones and vehicle based computers Very diverse in nature q Integrate the wireless Internet with GIS q Two main technologies: 1. WAP 2. JAVA GIS for Location Based Services

1. WAP based Mobile GIS § Proposed by Wang Fangxiong and Jian Zhiyong § 1. WAP based Mobile GIS § Proposed by Wang Fangxiong and Jian Zhiyong § Use WAP along with J 2 EE Mobile Client WAP microbrowser / J 2 ME application Wireless network WAP Internet WAP gateway Server Web Server HTTP RMI Mobile Position Center § Four tier architecture 1. Presentation tier - UI 2. WAP service tier - WAP gateway +Web server 3. Application tier – Application server 4. Data service tier – Spatial database GIS for Location Based Services Application Server MLP Spatial Database

2. JAVA based Mobile GIS § Proposed by Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan 2. JAVA based Mobile GIS § Proposed by Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan and Zhongping Wang § Client side – J 2 ME § Server side – J 2 EE § Three tier architecture 1. Client tier 2. Web service tier 3. Data tier GIS for Location Based Services

Mobile GIS Technologies for Field applications q Need computationally intensive devices with large display Mobile GIS Technologies for Field applications q Need computationally intensive devices with large display screens. Ex : Pocket & Tablet PCs §Arc. GIS Mobile (ESRI) §Arc. Pad (ESRI) q Available Software : §Map. Info Map. Xtend - Cross platform - Independent of hardware devices §Intelli. Where (Intergraph ) §Onsite GIS for Location Based Services

Applicability for LBS Mobile GIS developed for LBS ! GIS for Location Based Services Applicability for LBS Mobile GIS developed for LBS ! GIS for Location Based Services

Summary § Introduction to LBS § Introduction to GIS § Different types of GIS Summary § Introduction to LBS § Introduction to GIS § Different types of GIS (Desktop GIS, Web GIS, Mobile GIS) - Overview - Available Architectures - Available software / technologies - Applicability for LBS GIS for Location Based Services

References § Stefan Steiniger, Moritz Neun and Alistair Edwardes, Foundations of Location Based Services, References § Stefan Steiniger, Moritz Neun and Alistair Edwardes, Foundations of Location Based Services, Cartou. CHe 1 - Lecture Notes on LBS, V. 1. 0 § Geographic information system [online]. Available from: § Wikipedia < http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Geographic_information_system> § Geographic information system (GIS) poster. Available from : < http: //erg. usgs. gov/isb/pubs/gis_poster/ > § Product overview [online]. Available from: < http: //www. esri. com/products. html> § Desktop GIS software for Hydrological Application [online]. Available from : < http: //www. swhydro. arizona. edu/archive/V 3_N 3/featurette 2. pdf> § Geographic Resources Analysis Support System [online]. Available from: < http: //grass. itc. it/> § QGIS brochure [online]. Available from : < http: //qgis. org/brochure/qgis_brochure_en. pdf> § A. A. Alesheikh, H. Helali, H. A. Behroz, Web GIS: Technologies and Its Applications, Symposium on Geospatial Theory, Processing and Applications, Ottawa 2002 § Hussein Helali, Design and Implementation of a Web GIS for the City of Tehran, Master’s Thesis, Department Of Geodesy And Geomatics Engineering, K. N. Toosi University Of Technology, September 2001 GIS for Location Based Services

References § § § Internet Map Services [online]. Available from : <http: //gisweb. ciat. References § § § Internet Map Services [online]. Available from : Map Object Internet Map Server version 2 brochure [online]. Available from < http: //www. esri. com> Map. Server New Users [online]. Available from http: //mapserver. gis. umn. edu/new_users Nimalika Fernando, Web GIS based Post -Tsunami Recovery Management tool for Sri Lanka, Master’s Thesis, Keele University, September 2006 Li Luqun, Li Minglu, A Research on Development of Mobile GIS Architecture, Environmental Infomatics Archives, ISEIS 2004 Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Integrated Mobile GIS and Wireless Internet Map Servers for Environmental Monitoring and Management, 2004 Ye Lei, Lin Hui, Which One Should be Chosen for the Mobile Geographic Information Service Now, WAP vs. i-mode vs. J 2 ME? , Springer Science, 2006 Wang Fangxiong , Jiang Zhiyong, Research on A Distributed Architecture of Mobile GIS Based on Wap Xiaoqing Zhou, Xinming Tang, Zhao Fan, Zhongping Wang, Research of LBS Based on Java and An Application Solution Arc. GIS Mobile brochure [online]. Available from: http: //www. esri. com/arcgismobile Arc. Pad: Mobile GIS, An ESRI White Paper , September 2004 GIS for Location Based Services

QUESTIONS ? ? ? GIS for Location Based Services QUESTIONS ? ? ? GIS for Location Based Services

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