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GERALD R. FORD n n n Only unelected VP & P First appointed VP GERALD R. FORD n n n Only unelected VP & P First appointed VP under 25 th Amend. Longest living P – 93 / died 2006 Republican; Michigan Wife Betty – supporter of equal rights for women & abortion “Whip Inflation Now” – Inflation, unemployment, oil crisis n Salt I Treaty, 1974 – froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers of U. S. & Soviets at existing levels Political Suicide: pardons Nixon n Fall of South Vietnam & evacuation of Saigon, April 1975; fall of Laos & Cambodia n Bicentennial Celebration July ‘ 76 n Leslie Lynch King, Jr.

Assassination Attempts • Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme – Sacramento, CA, Sept. 5, 1975 • Follower Assassination Attempts • Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme – Sacramento, CA, Sept. 5, 1975 • Follower of incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson • Pointing gun at his stomach, but stopped by Secret Service • Sarah Jane Moore – 17 days later in San Francisco • Former Marine deflected her shot • Both sentenced to life imprisonment – both now out on parole

Physical clumsiness …. Click on pic (in slideshow) to view the video; Other stories Physical clumsiness …. Click on pic (in slideshow) to view the video; Other stories below on notes page

n n n n Peanut farmer; GA Democrat with a “downhome, plain folks” style n n n n Peanut farmer; GA Democrat with a “downhome, plain folks” style Running mate is Walter Mondale Capitalizes on being a Washington “outsider” Focus on moral issues & human rights; promises “never to lie to the American people” A micro-manager Billy Beer JIMMY CARTER

Full Amnesty to draft dodgers – very controversial n Advocates nuclear power to solve Full Amnesty to draft dodgers – very controversial n Advocates nuclear power to solve energy problems n – THREE MILE ISLAND, PA meltdown – Most significant accident in the history of the American commercial nuclear power generating industry – Protestors: “Hell no, we won’t glow!”

FOREIGN AFFAIRS: n SALT II – never ratified by Senate but honored ‘til ’ FOREIGN AFFAIRS: n SALT II – never ratified by Senate but honored ‘til ’ 86 when Reagan withdrew based on Soviet violations n Panama Canal - control back to Panama by 2000 n Camp David Accords: – “ended” 30 yrs. of conflict – Begin (Israel) & Sadat (Egypt) brought to Camp David – Israel returned land in Sinai peninsula in exchange for recognition by Egypt – Carter’s greatest success! – But, Sadat assassinated after returning to Egypt Sadat & Begin

n Carter’s Greatest Failure: n IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: – Shah was ousted by Islamic n Carter’s Greatest Failure: n IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS: – Shah was ousted by Islamic fundamentalists & their formerly exiled leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, who had been brought back - Iran a “religious state” - theocracy - Khomeini has US Embassy in Teheran seized after Shah allowed in U. S. for medical treatment – 60 hostages taken – Demands return of Shah (& his wealth) in exchange for the hostages

Blacks & women freed but 52 others kept and held for 444 days in Blacks & women freed but 52 others kept and held for 444 days in captivity (tied to chairs 24 hours/day) n Carter halts Iranian oil imports & freezes all Iranian assets in U. S. ; didn’t work n Failed rescue attempt – killed 8; Carter widely criticized; his greatest failure n Hostages released on Reagan’s inauguration n

n AFGHANISTAN: – Soviet invasion in Dec. ’ 79 – To insure a pro-Soviet n AFGHANISTAN: – Soviet invasion in Dec. ’ 79 – To insure a pro-Soviet regime – Carter denounces and stops sale of grain to Soviets and boycotts 1980 Moscow Olympics

An Era of Activism In May 1970 thousands of students converged on New Haven An Era of Activism In May 1970 thousands of students converged on New Haven to protest the trial of Black Panther leader Bobby Seale, on charges that he was involved in the killing of a suspected informant.

60’s & 70’s ACTIVISM 60’s & 70’s ACTIVISM

Polarization of America Identity Politics emerges n Identify with a particular group of like-minded Polarization of America Identity Politics emerges n Identify with a particular group of like-minded people sharing the same goals and values n Very divisive, hard to understand other points of view n Examples: Black Panthers, New Left, Feminists, Grey Panthers The Counterculture n n n Largest generation yet Valued youth, spontaneity, and individuality Hippies - promoted peace, love, & freedom Experimented with different dress, sexual relationships, and recreational use of drugs such as LSD Music was a big part of this culminating in Woodstock

Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960 s.

Andy Warhol Pop Art Andy Warhol Pop Art

Disability Rights Movement The movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for people Disability Rights Movement The movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for people with disabilities. n Specific goals and demands include accessibility and safety in transportation, architecture, and the physical environment, equal opportunities in independent living, employment, education, and housing, and freedom from abuse, neglect, and violations of patients' rights. n Americans with Disabilities Act passed in 1990 – handicapped ramps, parking, bathrooms, etc. n

Women’s Activism n n n n Feminism-First used 1895 to describe theory of political, Women’s Activism n n n n Feminism-First used 1895 to describe theory of political, economic, and social equality of women and men. During the 1960’s Feminists took action to bring this about. The Feminine Mystique-Betty Friedman Ms. Magazine-Gloria Steinem, NOW EEOC, Title VII (employment) Title IX (public education and sports access) 1961 the Pill 1973 -Roe v Wade-legalizes abortion

Friedan Steinem Friedan Steinem

Split in the Feminists More militant…WITCH (Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell) n 1968 Split in the Feminists More militant…WITCH (Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell) n 1968 -Miss America pageant protest n Trash cans full of “items of oppression” - bras, girdles, dishcloths n Want full equality including military service compared to other feminists that advocate defending gender difference such as maternity leave and special protection in the workplace n

Katherine Switzer challenged the all-male tradition of the Boston Marathon and became the first Katherine Switzer challenged the all-male tradition of the Boston Marathon and became the first woman (1967) to officially enter and run the event. Her entry created an uproar and worldwide notoriety when a race official tried to forcibly remove her from the competition.

Equal Rights Amendment n n n Passed by Congress in 1972 -failed to be Equal Rights Amendment n n n Passed by Congress in 1972 -failed to be ratified by 3/4 states, died in 1982 Would have made discrimination based on a person’s gender illegal Opposition to the amendment: Phyllis Schlafly led a national campaign-already have legal rights, coed bathrooms, no alimony Not all women behind it, some men outspoken against it, some more worried about racial discrimination Would this mean eligible for the draft? ? ? Sup. Ct. says NO

Ethnic Minorities n Hispanics – Large influx with 60’s immigration act – Problems w/ Ethnic Minorities n Hispanics – Large influx with 60’s immigration act – Problems w/ segregation on the West Coast leads to student protests. – Migrant workers exploited – United Farm Workers, led by Caesar Chavez, fought for legal changes. n Asian-Americans – – – Increase in immigration problems from WWII & Vietnam Korematsu case revisited: internees got small claims

Native Americans Form AIM – “American Indian Movement” n Led by Russell Means n Native Americans Form AIM – “American Indian Movement” n Led by Russell Means n A coalition to fight for Native American treaty rights, better conditions and opportunities n Became militant & pushed for autonomy n Siege at Wounded Knee, 1973

Nader’s Crusade, “Nation’s Nag” Convinced that the law placed too much emphasis on driver Nader’s Crusade, “Nation’s Nag” Convinced that the law placed too much emphasis on driver mistakes and not enough on the unsafe design of cars. n Unsafe at Any Speed, charged that automakers stressed styling, comfort, speed, power, and a desire to cut costs at the expense of safety – particular target was the Corvair n Get two dozen landmark consumer protection laws, including the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Consumer Products Safety Act, and the Freedom of Information Act n

Environmental Changes Rachel Carson writes Silent Spring to expose the dangers of the pesticide Environmental Changes Rachel Carson writes Silent Spring to expose the dangers of the pesticide DDT. Leads to ban on DDT in the U. S. n First Earth Day! April 22, 1970 n Other changes-EPA, Clean Air & Water Act, Rare & Endangered Species Act, Safe Drinking Water, etc. n Also increased pressure on industry to clean up their act - causes some companies to relocate facilities in other countries where standards are more relaxed n