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Functional Behavior Assessment Supplement (Fall 2008) Functional Behavior Assessment Supplement (Fall 2008)

IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES High Confidence in Hypothesis NO Satisfactory Improvement NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment YES Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) FBA is a process for gathering information to understand the function (purpose) of behavior in order to write an effective positive behavior support plan.

Assumptions Underlying FBA § Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. To get Assumptions Underlying FBA § Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose. To get § To avoid § § Behavior is related to the context within which it occurs

Questions to Address § § § How often does the target behavior occur & Questions to Address § § § How often does the target behavior occur & how long does it last? Where does the behavior typically occur/never occur? Who is present for the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? What is going on during the occurrence/nonoccurrence of the behavior? When is the behavior most likely/least likely to occur? How does the student react to the usual consequences that follow the behavior?

Analyzing Patterns Under what circumstances or antecedent events is the target behavior most/least likely? Analyzing Patterns Under what circumstances or antecedent events is the target behavior most/least likely? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT? WHO? WHY? § What consequences or results predictably follow the target behavior? WHAT DO THEY GET? WHAT DO THEY AVOID? § What broader issues are important influences on behavior? §

Summary Statement 1. When this occurs… (describe circumstances/antecedents) 2. the child does… (describe target Summary Statement 1. When this occurs… (describe circumstances/antecedents) 2. the child does… (describe target behavior) 3. to get/to avoid… (describe consequences)

STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) strategies: Consequence strategies: Observation Data Summary (attach graphic representation of observation data collected) How often does the behavior occur? How long does it last? At what intensity does it occur? Describe any patterns to the occurrence of the behavior detected through analysis of data. Antecedent and Consequence Factors 1. What antecedents are present when the behavior occurs? (describe specifically and include all identified) 2. What consequences appear to be maintaining the behavior? (describe specifically and include all identified) Hypothesis Regarding Function(s) of Behavior To get: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ To avoid, delay, or escape: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items ___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ Hypothesis Statement: When_______________________________________ The student (name) will________________________________ In order to _____________________________________

IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES High Confidence in Hypothesis NO Satisfactory Improvement NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment YES Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival Review n. Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect n. FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival Review n. Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect n. Checklist n. Functional Assessment Interview n. Initial Line of Inquiry 3. Direct n. A-B-C data Observation n. Structured, Planned Observation Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

Informal § Archival Review § § Office Discipline Referrals Problem Solving Meeting Informal § Archival Review § § Office Discipline Referrals Problem Solving Meeting

Mark Banks WWW. swis. org Mark Banks WWW. swis. org

WWW. swis. org WWW. swis. org

Math Class WWW. swis. org Math Class WWW. swis. org

WWW. swis. org WWW. swis. org

WWW. swis. org WWW. swis. org

WWW. swis. org WWW. swis. org

Mark As a result of a brief problem solving meeting based on office discipline Mark As a result of a brief problem solving meeting based on office discipline referrals Setting Events/Antecedent Target Behavior Function (Reinforcer) Math Class Inappropriate Language Detention with same group of boys Certain group of boys To gain peer attention

STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) strategies: Consequence strategies: Observation Data Summary (attach graphic representation of observation data collected) How often does the behavior occur? How long does it last? At what intensity does it occur? Describe any patterns to the occurrence of the behavior detected through analysis of data. Antecedent and Consequence Factors 1. What antecedents are present when the behavior occurs? (describe specifically and include all identified) 2. What consequences appear to be maintaining the behavior? (describe specifically and include all identified) Hypothesis Regarding Function(s) of Behavior To get: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ To avoid, delay, or escape: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items ___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ Hypothesis Statement: When_______________________________________ The student (name) will________________________________ In order to _____________________________________

IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES High Confidence in Hypothesis NO Satisfactory Improvement NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment YES Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival 2. Indirect n. Checklist 30% Reliability in identifying FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival 2. Indirect n. Checklist 30% Reliability in identifying function Review n. Problem Solving Meeting n. Functional Assessment Interview n. Initial Line of Inquiry 3. Direct n. A-B-C data Observation n. Structured, Planned 60 -80% reliable Observation Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/ 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt;

Indirect § § Checklists Functional Assessment Team Forms Initial Line of Inquiry § Behavioral Indirect § § Checklists Functional Assessment Team Forms Initial Line of Inquiry § Behavioral Pathways § § Functional Assessment Interview Forms

Use to plan strategies for supporting alternative, desired behaviors Competing Behaviors Pathways Desired Alternative Use to plan strategies for supporting alternative, desired behaviors Competing Behaviors Pathways Desired Alternative Setting Event Accommodations Triggering Antecedent Accommodations Maintaining Consequence (s) (match function) Problem Behavior Problem behavior pathway Setting Event Maintaining Consequence(s) (match function) Triggering Antecedent Replacement Behavior

Initial Line of Inquiry Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________ Strengths of the student: A B Initial Line of Inquiry Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________ Strengths of the student: A B C 2 3 1 4 5 Slow Triggers (Setting Events) Fast Triggers (Antecedents) Problem Behaviors (In measurable terms) Actual Consequences Perceived Function (Hypothesis) Llewellyn, G. , & Knoster, T. (1997). Screening for understanding of student problem behavior: An initial line of inquiry. Pennsylvania Department of Education.

Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview Student_______________ School _______________ Date___________________ Interviewer________________ SECTION I ALWAYS 1. In Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview Student_______________ School _______________ Date___________________ Interviewer________________ SECTION I ALWAYS 1. In general, is your work too hard for you? 2. In general, is your work too easy for you? 3. When you ask for help appropriately, do you get it? 4. Do you think work periods for each subject are too long? 5. Do you think work periods are too short? 6. When you do seatwork, do you do better when someone works with you? 7. Do you think people notice when you do a good job? 8. Do you think you get the rewards you deserve when you do a good job? 9. Do you think you would do better in school if you received more rewards? 10. In general, do you find your work interesting? 11. Are there things in the classroom that distract you? 12. Is your work challenging enough for you? SOMETIMES NEVER

SECTION II When do you think you have the fewest problems with _________in school? SECTION II When do you think you have the fewest problems with _________in school? (Target Behavior) Why do you not have problems during this/these times(s)? When do you think you have the most problems with _________in school? (Target Behavior) Why do you have problems during this/these times(s)? What changes could be made so you would have fewer problems with __________? (Target Behavior) What kind of rewards would you like to earn for good behavior or good school work? What are your favorite activities at school? What are your hobbies or interests? If you had the chance, what activities would you like to do that you don’t have the opportunity to do now?

SECTION III Rate how much you like the following subjects: Not at all Fair SECTION III Rate how much you like the following subjects: Not at all Fair Very Much Reading 1 2 3 4 5 Math 1 2 3 4 5 Spelling 1 2 3 4 5 Handwriting 1 2 3 4 5 Science 1 2 3 4 5 Social Studies 1 2 3 4 5 English 1 2 3 4 5 Music 1 2 3 4 5 Physical Education 1 2 3 4 5 Computers 1 2 3 4 5 Art 1 2 3 4 5

SECTION IV What do you like about Reading? What don’t you like about Reading? SECTION IV What do you like about Reading? What don’t you like about Reading? What do you like about Math? What don’t you like about Math? What do you like about Spelling? What don’t you like about Spelling? What do you like about Handwriting? What don’t you like about Handwriting? What do you like about Science? What don’t you like about Science? What do you like about Social Studies? What don’t you like about Social Studies? What do you like about English? What don’t you like about English? What do you like about Music? What don’t you like about Music? What do you like about Physical Education? What don’t you like about Physical Education? What do you like about Computers? What don’t you like about Computers? What do you like about Art? What don’t you like about Art? Kern, Dunlap, Clarke, & Childs (1994)

STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name: School: Date: Grade: DOB: Educational Program Description: I. STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name: School: Date: Grade: DOB: Educational Program Description: I. Description of the Behavior of concern (specifically describe what the behavior looks and sounds like): Instructions: When the answer is YES, add details on the lines provided. II. Physiological and Medical Factors: 1. Could the behavior be the result of a medical condition or any form of physical discomfort? NO YES_______________________________ 2. Could the behavior be related to a side effect of medication? NO YES 3. Could the behavior be the result of a deprivation condition (thirst, hunger, fatigue, etc. )? NO YES_______________________________ III. Setting Events and Antecedents: 1. Are there circumstances in which the behavior ALWAYS occurs? NO YES _____________________________________________________________ 2. Are there circumstances in which the behavior NEVER occurs? NO YES________________________________ 3. Does the behavior occur only (or more often) during particular activities or times? NO YES________________________________

Skill Deficits Related to Behavior of concern: Could the behavior be related to any Skill Deficits Related to Behavior of concern: Could the behavior be related to any skill deficits? (check* all that apply) Academic: Task requirements as presented are not at the student’s instructional level in the core areas of Reading, Math, or Writing. Participation Skills: The student has difficulty with participating in non-directed, semi-directed, teacher-directed, or peerdirected activities. The student has difficulty in small or large group instruction. Social Skills: The student has difficulty acquiring and/or maintaining peer friendships. The student often withdraws from social interaction. The student is often verbally and/or physically aggressive in social interactions. Communication Skills: The student has difficulties with requesting what they need, including items, activities, attention, information, changes in the environment, or help. He/she has difficulties in conversational skills and answering questions, understanding non-verbal or verbal language, or following directions. Organizational Skills: The student has difficulty with organizing school supplies, study area, time, or projects, organizing class notes, or dividing assignments into task. Self-Regulation Skills: The student has difficulties with staying on-task, completing work assignments, handling stressful situations, calming self when agitated, following rules, or difficulty transitioning between activities/places or people. Difficulty with being able to solve a problem. Study Skills: The student has difficulty with studying for tests, taking notes from lectures, or using studying techniques. Motor Skills: The student has difficulty with gross motor skills (e. g. running, raising arms, putting feet together, squatting, bending at waist, etc. ) or fine motor skills (e. g. pointing, counting with fingers, holding a pencil/pen, holding a fork/spoon, pressing a computer key, using a mouse, etc. ). S/he has difficulty with imitating others’ actions. Functional Skills: The student has difficulty with performing activities of daily living (e. g. eating, dressing, toileting, grooming). Play Skills: The student has difficulty with actively exploring activities/toys in their environment (inside or outside) to play with during leisure time, playing with the items as designated, or engaging in interactive play with peers during activities. *If checked, please refer for further assessment (i. e. Speech & Language evaluation, Occupational Therapy evaluation, curriculum-based assessments, Specific Skills Assessments)

1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? A. Preferred activities or 1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? A. Preferred activities or items? Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always regains an item or activity that has been taken away or terminated. The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always gains access to an activity or item that he was told he couldn’t have. The behavior rarely occurs when the student is given free access to his or her favorite items or activities. NO YES B. Peer or adult attention? Indicators: The student frequently approaches others. The student frequently initiates social interaction. When the behavior occurs, someone usually responds by interacting with the student in some way (i. e. verbal reprimand, redirection, comforting statements). The behavior rarely occurs when the student is receiving attention. NO YES 2. Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape something such as task demands, social interaction, etc. ? Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the task demands placed upon him. The behavior rarely occurs when few demands are placed on the student or when the student is left alone. The student is often noncompliant when asked to complete tasks and the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the tasks. The behavior often occurs prior to predictable demands and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the tasks. NO YES 3. Does the behavior provide stimulation as an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities? Indicators: The behavior occurs frequently when the student is alone or unoccupied. The student seems to have few knownreinforcers or rarely engages in social interaction activities. When the student engages in the behavior, others usually respond by not attending to the behavior. NO YES

STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) strategies: Consequence strategies: Observation Data Summary (attach graphic representation of observation data collected) How often does the behavior occur? How long does it last? At what intensity does it occur? Describe any patterns to the occurrence of the behavior detected through analysis of data. Antecedent and Consequence Factors 1. What antecedents are present when the behavior occurs? (describe specifically and include all identified) 2. What consequences appear to be maintaining the behavior? (describe specifically and include all identified) Hypothesis Regarding Function(s) of Behavior To get: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ To avoid, delay, or escape: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items ___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ Hypothesis Statement: When_______________________________________ The student (name) will________________________________ In order to _____________________________________

IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES High Confidence in Hypothesis NO Satisfactory Improvement NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment YES Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival 2. Indirect n. Checklist 30% Reliability in identifying FBA LEVELS 1. Informal n. Archival 2. Indirect n. Checklist 30% Reliability in identifying function Review n. Problem Solving Meeting n. Functional Assessment Interview n. Initial Line of Inquiry 3. Direct n. A-B-C data Observation n. Structured, Planned 60 -80% reliable Observation Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/ 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt;

Direct Observation § § A-B-C data Structured, Planned Observation Direct Observation § § A-B-C data Structured, Planned Observation

Data Collection Systems Definition Frequency/Event Recording Measure of the number of times a behavior Data Collection Systems Definition Frequency/Event Recording Measure of the number of times a behavior occurs. Duration Measure of how long the behavior lasts. Latency Measure of how much time elapses between the presentation of a cue, and the occurrence of the behavior. Rate/Percentage Used to measure how often a behavior occurs during a given period of time. Can be converted to percentage to measure how accurate, how many times a student is engaged in a behavior. Magnitude/Intensity Measure of how strongly a behavior occurs (i. e. , volume. ) This should be used in addition to another measure (i. e. , frequency or duration) Levels of Assistance Measure of the number and type(s) or levels of assistance (prompts) that the instructor provides a student. Anecdotal (A-B-C) Provides a descriptive account of the behavior. The purpose of this data is for analysis rather than evaluation. It describes the setting individuals present, the activities and interactions of these individuals and any other relevant variable. Modified Scatter Plot Provides a visual display of the patterns of the targeted behavior by recording the occurrence and non occurrence of the behavior across activities/time frames and days. Interval Recording Provides an estimate of how often a behavior occurs by recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior at the end of each equal time intervals. Time Sampling Provides an estimate of how often a behavior occurs by recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior at the end of each equal time interval. Generally, the time intervals are longer than those encountered in the interval recording system.

Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence Chart Student: Time Period Date: Others Present Antecedents What Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence Chart Student: Time Period Date: Others Present Antecedents What was happening BEFORE the behavior? ? Behaviors Describe behaviors in observable terms Consequences What happened AFTER the behavior occurred? ?

Frequency - Event Recording Data Sheet Frequency: The number of occurrences of a behavior Frequency - Event Recording Data Sheet Frequency: The number of occurrences of a behavior Student Observer Target Behavior: Date Time Tally _ _ _ Total

Duration - Recording Data Sheet Duration: The length of time a student engages in Duration - Recording Data Sheet Duration: The length of time a student engages in a particular behavior Student Observer Target Behavior: Day and Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time of Initiation Time of Completion Elapsed Time (Duration) Comments

Latency Recording Data Sheet Latency: Measures how long it takes for behavior to begin Latency Recording Data Sheet Latency: Measures how long it takes for behavior to begin Student Observer Target Behavior: Date Time of Cue Time of Initiation of Behavior Elapsed Time (Latency) Comments

Modified Scatter Plot Frequency of Multiple Behaviors Student: Observer: Class & Time Grade: Teacher: Modified Scatter Plot Frequency of Multiple Behaviors Student: Observer: Class & Time Grade: Teacher: Behavior 1 Date: Behavior 2 Behavior 3 A 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 B 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 C 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 D 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 E 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 F 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 G 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 H 1 1 1 11 2 2 2 22 3 3 3 3 3 ANECDOTAL NOTES A B C D E F G H Other comments

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT (FBA) STEP 1: INTERVIEW • The IEP team, including persons who FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT (FBA) STEP 1: INTERVIEW • The IEP team, including persons who have observed the behavior of the student in a variety of settings and conditions, completes the interview questions focusing on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. STEP 2: DIRECT OBSERVATION • Data collection is accomplished through direct observation in the student’s natural environment. Direct observation provides objective data to support or refute the interview information; thus leading to more accurate hypothesis formation. The observation and the data collection methods are determined by information gathered during the interview phase (STEP 1). STEP 3: SUMMARY • The IEP team summarizes the interview information and the data collected during direct observation to form one or more hypotheses identifying the function(s) the behavior is serving for the student. The IEP team uses this information to build the Behavioral Intervention Plan. Ongoing analyses of data collected during the intervention phase of the BIP guide the team in measuring

STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name: School: Date: Grade: DOB: Educational Program Description: I. STEP 1: FBA INTERVIEW Student Name: School: Date: Grade: DOB: Educational Program Description: I. Description of the Behavior of concern (specifically describe what the behavior looks and sounds like): Instructions: When the answer is YES, add details on the lines provided. II. Physiological and Medical Factors: 1. Could the behavior be the result of a medical condition or any form of physical discomfort? NO YES_______________________________ 2. Could the behavior be related to a side effect of medication? NO YES 3. Could the behavior be the result of a deprivation condition (thirst, hunger, fatigue, etc. )? NO YES_______________________________ III. Setting Events and Antecedents: 1. Are there circumstances in which the behavior ALWAYS occurs? NO YES _____________________________________________________________ 2. Are there circumstances in which the behavior NEVER occurs? NO YES________________________________ 3. Does the behavior occur only (or more often) during particular activities or times? NO YES________________________________

Skill Deficits Related to Behavior of concern: Could the behavior be related to any Skill Deficits Related to Behavior of concern: Could the behavior be related to any skill deficits? (check* all that apply) Academic: Task requirements as presented are not at the student’s instructional level in the core areas of Reading, Math, or Writing. Participation Skills: The student has difficulty with participating in non-directed, semi-directed, teacher-directed, or peerdirected activities. The student has difficulty in small or large group instruction. Social Skills: The student has difficulty acquiring and/or maintaining peer friendships. The student often withdraws from social interaction. The student is often verbally and/or physically aggressive in social interactions. Communication Skills: The student has difficulties with requesting what they need, including items, activities, attention, information, changes in the environment, or help. He/she has difficulties in conversational skills and answering questions, understanding non-verbal or verbal language, or following directions. Organizational Skills: The student has difficulty with organizing school supplies, study area, time, or projects, organizing class notes, or dividing assignments into task. Self-Regulation Skills: The student has difficulties with staying on-task, completing work assignments, handling stressful situations, calming self when agitated, following rules, or difficulty transitioning between activities/places or people. Difficulty with being able to solve a problem. Study Skills: The student has difficulty with studying for tests, taking notes from lectures, or using studying techniques. Motor Skills: The student has difficulty with gross motor skills (e. g. running, raising arms, putting feet together, squatting, bending at waist, etc. ) or fine motor skills (e. g. pointing, counting with fingers, holding a pencil/pen, holding a fork/spoon, pressing a computer key, using a mouse, etc. ). S/he has difficulty with imitating others’ actions. Functional Skills: The student has difficulty with performing activities of daily living (e. g. eating, dressing, toileting, grooming). Play Skills: The student has difficulty with actively exploring activities/toys in their environment (inside or outside) to play with during leisure time, playing with the items as designated, or engaging in interactive play with peers during activities. *If checked, please refer for further assessment (i. e. Speech & Language evaluation, Occupational Therapy evaluation, curriculum-based assessments, Specific Skills Assessments)

1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? A. Preferred activities or 1. Does the behavior allow the student to gain something? A. Preferred activities or items? Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always regains an item or activity that has been taken away or terminated. The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always gains access to an activity or item that he was told he couldn’t have. The behavior rarely occurs when the student is given free access to his or her favorite items or activities. NO YES B. Peer or adult attention? Indicators: The student frequently approaches others. The student frequently initiates social interaction. When the behavior occurs, someone usually responds by interacting with the student in some way (i. e. verbal reprimand, redirection, comforting statements). The behavior rarely occurs when the student is receiving attention. NO YES 2. Does the behavior allow the student to postpone, avoid, or escape something such as task demands, social interaction, etc. ? Indicators: The behavior often occurs when the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the task demands placed upon him. The behavior rarely occurs when few demands are placed on the student or when the student is left alone. The student is often noncompliant when asked to complete tasks and the student sometimes or always postpones or escapes the tasks. The behavior often occurs prior to predictable demands and the student sometimes or always avoids or postpones the tasks. NO YES 3. Does the behavior provide stimulation as an alternative to a lack of active engagement in activities? Indicators: The behavior occurs frequently when the student is alone or unoccupied. The student seems to have few knownreinforcers or rarely engages in social interaction activities. When the student engages in the behavior, others usually respond by not attending to the behavior. NO YES

STEP 2: DIRECT OBSERVATION The FBA interview results in a measurable description of the STEP 2: DIRECT OBSERVATION The FBA interview results in a measurable description of the behavior of concern and information that leads to direct observation with data collection and analysis. Direct observation Serves to more clearly define the behavior Supports or refutes interview information Allows for assessment of behavioral events in the student’s natural environment Leads to a more accurate hypothesis regarding the function(s) of the student’s behavior of concern Serves as a baseline to measure the frequency, duration, and/or intensity of the behavior prior to intervention Provides information that is necessary to build a Behavioral Intervention Plan Supplies the team with progress monitoring data to evaluate the implemented interventions and guide adjustments to the plan Data collection Define the behavior of concern in observable and measurable terms. Determine the purpose for data collection—the type of information needed from each data collection session (i. e. frequency counts, identifying antecedents and/or consequences). Outline the schedule including where, when, how often, and who will collect data. Design tools that will result in the collection of the type of data needed and that are functional with clear coding systems. Transfer the data to a visual representation (graph) and analyze it for trend, level and variability. Data collection methods Record frequency and/or duration indicating time of day, location, activities occurring, and people present. Write a description of the student’s behavior as well as the antecedents and consequences using an A-B-C format. This type of data must be collected multiple times across settings when the behavior of concern occurs as well as when the behavior of concern does not occur.

STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) STEP 3: FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT SUMMARY History of intervention for current behavior Antecedent (prevention) strategies: Consequence strategies: Observation Data Summary (attach graphic representation of observation data collected) How often does the behavior occur? How long does it last? At what intensity does it occur? Describe any patterns to the occurrence of the behavior detected through analysis of data. Antecedent and Consequence Factors 1. What antecedents are present when the behavior occurs? (describe specifically and include all identified) 2. What consequences appear to be maintaining the behavior? (describe specifically and include all identified) Hypothesis Regarding Function(s) of Behavior To get: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ To avoid, delay, or escape: (describe) Attention______________________________________ Activities/Items ___________________________________ Sensory stimulation_________________________________ Hypothesis Statement: When_______________________________________ The student (name) will________________________________ In order to _____________________________________

IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others IEP teams determine that the student’s behavior impedes his/her learning or that of others Start Conduct Functional Assessment Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan YES High Confidence in Hypothesis NO Satisfactory Improvement NO Conduct Full Functional Assessment YES Monitor & Modify PBSP Regularly Develop Positive Behavior Support Plan Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt

FBA LEVELS 1. Informal • Archival Review • Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect • FBA LEVELS 1. Informal • Archival Review • Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect • Checklist • Functional Assessment Interview • Initial Line of Inquiry 3. Direct • A-B-C data Observation • Structured, Planned Observation Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/13/08 http: //www. pbis. org/files/1107 gsbrieffba. ppt; http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/

Positive Behavior Support Plan § Proactive Adjusting the environment that reduce the likelihood of Positive Behavior Support Plan § Proactive Adjusting the environment that reduce the likelihood of problem behavior occurring § Allowing the student to be independent and successful § Examples: modifying the curriculum, reorganizing the physical setting, clarifying routines and expectations § http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/

Positive Behavior Support Plan § Educative § Teaching replacement skills § Allowing students to Positive Behavior Support Plan § Educative § Teaching replacement skills § Allowing students to meet objectives in more effective, efficient, and appropriate ways (e. g. , communication alternatives) § Examples: Communication Alternatives http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/

Positive Behavior Support Plan § Effective § Managing consequences to reinforce desired behaviors and Positive Behavior Support Plan § Effective § Managing consequences to reinforce desired behaviors and replacement skills § Withholding reinforcement following target behavior § Examples: Praise, Access to reward, verbal redirect, loss of privilege http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/

Desired Behavior Setting Event Target Behavior Reinforcement (< R+) Antecedent The summary statement is Desired Behavior Setting Event Target Behavior Reinforcement (< R+) Antecedent The summary statement is the foundation for a positive and supportive plan Acceptable Alternative Reinforcement (Function) Antecedent Modifications http: //www. behaviordoctor. org/ 53

Behavior Strategies Worksheet Student Name: ________________ Date: ______ Problem Maintaining Behavior Consequence Trigger/Antecedent Strategies Behavior Strategies Worksheet Student Name: ________________ Date: ______ Problem Maintaining Behavior Consequence Trigger/Antecedent Strategies New Skills Consequence Strategies

Positive Behavior Support Functional Assessment Behavior Support Plan Ongoing assessment and monitoring Positive Behavior Support Functional Assessment Behavior Support Plan Ongoing assessment and monitoring