From universal principles to global business practices Stuart

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From universal principles to global business practices Stuart Arnold Jonathan Earthy Qineti. Q Lloyd’s From universal principles to global business practices Stuart Arnold Jonathan Earthy Qineti. Q Lloyd’s Register INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 2002

The changing system engineering paradigm • De-emphasis of systems engineers in system development making The changing system engineering paradigm • De-emphasis of systems engineers in system development making all the system decisions - we all do system engineering • Life cycle thinking - don’t throw problems and cost over the wall • Simplistic sequence gives way to more realistic life cycle representations - linearity maps into hierarchy • Enterprise, project and engineering all influence a system - systems placed in an organisational context • Bounding the problem - system of interest, system elements, enabling systems • Life cycle management - synonymous with risk management and control INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 2

ISO/IEC 15288 has been six years in the making. ISO/IEC 15288 has been six years in the making.

A brief history of Systems Engineering process standards Systems Engineering 1969 Mil-std 499 1974 A brief history of Systems Engineering process standards Systems Engineering 1969 Mil-std 499 1974 Mil-Std 499 A 1994 Mil-Std 499 B 1999 1994 EIA /IS 632 2002 ISO 15288 EIA 632 Process for Engineering a System 1994 IEEE P 1220 Perry halts Do. D solutions, US favour civil standards 4 1999 Systems Engineering System Life Cycle Processes IEEE 1220 Standard for Application and Management of the Systems Engineering Process 1995 Software Engineering ISO 12207 Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 ISO 12207 Amd 1 Life Cycle Management Software Life Cycle Processes

ISO/IEC 15288 Active participants 5 • Australia • France • Russia • Brazil • ISO/IEC 15288 Active participants 5 • Australia • France • Russia • Brazil • Germany • Canada • Israel • South Africa • Czech Republic • Italy • Sweden • Japan • Spain • China • Korea • UK • Denmark • USA Up to 35 around the table Overall cost: ~ $10 M INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

6 ISO/IEC 15288 Milestones • Jun ‘ 94: Study group on software-system relationship • 6 ISO/IEC 15288 Milestones • Jun ‘ 94: Study group on software-system relationship • Mar ‘ 95: US ANSI New Work Item proposal • Apr ‘ 96: ISO/IEC JTC 1 approval of the project • May ‘ 96: Work started • July ‘ 99: CD 1(766 comments) • Feb & Nov ‘ 00: CD 2 (1589 comments) • May ‘ 01: CD 3 (673 comments) • Nov ’ 01: FCD (715 comments, mostly TL/E) • Feb ’ 02: FDIS • July ‘ 02 International Standard approval • Nov ’ 02 ISO Publication INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

7 INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 7 INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

Systems engineering is described as a key part of an organisation’s business practices. Systems engineering is described as a key part of an organisation’s business practices.

Scope and profile of business processes Business Project Systems Specialist Managers Engineers System Enterprise Scope and profile of business processes Business Project Systems Specialist Managers Engineers System Enterprise Project Technical Processes INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 Implementation Technology Processes 9

Profile of ISO/IEC 15288 Business Project Systems Specialist Managers Engineers Enterprise Processes System Implementation Profile of ISO/IEC 15288 Business Project Systems Specialist Managers Engineers Enterprise Processes System Implementation Project Technical Technology Processes INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 10

Why processes are key to defining and applying Systems Engineering 11 Business Excellence Organizational Why processes are key to defining and applying Systems Engineering 11 Business Excellence Organizational Capability Professional Competence Business Processes INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

A very short history of Capability Assessment 1994 EIA /IS 632 Systems Engineering 12 A very short history of Capability Assessment 1994 EIA /IS 632 Systems Engineering 12 2002 1999 ISO 15288 System Life Cycle Processes EIA 632 Process for Engineering a System 1998 EIA/IS 731 Systems Engineering Capability 2002 CMMI Software Engineering SW CMM 1997 ISO TR 15504 INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 CMM 2 200 x ISO 15504

System Engineering to specialist disciplines • JTC SC 7 – ISO/IEC 15288 Systems engineering System Engineering to specialist disciplines • JTC SC 7 – ISO/IEC 15288 Systems engineering - System life cycle process – ISO/IEC 12207 AMD 1 Information Technology - Software life cycle process – ISO/IEC 15504 Process assessment • TC 159 – ISO 13407 Human-centred design for interactive systems – ISO TR 18529 Human-centred life cycle process descriptions – PAS xxxxx Process assessment of human-system issues • TC 176 – ISO 9001 Quality Management System • IEC SC 65 Functional safety – IEC 621508 Functional Safety- safety related systems. INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 13

Process Assessment Life cycle involvement HS. 3. 1 Context of use HS. 3. 2 Process Assessment Life cycle involvement HS. 3. 1 Context of use HS. 3. 2 User requirements HS. 3. 3 Produce design solutions HS. 3. 4 Evaluation of use Human -centred design HS. 1. 1 HS issues in conception HS. 1. 2 HS issues in development HS. 1. 3 HS issues in productionand utilization HS. 1. 4 HS issues in utilization and support HS. 1. 5 HS issues in retirement ISO/IEC 15288 Stages + enabling systems Technical processes Human resources Enterprise/Project processes HS. 2. 1 HS issues in business strategy HS. 2. 2 HS issues in quality mgmt. HS. 2. 3 HS issues in authorisation and control HS. 2. 4 Management of HS issues HS. 2. 5 HF data in trade-off and risk mitigation HS. 2. 6 User involvement HS. 2. 7 Human system integration HS. 2. 8 Develop and re-use HF data HS. 4. 1 Human resources strategy HS. 4. 2 Define standard competencies and gaps HS. 4. 3 Design manpower solution and delivery plan HS. 4. 4 Evaluate system solutions Human factors integration INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 14

A view of systems engineering has evolved – one that is more relevant to A view of systems engineering has evolved – one that is more relevant to present day commerce.

Use so far (WG 7 meeting review 2002 -114) • NB should not be Use so far (WG 7 meeting review 2002 -114) • NB should not be using it at all yet - use is by people who have been involved in the development. • Defence - UK(AMS), SWE (FMV), Canada (DND), France (DGA) • Organisations - Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grummen, Qineti. Q • Professional Bodies - IEE, IEEE , INCOSE • Very different profile from 12207. INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002 16

17 The Marine Sector • ships carry 96% of goods transport • as few 17 The Marine Sector • ships carry 96% of goods transport • as few as 12 people in charge of 440, 000 tons, value $70 M (with cargo of a similar value) • 380 metres long, propulsion power 37 MW • recycling everything except fuel (uses 150 tons of oil a day) • Design life 25 -30 years, some still in operation after 70 years • can move, stay still, and work in temperatures from -35 to +45 C and severe storms • vast, inter-linked set of sub-systems • all delivered to minimum tender • built in a year INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

18 Unintended Complexity • computers used for economy - functionality for market differentiation • 18 Unintended Complexity • computers used for economy - functionality for market differentiation • closed systems and “glue code” interfaces - no detailed specification • compliance culture - third party safety • ships are not designed systems • ship control systems are not designed to control the ship INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

19 Process Risk Assessment • EC ATOMOS IV project, process risk assessment on a 19 Process Risk Assessment • EC ATOMOS IV project, process risk assessment on a 4. 3 Meuro research SCC retrofit project • two-part assessment. 1999 - 15504, 13407 and IEC 61508, 2002 - 15288 and HS model • used: Quality Management, Architectural Design, Validation, Implementation, Verification, Supply, Stakeholder Requirements Definition • usability and utility of processes INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

20 Dependable Systems Review • new premium process improvement service for owners with complex 20 Dependable Systems Review • new premium process improvement service for owners with complex ships • based on the concepts of 15288 and principles of ISO 17894 • “walk through” a project with the client identifying barriers to achieving technical processes • use workshops, audits and training as appropriate • findings so far INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

21 Conclusions • management of system life cycles is key to organisational well -being 21 Conclusions • management of system life cycles is key to organisational well -being • by placing system engineering in a business context the story is more relevant • initial finding that 15288 life cycle processes work well for assessment and for process improvement • analyse enterprise and project barriers to technical achievement • 15288 will give systems engineering the recognition it deserves • systems engineering is on the business map INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002

22 Thank you • Stuart Arnold Qineti. Q • Jonathan Earthy Lloyd’s Register INCOSE 22 Thank you • Stuart Arnold Qineti. Q • Jonathan Earthy Lloyd’s Register INCOSE UK Autumn Assembly 11. 2002




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