French and Indian War Called the French and

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French and Indian War Called the French and Indian War in North America, but French and Indian War Called the French and Indian War in North America, but it was part of the Seven Years War of Europe } France and Britain battled for colonial domination in North America } Very costly for Britain and contributed to the taxation of the colonies in North America } France lost its land claims in North America east of the Mississippi River }

American Revolution Colonists declared independence from Britain } American Revolution -1775 to 1783 } American Revolution Colonists declared independence from Britain } American Revolution -1775 to 1783 } § Ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris § Britain lost control of the colonies and claims to land (except Canada) § United States territory extended to the Mississippi River

LOUISIANA PURCHASE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

CHANGING HANDS BETWEEN 1650 AND 1800 SEVERAL GOVERNMENTS – SPAIN, BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA CHANGING HANDS BETWEEN 1650 AND 1800 SEVERAL GOVERNMENTS – SPAIN, BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND RUSSIA “CLAIMED” TO OWN LAND IN NORTH AMERICA 1802 - OWNERSHIP OF A LARGE PART OF THE WEST CHANGED. FRANCE SOLD 828, 000 SQUARE MILES OF LAND WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO THE UNITED STATES.

Land stretched from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains and from Gulf of Mexico to Land stretched from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains and from Gulf of Mexico to Canadian border.

Napoleon Bonaparte } Napoleon got back the land from Spain in 1800. Wanted to Napoleon Bonaparte } Napoleon got back the land from Spain in 1800. Wanted to assert French presence in area but selling land was necessary § Lost troops in Haiti (yellow fever epidemic); used up many resources § Knew pioneers continued moving west § French Navy not strong enough to control land area § Napoleon wanted to consolidate resources to focus on conquering England - needed to sell France’s land to raise funds § Rejected US attempt to buy New Orleans and instead offered to sell France’s entire North American possessions as the LOUSIANA PURCHASE

THE PURCHASE } US Minister to France, ROBERT LIVINGSTON and JAMES MONROE, appointed by THE PURCHASE } US Minister to France, ROBERT LIVINGSTON and JAMES MONROE, appointed by Jefferson to negotiate on behalf of the US, reached an agreement with the French Minister to the purchase of the Louisiana territory. } The agreement exceeded their authority, but they agreed to the purchase.

 • The Senate ratified the treaty on October 20, by a vote of • The Senate ratified the treaty on October 20, by a vote of 24 to 7 • Spain, upset by the sale but without military power to stop it, returned Louisiana to France • France officially transferred the territory to the US on December 20 th • US took formal possession on December 30 th, 1803

U. S. BEFORE AND AFTER THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE U. S. BEFORE AND AFTER THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE

13 states were eventually carved from the Louisiana Purchase *** Use the Map It 13 states were eventually carved from the Louisiana Purchase *** Use the Map It handout and outline the Louisiana Purchase *** Label the 13 states within your outline showing which states were eventually created *** Complete the map worksheet (you may have to use an outside source to find the cities listed)

U. S. TERRITORY 1783 -1853 U. S. TERRITORY 1783 -1853

MANIFEST DESTINY Used to describe beliefs in the 1840’s about territorial expansion } Pioneers MANIFEST DESTINY Used to describe beliefs in the 1840’s about territorial expansion } Pioneers believed they had a divine obligation to stretch the boundaries all the way to the Pacific Ocean } Phrase “manifest destiny” coined by newspaper editor John O’Sullivan }

Columbia – personification of the United States, guiding and protecting western settlers while driving Columbia – personification of the United States, guiding and protecting western settlers while driving away Native Americans and bison (by painter John Gast)

Exploring Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson asked Congress to appropriate funds for an expedition crossing Exploring Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson asked Congress to appropriate funds for an expedition crossing the Louisiana territory and proceeding to the Pacific Ocean • Meriwether Lewis was appointed commander and William Clark his associate commander

Exploring the Louisiana Purchase President Jefferson was very interested in learning about the new Exploring the Louisiana Purchase President Jefferson was very interested in learning about the new territory • geography of the west • plants • animals • soil • rocks • weather Why was this important to Jefferson and the settlers as they began to move west?

EXPEDITIONS SPARKS – mission was to explore the Red River • Confronted by the EXPEDITIONS SPARKS – mission was to explore the Red River • Confronted by the Spanish and did not complete the journey PIKE-WILKINSON • 1805 - Pike was to explore the upper Mississippi River • 1806 – Pike explored the Missouri River, across the Kansas Plains, followed the Santa Fe Trail south to the Arkansas River

WILKINSON – separated from Pike and explored the ARKANSAS RIVER into what is now WILKINSON – separated from Pike and explored the ARKANSAS RIVER into what is now Oklahoma • His journal provided a look at what Indian life was like in the Oklahoma area • Osage villages • hunting camps of Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek PIKE – continued west to the Rocky Mts. • Pike’s Peak, Colorado is named for him

SIBLEY EXPEDITION Jefferson wanted to know about the rumored SALT mountain on the Plains SIBLEY EXPEDITION Jefferson wanted to know about the rumored SALT mountain on the Plains He sent Indian agent Sibley to make friends with the Indians and find the “mountain” Sibley found an area “glistening like a brilliant field of snow”

LONG EXPEDITION LONG made 5 expeditions, traveling 26, 000 miles His mission was to LONG EXPEDITION LONG made 5 expeditions, traveling 26, 000 miles His mission was to establish a military post on the western boundary of Arkansas • this became Ft. Smith in 1817 • explored parts of eastern Oklahoma • wanted to find the sources for the Red and Arkansas Rivers and headed toward the Rocky Mts. • thought he had discovered the source of the Red River but it was the Canadian River • hot and dry – declared the region unsuitable for agriculture

ADAMS-ONIS TREATY, 1819 No boundaries for the Louisiana Territory United States and Spain came ADAMS-ONIS TREATY, 1819 No boundaries for the Louisiana Territory United States and Spain came to an agreement • Spain sold Florida to the US for $5 million • borders were set between Spanish territory and the Louisiana territory • Spain gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory

THREE FORKS AREA Americans continued moving West 1817 – trading post established on the THREE FORKS AREA Americans continued moving West 1817 – trading post established on the Verdigris River a few miles north of what is now Muskogee Waterways extremely important for early commerce and trading posts established near them • Arkansas, Verdigris, and Grand Rivers joined at a point northeast of present day Muskogee and became a hub of activity

THREE FORKS AREA was a meeting point for fur trappers, traders, the nearby Osage THREE FORKS AREA was a meeting point for fur trappers, traders, the nearby Osage Indians • trappers and hunters stocked up on supplies • Osage Indians traded furs, fowl, honey, bear oil, and buffalo robes for beads, blankets, knives, trinkets, and cloth • By the 1830’s game was becoming scarce and fur trade slowing down • salt, lead, pecans, grain shipped out of the Three Forks area • Western Creeks traded produce such as dried fruit, peanuts, ginseng

TRADE ROUTES Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 Traders to the north TRADE ROUTES Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 Traders to the north hoped to open up trade routes with Santa Fe (now in N. Mexico) Several different traders headed west hoping to establish trade • Glenn-Pryor party ended up trading in southeastern Colorado in the Pueblo area • James party learned Santa Fe was open for trade and set up a business in the Market Square of the settlement

SANTA FE TRAIL WILLIAM BECKNELL, a Missouri trader left the state with a caravan SANTA FE TRAIL WILLIAM BECKNELL, a Missouri trader left the state with a caravan of wagons carrying merchandise and headed toward Santa Fe The route he took eventually became known as the Santa Fe Trail Hundreds of settlers followed the same trail as they headed west

Ruts are still visible where countless wagons followed the Santa Fe Trail Ruts are still visible where countless wagons followed the Santa Fe Trail

RIVER TRANSPORTATION Keelboat – similar to one that would be used on Oklahoma waterways RIVER TRANSPORTATION Keelboat – similar to one that would be used on Oklahoma waterways to carry goods for trade

Dugout canoes were large logs that were “dug out. ” They could carry limited Dugout canoes were large logs that were “dug out. ” They could carry limited supplies but were a reasonable way to travel when the water was low.

Steamboats were used to carry shipments of cotton along the Red River Steamboats were used to carry shipments of cotton along the Red River




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