Скачать презентацию Freedmen s Bureau 1865 Bureau of Refugees Freedmen Скачать презентацию Freedmen s Bureau 1865 Bureau of Refugees Freedmen

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Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) « Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. « Many former Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) « Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. « Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. « Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.

Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do. Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.

Freedmen’s Bureau School Freedmen’s Bureau School

Freedmen’s Bureau Success: Educational Opportunity Morehouse College Founded in 1867 Spelman Graduates - 1892 Freedmen’s Bureau Success: Educational Opportunity Morehouse College Founded in 1867 Spelman Graduates - 1892 Howard University named after head of Freedmen’s Bureau

Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South

Civil War Amendments Amendment 13 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a Civil War Amendments Amendment 13 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 Civil War Amendments Amendment 14 1. All persons born or naturalized in the Civil War Amendments Amendment 14 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Civil War Amendments Amendment 15 1. The right of citizens of the United States Civil War Amendments Amendment 15 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

th Amendment Main Failure of 15 Disfranchisement • During Reconstruction, Freedmen were allowed to th Amendment Main Failure of 15 Disfranchisement • During Reconstruction, Freedmen were allowed to vote because of presence of the military. Several black legislators were elected to Congress and state governments. Mississippi was only state with a totally black delegation to Congress. • After 1877, blacks were systematically disfranchised in a number of ways.

Black Senate & House Delegates Black Senate & House Delegates

Blacks in Southern Politics « Core voters were black veterans. « Blacks were politically Blacks in Southern Politics « Core voters were black veterans. « Blacks were politically unprepared. « Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867. « The 15 th Amendment guaranteed federal voting.

Work Session • Using your netbooks OR your textbooks, explain the following methods of Work Session • Using your netbooks OR your textbooks, explain the following methods of disfranchisement used by Southerners. • Grandfather Clause • Literacy Test • Poll Tax • White Primary System • Why was it impossible for most blacks to meet the standards of these methods? • What happened to each of the methods

Black Codes « Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. Black Codes « Purpose: * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. « Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].

Origins of the Ku Klux Klan • Also known as the Invisible Empire of Origins of the Ku Klux Klan • Also known as the Invisible Empire of the South • 1 st branch was established in Tennessee May 1866 • Branches grew up in Southern states • 1868 - 1870 KKK played an important role in restoring White rule in Southern states • Similar organisation existed called… – White Brotherhood – Men of Justice – Constitutional Union Guards – Knights of the White Camelia

Origins of the Ku Klux Klan • Also known as the Invisible Empire of Origins of the Ku Klux Klan • Also known as the Invisible Empire of the South • 1 st branch was established in Tennessee May 1866 • Branches grew up in Southern states • 1868 - 1870 KKK played an important role in restoring White rule in Southern states • Similar organisation existed called… – White Brotherhood – Men of Justice – Constitutional Union Guards – Knights of the White Camelia

The “Invisible Empire of the South” The “Invisible Empire of the South”

Sharecropping Sharecropping

Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing Merchant § Loan tools and seed up Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing Merchant § Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. § Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. § Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt. Tenant Farmer § Plants crop, harvests in autumn. § Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent. § Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. Landowner § Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.

The Failure of Federal Enforcement & 1871 « Enforcement Acts of 1870 [also known The Failure of Federal Enforcement & 1871 « Enforcement Acts of 1870 [also known as the KKK Act]. « “The Lost Cause. ” « The rise of the “Bourbons. ” « Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 « Crime for any individual to deny full The Civil Rights Act of 1875 « Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places. « Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. « Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. « No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!