3c7a984d06290e49f3f89f4d18ec884b.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 45

Formal Specification - Techniques for the unambiguous specification of software Objectives: l l To explain why formal specification techniques help discover problems in system requirements To describe the use of • • l algebraic techniques (for interface specification) and model-based techniques(for behavioural specification) To introduce Abstract State Machine Model Slide 1

Formal methods l l Formal specification is part of a more general collection of techniques that are known as ‘formal methods’ These are all based on mathematical representation and analysis of software Formal methods include • • Formal specification Specification analysis and proof Transformational development Program verification Slide 2

Notations Formal Specification l l Any notation with precise semantics can be used Formalism typically applied to just part of a specification Notations use discrete mathematics, some with graphics Several notations are sometimes used in the same specification: • • • Z or VDM for data manipulation Statecharts for system states and transitions Natural language for non-functional specifications Slide 3

Formal Specification l Goals of formal specification: • • • l l l Complete Consistent Concise Unambiguous Valid—state exactly what the user wants Specifications based on formal semantic model What is/are semantics? What is a formal semantic model? Slide 4

Formal Semantics l l Semantics means “meaning” Formal semantics: • l Formal semantic model: • l Complete semantic definition of a language in mathematics What mathematics? • l Meaning expressed in mathematics Discrete mathematics! Formal semantics permit dependable communication between all parties Slide 5

Types Of Languages l Procedural: • • l Declarative: • • l Computation defined by desired sequence of actions computer is to perform Most high-level languages are procedural Computation defined by desired state that computer should be in Many specification languages are declarative Functional: • • Computation defined as desired function computer is to evaluate Most functional languages derive from LISP Slide 6

Types Of Languages l High-level language programs are actually specifications! • • l Compilers write the program for you So you have been specifying programs, not writing them The big difference in languages is: • Declarative: » Says nothing about HOW, just WHAT • Procedural: » Says nothing about WHAT, just HOW Slide 7

Types Of Languages—Examples l l Procedural: read (x); y : = x; while y**2 > x loop y : = y – 1; end loop; print (y); Declarative: y**2 <= x AND (y+1)**2 > x Slide 8

Formal Methods Activities l l Write a specification using a formal notation Validate the specification • • l Refine the specification to an implementation • l Inspect it with domain experts Perform automated analysis to prove theorems Semantics-preserving transformations to code Verify that the implementation matches the spec • Mathematical argument Slide 9

Library Example: Informal Statement l l l A book can either be in the stacks, on reserve, or loaned out If a book is in the stacks or on reserve, then it can be requested We want to • • formalize the concepts and the statements prove some theorems to gain confidence that the spec is correct Slide 10

Library Example: Formalization (1/2) l l l First let’s formalize some concepts S: the book is in the stacks R: the book is on reserve L: the book is on loan Q: the book is requested Slide 11

Library Example: Formalization (2/2) If a book is requested, then it is on the shelf or on reserve Slide 12

Library Example: Proof of a Theorem Slide 13

Library Example: Proof By Contradiction Slide 14

Use of formal methods l Their principal benefits are in reducing the number of errors in systems so their main area of applicability is critical systems: • • l l Air traffic control information systems, Railway signalling systems Spacecraft systems Medical control systems In this area, the use of formal methods is most likely to be cost-effective Formal methods have limited practical applicability Slide 15

Use of formal specification l l Formal specification involves investing more effort in the early phases of software development This reduces requirements errors as it forces a detailed analysis of the requirements Incompleteness and inconsistencies can be discovered and resolved !!! Hence, savings as made as the amount of rework due to requirements problems is reduced Slide 16

Acceptance of formal methods l Formal methods have not become mainstream software development techniques as was once predicted • • Other software engineering techniques have been successful at increasing system quality. Hence the need formal methods has been reduced Market changes have made time-to-market rather than software with a low error count as the key factor. Formal methods do not reduce time to market The scope of formal methods is limited. They are not well-suited to specifying and analysing user interfaces and user interaction Formal methods are hard to scale up to large systems Slide 17

Two specification techniques l Algebraic approach • l The system is specified in terms of its operations and their relationships Model-based approach • • The system is specified in terms of a state model that is constructed using mathematical constructs such as sets and sequences. Operations are defined by modifications to the system’s state Slide 18

Interface specification l l l Large systems are decomposed into subsystems with well-defined interfaces between these subsystems Specification of subsystem interfaces allows independent development of the different subsystems Interfaces may be defined as abstract data types or object classes The algebraic approach to formal specification is particularly well-suited to interface specification Slide 19

Sub-system interfaces Slide 20

The structure of an algebraic specification < SPECIFICATION NAME > (Generic Parameter) sort < name > imports < LIST OF SPECIFICATION NAMES > Informal descr iption of the sor t and its operations Operation signatures setting out the names and the types of the parameters to the operations defined over the sort Axioms defining the operations over the sort. Axioms relate the operations used to construct entities with operations used to inspect their values. Slide 21

Specification components l Introduction • l Description • l Informally describes the operations on the type Signature • l Defines the sort (the type name) and declares other specifications that are used Defines the syntax of the operations in the interface and their parameters Axioms • Defines the operation semantics by defining axioms which characterise behaviour Slide 22

Specification operations l l l Constructor operations. Operations which create entities of the type being specified Inspection operations. Operations which evaluate entities of the type being specified To specify behaviour, define the inspector operations for each constructor operation Slide 23

Interface specification in critical systems l l Consider an air traffic control system where aircraft fly through managed sectors of airspace Each sector may include a number of aircraft but, for safety reasons, these must be separated In this example, a simple vertical separation of 300 m is proposed The system should warn the controller if aircraft are instructed to move so that the separation rule is breached Slide 24

A sector object l Critical operations on an object representing a controlled sector are • • Enter. Add an aircraft to the controlled airspace Leave. Remove an aircraft from the controlled airspace Move an aircraft from one height to another Lookup. Given an aircraft identifier, return its current height Slide 25

Primitive operations l l l It is sometimes necessary to introduce additional operations to simplify the specification The other operations can then be defined using these more primitive operations Primitive operations • • Create. Bring an instance of a sector into existence Put. Add an aircraft without safety checks In-space. Determine if a given aircraft is in the sector Occupied. Given a height, determine if there is an aircraft within 300 m of that height Slide 26

Slide 27

Behavioural specification l l Algebraic specification can be cumbersome when the object operations are not independent of the object state Model-based specification exposes the system state and defines the operations in terms of changes to that state Slide 28

Abstract State Machine Language (Asm. L) l l Asm. L is an executable specification language for modelling the structure and behaviour of digital systems Asm. L can be used to faithfully capture the abstract structure and step-wise behaviour of any discrete systems, including very complex ones such as: Integrated circuits, software components, and devices that combine both hardware and software Slide 29

Abstract State l l An Asm. L model is said to be abstract because it encodes only those aspects of the system’s structure that affect the behaviour being modelled The goal is to use the minimum amount of detail that accurately reproduces (or predicts) the behaviour of the system Abstraction helps us reduce complex problems into manageable units and prevents us from getting lost in a sea of details Asm. L provides a variety of features that allow you to describe the relevant state of a system in a very economical, high-level way Slide 30

Abstract State Machine and Turing Machine l l l An abstract state machine is a particular kind of mathematical machine, like the Turing machine (TM) But unlike a TM, ASMs may be defined a very high level of abstraction An easy way to understand ASMs is to see them as defining a succession of states that may follow an initial state Slide 31

State transitions l The behaviour of a machine (its run) can always be depicted as a sequence of states linked by state transitions paint in green A paint in red B • Moving from state A to state B is a state transition Slide 32

Configurations l l l Each state is a particular “configuration” of the machine The state may be simple or it may be very large, with complex structure But no matter how complex the state might be, each step of the machine’s operation can be seen as a well-defined transition from one particular state to another Slide 33

Evolution of state variables We can view any machine’s state as a dictionary of (Name, Value) pairs, called state variables paint in green A paint in red B (Colour, Red) is a variable, where “Colour” is the name of variable, “Red” is the value Slide 34

Evolution of state variables l l Names are given by the machine’s symbolic vocabulary Values are fixed elements, like numbers and strings of characters The run of a machine is a series of states and state transitions that results form applying operations to each state in succession Slide 35

Example Diagram shows the run of a machine that models how orders might be Initialise Process All Orders processed S 1 S 2 S 3 Mode = “Initial” Mode = “Active” Mode = “Final” Orders = 0 Orders = 2 Orders = 0 Balance = £ 200 Balance = £ 500 Each transition operation: • can be seen as the result of invoking the machine’s control logic on the current state • calculates the subsequence state as output Slide 36

Control Logic The machine’s control logic behaves like a fix set of transition rules that say how state may evolve Typical form of the operational text is: “ if condition then update ” We can think of the control logic as a text that precisely specifies, for any given state, what the values of the machine’s variables will be in the following step Slide 37

Control Logic as a Black Box • The machine control logic is a black box that takes as input a state dictionary S 1 and gives as output a new dictionary S 2 mode orders 0 balance £ 0 input “Initial” The Machine’s Control Logic output … Mode then mode : = “Active” l orders 2 balance if mode = “Initial” “Active” £ 200 The two dictionaries S 1 and S 2 have the same set of keys, but the values associated with each variable name may differ between S 1 and S 2 Slide 38

Run of the Machine l l The run of the machine can be seen as what happens when the control logic is applied to each state in turn The run starts form initial state S 1 S 2 S 3 … S 1 is given to the black box yielding S 2, processing S 2 results in S 3, and so on … l When no more changes to state are possible, the run is complete Slide 39

Update operations l l We use the symbol “: =” (reads as “gets”) to indicate the value that a name will have in the resulting state For example: mode: =“Active” Update can be seen only during the following step (this is in contrast to Java, C, Pascal, …) l All changes happen simultaneously, when you moving from one step to another. Then, all updates happen at once. (atomic transaction) Slide 40

Programs Example 1. Hello, world Main() step Write. Line(“hello, world!”) ASML uses indentations to denote block structure, and blocks can be places inside other blocks Statement block affect the scope of variables Whitespace includes blanks and new-line character, ASML does not recognize tab character for indentation !!!!!!! Main() is like main() in Java and C Slide 41

Example 2. Reading a file var F as File? = undef var Fcontents as String = “” var Mode as String = “Initial” Main() step until fixpoint if Mode = “Initial” then F : =open(“mfile. txt”) Mode : =“Reading” if Mode = “Reading” and length(FContents) =0 then FContents : =fread (F, 1) if Mode = “Reading” and length(FContents) =1 then FContents : = FContents + fread (F, 1) if Mode = “Reading” and length(FContents) >1 then Write. Line (FContents) Mode : =“Finished” Slide 42

Example 2. Graph representation Step 1 Step 2 S 1 S 2 S 3 F= undef F=

Key points l l l Formal system specification complements informal specification techniques Formal specifications are precise and unambiguous. They remove areas of doubt in a specification Formal specification forces an analysis of the system requirements at an early stage. Correcting errors at this stage is cheaper than modifying a delivered system Slide 44

Key points l l l Formal specification techniques are most applicable in the development of critical systems and standards. Algebraic techniques are suited to interface specification where the interface is defined as a set of object classes Model-based techniques model the system using sets and functions. This simplifies some types of behavioural specification Slide 45