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Fisher logo fisher. osu. edu Integrating Goal Modeling and Execution in Adaptive Complex Enterprises Rajiv Ramnath Jay Ramanathan CERCS for Enterprise Transformation and Innovation (CETI) Department of Computer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering The Ohio State University Ramnath. [email protected] edu http: //www. ceti. cse. ohio-state. edu Partnership for Performance
Context Definition: Enterprise Architecture is the description of the current and/or future structure and behavior of an organization's processes, information systems, personnel and organizational sub-units, aligned with the organization's core goals and strategic direction. Large technology consuming companies struggle with Enterprise Architecture initiatives. Examples: • • • Application portfolio management IT-driven business innovation Build vs. buy decisions Process tailoring (RUPP, XP, ITIL) Business Process Re-engineering Knowledge management What are the problems? • • Aligning goals with activities across the dimensions of the enterprise – business, business process, transaction, IT Aligning service IMPROVEMENT with goals Need to do continuous improvement rather than wholesale change, but it is hard to stay aligned Basically, going from AS-IS to TO-BE is difficult CETI works with companies to create “actionable” methodologies for these EA initiatives.
CETI Program Areas • ACE: Modeling and Analysis Frameworks for Adaptive Complex Enterprises • Understanding the ACE • Knowledge-based collaboration systems for Enterprise Communities of Practice • Enabling the ACE • Integrated Development Environments for Adaptive Complex Environments • Developing, managing and monitoring the ACE • Work @ CERCS: Virtualization, Information fusion, Middleware, Autonomic computing
What is the problem? Many-to-many relationships Variation in request types requiring dynamic discovery of processing needs Mixed mode services manual as well as computing services. Example: • PC ordered (electronic), shipping (manual), notification, placement (manual) Shared services needing global coordination Complex, brittle information technology
Related Work • Porter's 5 -forces Model • Balanced Scorecard/Strategy Maps, UML extensions with goals • EA Frameworks – TOGAF, SAP-EAF • Goal modeling - VMOST, KAOS, GBRAM, i* (Chung), NFR Framework (Mylopoulos) • IBM Component Business Model • Transactions (Coase)
Example: VMOST Analysis Actions Mission States Makes Operative Component of Strategy Amplifies Drives Towards Implements Tactic Vision Goal Quantifies Formulated To Achieve Objective Need: Simple modeling techniques to link goals and DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR
Example: Zachman Framework
Environment dimension Business dimension Environment-driven Business strategy Customer relations Customer satisfaction Customer loyalty Customer service Revenue Intellectual capital Business process Time to market planning dimension Throughput Business process execution dimension Information needs Infrastructure dimension Support Business tactics and financial management Increased margins Operational strategy Return on innovations New products Operational tactics On-time delivery Reduction of waste Employee skills Time spent with customers Product/process quality IT Infrastructure strategy Knowledge re-use Product/process innovation New technology opportunities IT Infrastrucutre tactics Infrastructure Security and compliance Service quality Goal Traceability (generalization of the cause and effect based on the Balanced Score card) Need: Goal and Activity Traceability Across the Enterprise
Modeling the Adaptive Complex Enterprise (ACE) We conceptualize ACE as follows: • A collection of R-E-D transactions (R – Request, E – Execution, D – Delivery) • Sub-transactions that are recursively spun-off from the primary transaction • Workcenters perform the transactions, and define the roles: Examples: • • Software Development Project: Business Analyst, Architect, Developer Shared Resources are bound to these roles during (or before) execution Each transaction has an SLA that needs to be met by the Workcenter Resources have OLA that must be sufficient for the Workcenter to meet the SLA of the transaction Examples of “primary” RED transactions: • Order to Cash • Procure to Pay We’ve used this ACE conceptualization to: • Identify application portfolios • Apply Lean for process improvement Here – we create a model to show the dynamics of the enterprise
Business Goals, Transactions and Resources Business goal RED Transaction Type 2 RED Transaction Type 1 Operationalizing business goals RED Transaction Type 3 Using provider infrastructure and resources e. Workcenter 1 Roles e. Workcenter 2 Roles e. Workcenter 3 Roles Shared Infrastructure of Resources Infrastructure ( Shared Service Capabilities): Automated/ unautomated agents available to play all the various e. Workcenter roles under Operating Level Agreement Resources Information Systems Processes Tools Suppliers Inventory
Integrating Goal and Transaction Modeling Key entities are: • Goal • Link: Goal Refinement • Actions: Request • RED transaction Type - Business Process • A particular RED Transaction Instance • Continuous improvement change action • • Work-Center • Resources • Soft/hard metrics on all entities
Goal Model Template Stakeholders Environment Stakeholders Business Customer goals directing performance objectives Continuous improvement Business goals directing performance objectives Request actions from the environment initiate transactions ; related objective is to increase / decrease / introduce services. As- is /To- be change (or xœ ) performance x request , performance Investment Planning related to business Re que st As-is / To- be change Business process goals Business directing Stakeholders performance goals aligned Business process across the objectives ( primary ) planning stakeholders dimension and related to performance Business objectives. process execution goals directing Stakeholders performance Business process objectives execution dimension Infrastrcutre goals directing performance objectives Stakeholders Infrastructure dimension Transaction type or action ( or xœ ) derived performance plan for operationalizing the response to request RED Transaction types by identifying the Type e. Workcenters ; aggregates metrics for continuous improvement. Metrics Transaction execution RED Transaction uses e. Workcenter Instance resources and provides actual metrics. Transaction , Resource effectiveness Planning related to business process ( time, quality, cost, . . . ) Actual transaction metrics Planning related to services use e. Workcenter Resource costs Other e. Workcenters Infrastructure resources used as e. Workcenter roles for the execution of transactions of a specific type Planning related to resource improvement Feedback Shared Infrastructure of Resources Infrastructure ( Shared Service Capabilities ): Automated / un/unautomated agents available to play all the various e. Workcenter roles under Operating Level Agreement Resources Tools Information Systems Suppliers Processes Inventory
Future Work • Model-based (organizational) simulation • Defining linked SLA and OLA through the dimensions of the business • Implementation as the business dashboard • Goal prioritization • Connections to policy languages • Relationship to business, process and IT patterns • Integration with architectural analysis techniques (such as ATAM)
Comments and Questions?
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