Fifth Edition Fundamental Managerial Accounting Concepts Thomas P

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Fifth Edition Fundamental Managerial Accounting Concepts Thomas P. Bor-Yi Tsay Philip R. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Fifth Edition Fundamental Managerial Accounting Concepts Thomas P. Bor-Yi Tsay Philip R. Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Edmonds Olds 7 -1 Copyright © 2009 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

CHAPTER 7 Planning for Profit and Cost Control 7 -2 CHAPTER 7 Planning for Profit and Cost Control 7 -2

Learning Objective Describe the budgeting process and the benefits it provides. LO 1 7 Learning Objective Describe the budgeting process and the benefits it provides. LO 1 7 -3

Three Levels of Planning 1. Strategic planning involves making long-term decisions such as defining Three Levels of Planning 1. Strategic planning involves making long-term decisions such as defining the scope of the business, determining which products to develop or discontinue and identifying the most profitable markets. 2. Capital budgeting focuses on intermediate-range planning and involves decisions such as whether to buy or lease equipment, whether to stimulate sales, or whether to increase company assets. 3. The Operations budget describes short-term objectives in specific amounts of sales targets, production goals, and financing plans. 7 -4

Advantages of Budgeting Promotes Planning Promotes Coordination Budgeting Enhances Performance Measurement Enhances Corrective Actions Advantages of Budgeting Promotes Planning Promotes Coordination Budgeting Enhances Performance Measurement Enhances Corrective Actions 7 -5

Learning Objective Explain the relationship between budgeting and human behavior. LO 2 7 -6 Learning Objective Explain the relationship between budgeting and human behavior. LO 2 7 -6

Budgeting and Human Behavior Upper management must be sensitive to the impact of the Budgeting and Human Behavior Upper management must be sensitive to the impact of the budgeting process on employees. Budgets are constraining. They limit individual freedom in favor of an established plan. Many people find evaluation based on budget expectations stressful. Think of students and exams. Upper management must demonstrate that budgets are sincere efforts to express realistic goals employees are expected to meet. 7 -7

Cash Receipts and Payments Schedules Operating Budgets Start Pro forma Financial Statements Cash receipts Cash Receipts and Payments Schedules Operating Budgets Start Pro forma Financial Statements Cash receipts Sales budget Income statement Cash payments for inventory Inventory purchases budget Balance sheet Cash payments for S & A S&A expense budget Statement of cash flows Cash budget 7 -8

Learning Objective Prepare a sales budget and related schedule of cash receipts. LO 3 Learning Objective Prepare a sales budget and related schedule of cash receipts. LO 3 7 -9

Sales Budget Detailed schedule prepared by the marketing department showing expected sales for the Sales Budget Detailed schedule prepared by the marketing department showing expected sales for the coming periods and expected collections on those sales. It is critical to the success of the entire budgeting process. 7 -10

Sales Budget Hampton Hams (HH) is preparing a sales budget for the last quarter Sales Budget Hampton Hams (HH) is preparing a sales budget for the last quarter of the year. Sales of hams are expected to peak in the months of October, November and December (the holiday seasons). The store sales for October are expected to total $160, 000 ($40, 000 in cash sales, and $120, 000 in sales on account). Sales are expected to increase by 20% per month for November and December. Let’s prepare a sales budget. 7 -11

Sales Budget Accounts receivable at December 31 st are $172, 800, the uncollected sales Sales Budget Accounts receivable at December 31 st are $172, 800, the uncollected sales on account. $40, 000 × 120% = $48, 000 $120, 000 × 120% = $144, 000 7 -12

Schedule of Cash Receipts Hampton Hams (HH) will collect cash sales in the month Schedule of Cash Receipts Hampton Hams (HH) will collect cash sales in the month of sale. Past experience shows the company will collect cash from its credit sales in the month following the month of the sale (October credit sales will be collected in full in November). Let’s prepare the cash receipts budget. 7 -13

Schedule of Cash Receipts Sales revenue on the income statement will be the sum Schedule of Cash Receipts Sales revenue on the income statement will be the sum of the monthly sales ($582, 400). 7 -14

Learning Objective Prepare an inventory purchases budget and related schedule of cash payments. LO Learning Objective Prepare an inventory purchases budget and related schedule of cash payments. LO 4 7 -15

Inventory Purchases Budget The total amount of inventory needed for each month is equal Inventory Purchases Budget The total amount of inventory needed for each month is equal to the amount of the cost of budgeted sales plus the desired ending inventory. 7 -16

Inventory Purchases Budget HH’s policy is that ending inventory should be equal to 25% Inventory Purchases Budget HH’s policy is that ending inventory should be equal to 25% of next month’s projected cost of goods sold. At HH, cost of goods sold normally equal 70% of sales. Suppliers require HH to pay 60% of inventory purchases in the month goods are purchased and the remaining 40% in the month after the purchase. Let’s prepare the inventory purchases budget and the schedule of cash payments for inventory purchases. 7 -17

Inventory Purchases Budget $134, 400 × 25% = $33, 600 $155, 960 × 40% Inventory Purchases Budget $134, 400 × 25% = $33, 600 $155, 960 × 40% = $62, 384 Accounts Payable 7 -18

$145, 600 × 40% = $58, 240 $145, 600 × 60% = $87, 360 $145, 600 × 40% = $58, 240 $145, 600 × 60% = $87, 360 7 -19

Learning Objective Prepare a selling and administrative expense budget and related schedule of cash Learning Objective Prepare a selling and administrative expense budget and related schedule of cash payments. LO 5 7 -20

Selling and Administrative Expense Budget The details of the Selling and Administrative (S&A) Budget Selling and Administrative Expense Budget The details of the Selling and Administrative (S&A) Budget are shown on the next two screens. It is important to note that sales commission (based on 2% of sales) is paid in the month following the sale, while supplies expense (based on 1% of sales) is paid in the month of the sale. The utility expense is paid in the month following the usage of the electricity, gas, and water. 7 -21

Selling and Administrative Expense Budget 7 -22 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget 7 -22

7 -23 7 -23

Learning Objective Prepare a cash budget. LO 6 7 -24 Learning Objective Prepare a cash budget. LO 6 7 -24

Cash Budget HH plans to purchase, for cash, store fixtures with a cost of Cash Budget HH plans to purchase, for cash, store fixtures with a cost of $130, 000 in October. HH borrows or repays principal and interest on the last day of each month. Any money borrowed from the bank bears interest at an annual rate of 12% (1% per month). The management at HH wants to maintain a cash balance of at least $10, 000 at the end of every month. 7 -25

Cash Budget 7 -26 Cash Budget 7 -26

Cash Budget 7 -27 Cash Budget 7 -27

7 -28 7 -28

 Check Yourself Astor Company expects to incur the following operating expenses during September: Check Yourself Astor Company expects to incur the following operating expenses during September: Salary Expense, $25, 000; Utility Expense, $1, 200; Depreciation Expense, $5, 400, and Selling Expense, $14, 000. It pays operating expenses in cash in the month in which it incurs them. Based on this information, the total amount of cash outflow reported in the Operating Activities section of the pro forma Statement of Cash Flows would be: a. $45, 600. b. $31, 600. Depreciation Expense is a non-cash charge to income and will not appear on the Statement of Cash Flows. c. $40, 200. d. $44, 400 7 -29

Learning Objective Prepare a pro forma income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash Learning Objective Prepare a pro forma income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. LO 7 7 -30

Pro Forma Income Statement The pro forma income statement gives management an estimate of Pro Forma Income Statement The pro forma income statement gives management an estimate of the expected profitability of HH. If the project appears to be unprofitable, management can make the decision to abandon it. Although managers remain responsible for data analysis and decision making, computer technology offers powerful tools to assist in those tasks. 7 -31

Pro Forma Income Statement 7 -32 Pro Forma Income Statement 7 -32

Pro Forma Balance Sheet The new store has no contributed capital because its operations Pro Forma Balance Sheet The new store has no contributed capital because its operations will be financed through debt (line-ofcredit) and retained earnings. The amount of retained earnings will be equal to the net income because there are no prior periods. The fixtures purchased in October will be depreciated for a full three months. Total accumulated depreciation will be $3, 000. 7 -33

7 -34 7 -34

Pro Forma Statement of Cash Flows Almost all the information for the Pro Forma Pro Forma Statement of Cash Flows Almost all the information for the Pro Forma Statement of Cash Flows can be found on the Cash Budget. 7 -35

7 -36 7 -36

End of Chapter 7 7 -37 End of Chapter 7 7 -37




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