Скачать презентацию Fertility Nutrition Farm Visit Protocols Donal Murphy Скачать презентацию Fertility Nutrition Farm Visit Protocols Donal Murphy

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Fertility + Nutrition Farm Visit Protocols Donal Murphy Sliabh Luachra Vets sliabhluachravets@eircom. net Michael Fertility + Nutrition Farm Visit Protocols Donal Murphy Sliabh Luachra Vets [email protected] net Michael O Connor Julian Vets [email protected] com

Fertility Visits Protocols • How many visits per year? • What we can do Fertility Visits Protocols • How many visits per year? • What we can do at each visit? • How can we incorporate nutritional work with the fertility visit? • Definite link between fertility and nutrition.

Ideal fertility visit scenario. • Pre-breeding scan • End of year herd pregnancy scan Ideal fertility visit scenario. • Pre-breeding scan • End of year herd pregnancy scan • Ideally 2 scan visits in between

Nutritional Visits • • • Dry cow visit Spring visit around peak calving Late Nutritional Visits • • • Dry cow visit Spring visit around peak calving Late spring / early summer Late summer / early autumn visit Corresponding to the different diet types cow is subjected to i. e. dry cow diet, transition cow diet, lush spring grass and later summer pasture.

Nutritional Visits • This doesn’t have to be a call out per se • Nutritional Visits • This doesn’t have to be a call out per se • Could be done at other visits to farm e. g. fertility visit, call out to sick cow, lameness etc • You can often relate “sickness” issues to nutritional issues e. g. high incidence of milk fever, RFM, lameness, LDA. • Get talking to farmer about nutrition • All farms are visited at least once per year for TB test – use this opportunity to discuss BCS etc

Combining the fertility and nutrition At pre-breeding scan assess early pasture nutrition Post -breeding Combining the fertility and nutrition At pre-breeding scan assess early pasture nutrition Post -breeding scans -- early summer diet End of year pregnancy scans – autumn/winter diet Separate nutrition visits may be necessary Can also be done while on other business on farm

Autumn Calving Herds • Calendar of events not as clear cut but same basic Autumn Calving Herds • Calendar of events not as clear cut but same basic principles apply • Similarly with mixed spring/autumn calving herds • We will give general outline of what can be assessed at the different times of year.

Fertility visits – (1) Pre-breeding • Cows to check • All cows calved > Fertility visits – (1) Pre-breeding • Cows to check • All cows calved > 40 days and not observed bulling • Cows passing “dirt” “whites” etc • Cows that had difficult calvings • Any other problem cows • In non seasonal herds cows bred > 30 days

Scanning cows - no heat observed • Check both ovaries, for CLs and Follicles Scanning cows - no heat observed • Check both ovaries, for CLs and Follicles • Check uterus looking at myometrium, endometrium and lumen • Record your findings • Is cow cyclic? Is there a CL? • Is cow anoestrus? • Or has she just not been seen bulling?

Anoestrus Cows • 4 types • Type 1. Small inactive ovaries with very small Anoestrus Cows • 4 types • Type 1. Small inactive ovaries with very small follicles (< 8 mm) Deviation has not occurred. • Type 2. Follicles > 10 mm but < 12 mm. Deviation has occurred with subsequent growth of follicles but then they become atretic.

Anoestrus Cows • Type 3. Follicular deviation and growth has occurred but not enough Anoestrus Cows • Type 3. Follicular deviation and growth has occurred but not enough surge of LH to cause ovulation, so follicle continues to grow and becomes cystic. • In types 1, 2 and 3 there is no CL present • Type 4. Persistent CL present with endometritis. Uterus not producing enough PGF 2α to lyse CL

Anoestrus Cows - Treatments • Anoestrus Types 1, 2, 3 – Cidr/PG • Anoestrus Anoestrus Cows - Treatments • Anoestrus Types 1, 2, 3 – Cidr/PG • Anoestrus Type 4 – PG • See later for regimes.

Cows cyclic but no heat detected • CL present. • Scan both ovaries and Cows cyclic but no heat detected • CL present. • Scan both ovaries and uterus • Attempt to identify stage of cycle using uterus characteristics and follicular maps • This will aid in successful treatments • Prooestrus, metaoestrus and dioestrus

Stage of cycle • Oestrus: Lasts approx. 1 day. Fluid with specular reflection in Stage of cycle • Oestrus: Lasts approx. 1 day. Fluid with specular reflection in lumen. Contracted myometrium. Increased thickness of endometrium. Graf follicle or ovulated follicle. • Metaoestrus: 4 -5 days. Some fluid in lumen. Thickened endometrium. CL visible from 24 -36 hrs. Growing wave of follicles with dominant follicle close to 10 mm by 72 hrs. Deviation at day 4 when follicle is 8 -10 mm.

Stage of cycle • Dioestrus: 10 -11 days. One or more CLs present. Follicles Stage of cycle • Dioestrus: 10 -11 days. One or more CLs present. Follicles of different sizes, growing and atretic 1 st wave follicles and growing 2 nd wave follicles. Myometrium and endometrium equal size. No fluid in lumen unless pathological.

Stage of cycle • Prooestrus: 4 -5 days. CL present. Graf follicle of 2 Stage of cycle • Prooestrus: 4 -5 days. CL present. Graf follicle of 2 nd wave up to 16 -20 mm. This will ovulate. Dom foll of 1 st wave still visible. Endometrium beginning to thicken and some fluid in lumen. • Should be able to tell farmer that this cow will soon be in heat. Always impresses them!

Recording Scan Findings Sliabh Luachra Veterinary Centre Anoestrus Ultrasound Scan Record Herd owner: Veterinary Recording Scan Findings Sliabh Luachra Veterinary Centre Anoestrus Ultrasound Scan Record Herd owner: Veterinary Surgeon: Date: • • • • • • Tag No. DIM Left Ovary Right Ovary Uterus Treatment

Recording Scan Findings • Simple recording language • Ovary : C 10 = CL Recording Scan Findings • Simple recording language • Ovary : C 10 = CL of 10 mm, CC 12= Cavitary CL of 12 mm: F 8 = Follicle 8 mm, F 16= Follicle 16 mm e. g. Left ovary -C 9 F 12 - i. e. Left ovary has 9 mm CL and 12 mm Follicle • Uterus: P, O, M, D i. e. Uterus has Proestrus, Oestrus, Metaoestrus or Dioestrus characteristics. Endo = Endometritis, Preg = Pregnant, Pyo = Pyometra etc

Treatments for non heat detected • Can use PG in presence of CL >10 Treatments for non heat detected • Can use PG in presence of CL >10 mm and follicle > 10 mm. • To work with Gn. RH need follicle >10 mm. • Speed at which PG induces heat depends on size of follicles e. g. At day 7 with DF of 12 mm heat induced in 48 hrs. At day 5 with DF of 8 mm - heat in 5 days. Similarly in 2 nd wave at day 12 (DF 8 -10 mm) heat in 4 -5 days and day 18 get heat in 24 hrs.

Treatments for non detected heats • However at days 10 - 11 of 2 Treatments for non detected heats • However at days 10 - 11 of 2 foll wave cows even though there is a lovely CL she will not come in heat. This is because the dom foll of the 1 st wave is atretic, and thus non responsive to the Gn. RH released as a result of the lysis of the CL, and the follicles of the 2 nd wave are not yet big enough to respond to the Gn. RH. • To overcome this repeat PG after 10 days

Treatments for non detected heats • Cidr/ PG will also work but PG on Treatments for non detected heats • Cidr/ PG will also work but PG on its own much cheaper. • Predicting the timing of heat from PG inj. by assessing the follicular maps will also impress farmer, and if you think that cow may be day 10 -11 (i. e. Non responsive to PG) you could give the PG injection to farmer to admin in a few days time when the follicles should be sufficient size

Fertility Treatments • Even though its a hassle at times, it is better to Fertility Treatments • Even though its a hassle at times, it is better to take out the scanner and scan the cows always before administering fertility treatments on farm • XL Vets --- Excellence in practice!

Dirty Cows • Normal to see discharge up to 2 weeks • Check post Dirty Cows • Normal to see discharge up to 2 weeks • Check post 20 days. • Classification: Day 0 -20 its systemic or clinical metritis, post day 20 it is endometritis. • Can be purulent or mucopurulent • Cervix closed or open • CL may or not be present

Dirty Cows • On scan, cows with endometritis usually have thickened endometrium (>8 mm) Dirty Cows • On scan, cows with endometritis usually have thickened endometrium (>8 mm) and lumen of > 3 mm. White echogenic material in lumen which always corresponds to contour of uterine lumen a/o to the specular reflection of lumen of cow in heat. Shadows maybe present. May see endometritis in a cow in oestrus.

Treatment of dirty cows • Do nothing until after Voluntary Waiting Period i. e. Treatment of dirty cows • Do nothing until after Voluntary Waiting Period i. e. day 40 -45 • Most cows clean themselves • Internationally accepted that flushing or washing out cows pre day 44 -45 is not good. • If CL present can use PG but if used circa day 21 it alters the follicular dynamics and reduces subsequent C. R. • Delaying treatment by 20 days increases CR

Treatment of dirty cows • Post day 40 - 45. If CL present use Treatment of dirty cows • Post day 40 - 45. If CL present use PG +/- Metricure. Lutalyse, Enzoprost and Dinolytic are natural PGs and may induce stronger myometrial contractions than others. • Post day 40 -45 with no CL -use Metricure • Pyometra, can try 3 shots of PG 10 days apart. • In cows “dirty” at insemination, use Metricure 12 -24 hrs later. Increases CR.

Exam. of other problem cows • Cows post prolapse, dystocia, RFM etc • With Exam. of other problem cows • Cows post prolapse, dystocia, RFM etc • With these what you are checking is the degree of uterine involution • If there is evidence of cotyledons still present at day 14 – delayed involution is present. • What to do? PG will not help follicular dynamics, so best to wait and monitor at next scan.

Ovarian Cystic Disease • Various definitions. Follicle with diameter > 20 mm, wall thickness Ovarian Cystic Disease • Various definitions. Follicle with diameter > 20 mm, wall thickness < 3 mm, persisting >10 days • 6% nymphomaniac. 94% anoestrus. • Totally over diagnosed by non scanning colleagues! • 30% of cows with OCD also have a CL

OCD -Treatments • If CL also present use PG • If no CL (Type OCD -Treatments • If CL also present use PG • If no CL (Type 3 anoestrus) use Cidr/PG • Never manually rupture

Pre-breeding visit- other factors • While scanning check BCS. Importance cannot be over-emphasised. See Pre-breeding visit- other factors • While scanning check BCS. Importance cannot be over-emphasised. See nutrition checks later. • Heat detection aids • Health and fertility of bull (Scan and feel his testicles) Observe his feet and locomotion • Look for signs of mounting in cows not observed in heat

2 nd and 3 rd Scanning Visits • With these you are checking for 2 nd and 3 rd Scanning Visits • With these you are checking for pregnancy post day 30. • On next visit checking that pregnancy is maintained • Foetal Sexing • Twins • Signs of Early Embryonic Death • Repeat breeders • In later calvers, a prebreeding scan

Pregnancy Don't just look for the “Black Hole” Check both ovaries for one or Pregnancy Don't just look for the “Black Hole” Check both ovaries for one or more CLs Check entire uterus Pregnancy visible post day 26 – 30 Will commonly find pregnancy in cow not observed bulling • From 25 -45 days foetal length mm + 18 = foetal age in days • • •

Foetal Sexing • From day 55 – 90 in dairy breeds and up to Foetal Sexing • From day 55 – 90 in dairy breeds and up to day 110 in beef breeds (smaller foetus) • After that depth of pregnancy and foetal orientation make it difficult • Genital Tubercle (GT) starts to migrate from position between back limbs at day 45 and is completed by day 55 (earlier in female) • Appears as highly echogenic bright bilobed structure

Foetal Sexing • Ends up behind umbilicus in male and under tail in female Foetal Sexing • Ends up behind umbilicus in male and under tail in female • Becomes trilobed in male at day 75. • Less echogenic after day 90

Foetal Sexing • • • Find embryo Is it healthy? Heartbeat? Look for head Foetal Sexing • • • Find embryo Is it healthy? Heartbeat? Look for head –tail orientation. Find umbilicus Look for GT either behind umbilicus or in front of tail

Foetal Sexing – Beware! • Foetus changes position every 10 -12 seconds. • Female Foetal Sexing – Beware! • Foetus changes position every 10 -12 seconds. • Female more difficult • Mistaking female for male when tail is tucked between legs and tip of tail is waving in front of umbilicus • Coccygeal vertebrae for female GT • Umbilicus for male GT

Twins • Increasing prevalence because of co dominance of follicles • Ideal time days Twins • Increasing prevalence because of co dominance of follicles • Ideal time days 30 -60 with linear scanner • Up to 3 -4 months with sector scanner • 15% of cows with twins will lose one • 18% of cows with twins will lose both

Twins • Always check both ovaries for CLs. There may be 2 CLs on Twins • Always check both ovaries for CLs. There may be 2 CLs on one ovary • If 2 CLs present carefully check both horns for twins • Look for twin-line – fused adjacent chorioallantoic membranes. Looks like a white floating line • Record findings and recheck at next visit • If male twin dies post day 30 and female survives she may be freemartin even though only one calf is born!

Early Embryonic Death • Can be recognised by ultrasound • Up to day 42 Early Embryonic Death • Can be recognised by ultrasound • Up to day 42 = embryonic death. Post day 42 = foetal death • Can diagnose it without knowing the aetiological agent. • Moorepark BVD outbreak flagged by high EED levels seen at post breeding scan

Embryonic Death • • • 11%of pregnancies between day 28 -42 die 6% from Embryonic Death • • • 11%of pregnancies between day 28 -42 die 6% from day 42 -56 and 2% from day 56 -98 Good setup needed Quiet cow Patient Vet

E. E. D -- Diagnosis • Heartbeat • Altered echogenicity of amniotic- allantoic liquids E. E. D -- Diagnosis • Heartbeat • Altered echogenicity of amniotic- allantoic liquids • Amniotic membrane rupture • Chorio-allantoic membrane separation • Oedema of endometrium • Absence of embryo • Embryo size

E. E. D --- Diagnosis • May need to scan on successive days as E. E. D --- Diagnosis • May need to scan on successive days as its a dynamic process. Will lead to further visits • Heartbeat slows down. You shouldn’t normally be able to count the foetal heartbeat. • Membrane fluids become less clear and the embryo is less visible in the fluid which is becoming cloudier. • Rupture of the amniotic membrane can result in the embryo being partly in amnion and partly in allantoic membrane.

E. E. D --Diagnosis • The chorio-allantoic membrane may lift off the endometrium, with E. E. D --Diagnosis • The chorio-allantoic membrane may lift off the endometrium, with haemorrhage in between. This haemorrhage has the echogenicity of a CL. • Absence of an embryo or an embryo that is much smaller than it should be if AI date is known.

E. E. D – What to do? • If sure that embryo is in E. E. D – What to do? • If sure that embryo is in trouble use PG quickly • CR at next heat is very good • If you abort at a later date, may have to leave the first heat go and to breed at the next heat. • Increased echogenicity in the membrane fluids is normal post day 100 --- don’t use PG!!

Repeat Breeders • Can be physiological (normal), Infectious or nutritional (NEB exacerbated by high Repeat Breeders • Can be physiological (normal), Infectious or nutritional (NEB exacerbated by high Rumen Degradable Protein) or Trace Element related • Can also be due to infertile/ subfertile bull • May see some endometritis type signs on scan

Repeat Breeders --Treatments • Gn. RH or Chorulon (Holding Injections) at, or few hours Repeat Breeders --Treatments • Gn. RH or Chorulon (Holding Injections) at, or few hours pre AI • Gn. RH at day 5 or day 11 post AI. This is to luteinize follicles to get them to produce extra P 4 to help maintain the pregnancy • Re- inserting a Cidr at day 4 for 10 days. Same logic as above. Seems to work well late in season (Low P 4 producing cows? ) • e. CG at day 5 post insem. 200 -400 units (can use higher dose in sucklers). Develops accessory CLs to maintain the pregnancy. • Repeats with uterine “dirt” – Metricure 12 -24 hrs post service

Herd Pregnancy Scan • • Usually carried out Sept onwards Quicker than fertility scans Herd Pregnancy Scan • • Usually carried out Sept onwards Quicker than fertility scans Linear scanner limited if pregnancy > 4 months Sector scanner more suitable You are feeling as well as looking 6. 5 month pregnancy you may not see or feel! Timing pregnancy from size of cotyledons? Fremitus

Synchronisation Programmes My favoured regime --- Dairy • • • Day 0 -- 2. Synchronisation Programmes My favoured regime --- Dairy • • • Day 0 -- 2. 5 ccs Receptal and Cidr insertion Day 7 – PG Day 8 – Remove Cidr 36 hours later – 2. 5 cc Receptal 18 hours later- Fixed time AI Or -- AI at observed heat

Synchronisation Programmes My Favoured Regime – Beef suckler • • • Day 0 – Synchronisation Programmes My Favoured Regime – Beef suckler • • • Day 0 – 2. 5 ccs Receptal and Cidr insertion Day 8 – PG Day 9 – Remove Cidr 48 and 72 Hours later – AI May use Gn. RH or e. CG at removal e. CG will stimulate DF growth and Estradiol production, Gn. RH will only ovulate pre ovulatory DF

Ovsynch Protocol • • Day 0 – 2. 5 ccs Receptal Day 7 – Ovsynch Protocol • • Day 0 – 2. 5 ccs Receptal Day 7 – 2 ml Estrumate Day 9– 2. 5 ml Receptal 16 - 24 hrs later – fixed time AI

Hormone Protocol Variations- NEB Cows • In cows suffering from Negative Energy Balance • Hormone Protocol Variations- NEB Cows • In cows suffering from Negative Energy Balance • NEB negatively impacts on the LH surge needed for ovulation • By increasing the Estrumate dose to 3 ccs in both the Ovsynch and Cidr/Pg programmes, there is a more rapid decline in circulating P 4 levels resulting in a better LH pulse. This results in a bigger faster growing Dom Fol. The Receptal dose required to ovulate this can then be reduced from 2. 5 to 1 cc

Hormone Protocol Variations – Low BCS cows • Cows with BCS of 2. 25 Hormone Protocol Variations – Low BCS cows • Cows with BCS of 2. 25 or less • Leave the Cidr in for 2 days longer i. e. 9 – 10 days. You must accept that the CR will be lower at the induced heat because the oocyte is older, BUT the cow now becomes cyclic and these cows will have a CR of > 50% in the subsequent oestrus. • OR also in low BCS cows, leave the Cidr in for the normal length and use the PG as per normal, but 1 day after removal admin 200 -400 IU of e. CG (Folligon) and inseminate 48 hrs later.

Hormone Treatments – Useful tips • Cloprostenol (Estrumate) You can half the dose by Hormone Treatments – Useful tips • Cloprostenol (Estrumate) You can half the dose by giving it into the vulva in an insulin syringe. It avoids going to the liver where it is metabolised and gets straight to the ovary • Cidr can be re-sterilised by soaking in 5% Virkon soln for 12 hours or by autoclaving. Actually there is a higher release of hormone on the 2 nd us after autoclaving. They may actually be re-used a 3 rd time

Cow Nutrition • Basically, from her diet the cow needs energy, protein, vitamins and Cow Nutrition • Basically, from her diet the cow needs energy, protein, vitamins and minerals, and free access to water • If diet is deficient in energy the cow loses BCS • If diet has excess energy the cow gains BCS • Measuring the cow BCS is the most robust method of evaluating energy status of cow

Nutrition's Influence on Fertility • Energy Balance Problems – Cows over conditioned at calving Nutrition's Influence on Fertility • Energy Balance Problems – Cows over conditioned at calving and NEB post calving • Type of energy fed – glucogenic or fat • Protein problems – feeding excess RDP and insufficient by-pass protein • Major and trace element status • Transition cow management incl. Antioxidant status

Problems of Energy Balance • • Negative energy balance post calving NEB pre-calving if Problems of Energy Balance • • Negative energy balance post calving NEB pre-calving if BCS is too high Fatty Liver Ketosis

Negative Energy Balance • Most important by far re - fertility • Nature has Negative Energy Balance • Most important by far re - fertility • Nature has devised many mechanisms to prevent cow in NEB getting pregnant • Energy (glucose) is diverted to milk production and not the ovary • She wants to cater fully for her calf before she gets pregnant again

Negative Energy Balance • Hormones which control energy metabolism and reproduction act to: 1. Negative Energy Balance • Hormones which control energy metabolism and reproduction act to: 1. Decrease follicle growth 2. Prevent ovulation 3. Prevent conception 4. Prevent implantation 5. Cause early embryonic death 6. Create follicular memory (short term energy deficit resulting in lower P 4 levels up to 100 days later) • All these reduce cows chances of going in calf i. e. reduced fertility

Negative Energy Balance • Major factor determining whether a cow becomes seriously energy deficient Negative Energy Balance • Major factor determining whether a cow becomes seriously energy deficient or not is Dry Matter Intake and not milk yield! • Secret of success in improving fertility, milk yield and milk quality is a higher DM intake in early lactation. • Need to optimise rumen function

Monitoring Rumen Function 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • • Body Condition Score Monitoring Rumen Function 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. • • Body Condition Score Rumen Fill Dung consistency Cudding and dropping of cud Monitoring and checking intakes Blood and milk metabolites Steps 1 – 4 can be done at any farm visit Observation skills

Body Condition Score --Targets • • BCS at drying off– 2. 75 BCS at Body Condition Score --Targets • • BCS at drying off– 2. 75 BCS at calving – 3. 0 (90% between 2. 75 - 3. 25) BCS at breeding -- >2. 5 BCS at 150 DIM – 2. 75 BCS at 200 DIM – 2. 75 BCS at 250 DIM – 2. 75 Important not to lose > 0. 5 BCS between calving and breeding

Rumen Fill • Assess degree of fill in left paralumbar fossa • Very important Rumen Fill • Assess degree of fill in left paralumbar fossa • Very important in cows in early lactation • If not full, there is a problem a. Cow is not getting enough to eat b. Feed isn’t good enough c. Cows haven’t enough access to feed

Dung Consistency • Not too loose – lack of fibre, excess protein high Mg Dung Consistency • Not too loose – lack of fibre, excess protein high Mg • Not too solid – feed intake too low • Slow handclap sound • Boot imprint • Each evacuation should make imprint on dung pat • Should support straw standing up straight

Cudding/ Rumination • 80% of cows not eating should be chewing cud • At Cudding/ Rumination • 80% of cows not eating should be chewing cud • At least 50 chews per minute • Good strong chews with some saliva at mouth edges • If cows are dropping cud – indicative of acidosis or SARA

NEB • Occurs with primary underfeeding and if BCS is too high at calving NEB • Occurs with primary underfeeding and if BCS is too high at calving • Check feed access factors i. e. access to feed, trough space, cow comfort, rumen fill, locomotion scores, grass allowance, post grazing sward height, overcrowding, group stress, poor silage quality, night feeding, too many cows in pens etc

Monitoring NEB pre-calving 1. 2. 3. • BCS monitoring Calculated energy balance Blood metabolites Monitoring NEB pre-calving 1. 2. 3. • BCS monitoring Calculated energy balance Blood metabolites Calculated energy balance. Is the cow taking in enough energy? Calculate energy requirements by cow i. e. maintenance, walking indoors or at pasture, and pregnancy reqs. Calculate energy supplied by feed – add up UFL supplied by each component of feed. If reqs > supply --cow is in NEB, and if supply > needs then cow is in PEB and gains BCS.

Monitoring NEB pre-calving • Blood metabolites • Sample 12 cows between 14 days + Monitoring NEB pre-calving • Blood metabolites • Sample 12 cows between 14 days + 5 days precalving for NEFA and BHB. • If 2 or more cows have NEFA levels > 0. 4 mmol/l suspect NEB • If 2 or more cows have BHB >0. 7 mmol/l suspect NEB

Monitoring NEB pre-calving • To calculate energy balance you must have a silage analysis Monitoring NEB pre-calving • To calculate energy balance you must have a silage analysis • Easy + cheap - € 25. 00 + Vat. You could do this free for first few farmers to let them know you are interested in this type of work. • Need analysis that has UFL and PDI i. e. Net Energy system (See later)

Monitoring NEB post calving 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculated energy balance BCS monitoring Monitoring NEB post calving 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculated energy balance BCS monitoring As in precalving Feed intake factors Blood metabolites Milk composition

Monitoring NEB post- calving • Blood metabolites • Sample 12 cows between 3 weeks Monitoring NEB post- calving • Blood metabolites • Sample 12 cows between 3 weeks and 7 weeks calved for NEFA and BHB • If 2 or more cows have NEFA level > 0. 7 mmol/l = positive result • If 2 or more cows have BHB level > 1. 4 mmol/l = positive result • Note different cut offs for pre and post calving—watch Lab results

Monitoring NEB post calving • Milk composition • Look at milk protein and milk Monitoring NEB post calving • Milk composition • Look at milk protein and milk fat: protein ratio • Milk protein loosely associated with energy intake. If > 15% of cows in early lact. have milk protein <3. 05% --- suspect NEB • Energy intake is what increases milk protein, and cows with low milk protein have lower fertility • Need ICBF milk records

Monitoring NEB post calving • Milk fat: protein ratio • Milk fat rises as Monitoring NEB post calving • Milk fat: protein ratio • Milk fat rises as cow mobilizes adipose tissue which occurs in NEB and Ketosis • Divide milk fat by milk protein in cows in early lactation. • If > 15% have ratio > 1. 5 – suspect NEB • (High fat, low protein --- cow is ketotic Low fat, high protein ---- cow acidotic)

Calcium Status • Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively effects fertility • Affects uterine Calcium Status • Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia negatively effects fertility • Affects uterine motility, causes dystocia, delays uterine involution, RFM, reduces immune function all of which impacts on fertility • Important to assess calcium status as part of fertility programme

Monitoring Calcium Status • Cow needs 7. 0 -7. 3 g/kg DM in diet Monitoring Calcium Status • Cow needs 7. 0 -7. 3 g/kg DM in diet • Normal blood levels 2. 0 mmol/l. Blood levels < 1. 4 mmol/l = Milk Fever. Blood levels >1. 4 and <2. 0 = Subclinical hypocalcaemia • Grass and grass silage normally high in Ca • Maize silage low in Ca

Monitoring and Preventing Hypocal. 1. Reduce Ca intake pre calving –not feasible in Irish Monitoring and Preventing Hypocal. 1. Reduce Ca intake pre calving –not feasible in Irish grass based farms. 2. Correct BCS at calving 3. Raise dietary Mg to 0. 4%DM 4. Reduce DCAD. Target -100 to -200 meq/kg DM 5. Calcium bolus at calving 6. Vitamin D 3 analogue

Monitoring Hypocalcaemia • Average silage will supply approx 20 g of Mg / day Monitoring Hypocalcaemia • Average silage will supply approx 20 g of Mg / day • Having silage mineral analysis will help (see later) • Easy to calculate what the dry cow mineral will yield in Mg if fed at recommended rate • Usually need additional 20 g Mg

Monitoring Hypocal. • For manipulation of DCAD need mineral analysis of forage • (Na Monitoring Hypocal. • For manipulation of DCAD need mineral analysis of forage • (Na + K)-(Cl + S) • Difficult to do if dietary K is > 1. 8% • Reducing the DCAD has linear reduction in Hypocal even if target is not reached • DCAD drenches available (Mayo. Health. Care) Also granules to add to silage

Monitoring Hypocal. • Calcium bolus at calving reduces MF but cow can relapse into Monitoring Hypocal. • Calcium bolus at calving reduces MF but cow can relapse into subclinical Hypocal and stay there for 10 days • Bloods: cows 12 -24 hrs calved should have levels of at least 2 mmol/l • Mg levels in 24 hrs precalving should be > 0. 8 mmol/l • If using DCAD. Dietary Ca intake should be 1. 01. 2% of DM, Dietary K < 1. 8%, and after DCAD urinary p. H should be 6. 2 -6. 8, 3 -14 days into usage

Minerals and Trace Elements • Phosphorous and fertility? • Cu, Se, I, (Mo) • Minerals and Trace Elements • Phosphorous and fertility? • Cu, Se, I, (Mo) • Copper. Primary deficiency rare (Herbage < 10 mg/kg). Secondary def. more common. Interactions with S. Mo, Fe • Copper absorption most reduced at Cu: Mo ratios of 1: 1 • Danger if Cu: Mo ratio of 1: 1 to 1: 3 or if Mo levels > 15 mg/ kg DM • Danger if Fe concs. > 250 mg/kg DM or if Fe: Cu is > 100: 1 or even if Fe: Cu is 100: 1 to 50: 1 • Danger if S >2 mg/kg DM

Trace Elements • Can have direct or indirect effect on fertility • Direct effect Trace Elements • Can have direct or indirect effect on fertility • Direct effect occurs at time of breeding e. g. Influence of copper on LH surge etc. • Indirect effect occurs during dry period when follicle development begins. • Important to have trace element status correct during dry period.

Monitoring Trace Elements • Easy to estimate the trace element intake if you have Monitoring Trace Elements • Easy to estimate the trace element intake if you have silage mineral analysis • Easy to calculate the intake from bagged minerals if added at the recommended rates • Compare to recommended feeding level • Confirm animal status by blood tests / liver biopsy

Minerals and Trace Elements • • • Selenium. Important role as anti oxidant Feeding Minerals and Trace Elements • • • Selenium. Important role as anti oxidant Feeding levels of 3 -5 mg/kg DM /day Iodine levels of 12 -60 mg/kg DM Cobalt levels of 5 -10 mg/kg DM Many cattle in Ireland would be deficient in I and Se if reliant on herbage alone

Monitoring Trace Elements • Silage/ grass mineral analysis • 10 -12 bloods. Either around Monitoring Trace Elements • Silage/ grass mineral analysis • 10 -12 bloods. Either around calving or at start of breeding. Red top for Copper. Plasma Cu >9. 5µmol/l or serum Cu > 7. 5µmol/l • Selenium. Green tops. GSPx >50 units/ml PCV • Iodine. Red tops. Plasma Inorganic Iodine (PII). Levels > 105µmol/l plasma • PII measuring very recent Iodine uptake • GSPx a measure of intake up to 6 weeks ago • Liver biopsy better for Cu levels. Ref range 0. 6 -2. 5 mmol/kg wet matter. • Milk mineral levels not at all reliable

Protein feeding and Fertility • Basically 2 types of protein fed to cows 1. Protein feeding and Fertility • Basically 2 types of protein fed to cows 1. Rumen degradable protein, which is mainly converted to ammonia in rumen. Feeding extra RDP to a cow in NEB has very negative effect on fertility. Rise in levels of ammonia, amines and urea. All toxic to cow in NEB post calving. Cow can’t cope with CP > 18%. 2. PDI which is made up of rumen bugs and rumen bypass protein. Feeding extra PDI drives milk yield but doesn’t help fertility • Is it better to feed high CP and rise milk yield or to feed lower CP and get the cows in calf?

Type of Energy Fed • Glucogenic (starch) diets will lead to increase in insulin Type of Energy Fed • Glucogenic (starch) diets will lead to increase in insulin which helps fertility especially if fed in early lactation. • Fat diets are high in energy but they drive milk yield more than fertility. Omega 3 Fatty Acids may help fertility. • Bottom line is that there is only a net gain in fertility due to extra energy fed ONLY if cows are in NEB. Cows whose energy balance is ok i. e. Cows which are getting enough energy from the diet or cows of low output do not benefit, fertility wise, from extra energy fed.

Transition Cow • 3 weeks pre to 3 weeks post calving • Vulnerable period Transition Cow • 3 weeks pre to 3 weeks post calving • Vulnerable period for cow. Immune competence reduced. Endocrine changes. • Nutritional factors to be noted 1. Rise in energy demands by foetus and milk with reduced feed intake 2. Dramatic increase in Ca demand 3. Dietary change when let out to pasture. Increases VFA production –risk of SARA and acidosis 4. Lack of rumen fill –LDA 5. Increased antioxidant needs – reduced immune function 6. Group changes – bullying and pecking order

Laboratories • Silage and grass for quality: FBA Laboratories, Industrial Estate, Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. Laboratories • Silage and grass for quality: FBA Laboratories, Industrial Estate, Cappoquin, Co. Waterford. Tel. 058 52861 Cost € 25. 00 + vat. • Forage minerals: Thomson + Joseph Limited, T & J House, 119 Plumstead Road, Norwich, Norfolk, UK NRI 4 JT Tel. 00 44 1603 439 511 Cost £ 22. 00. No vat.

Laboratories • Postage of silage samples, within Ireland approx. € 6. 50 if parcel Laboratories • Postage of silage samples, within Ireland approx. € 6. 50 if parcel size. Cheaper if packet size. Not difficult to make silage sample into packet size. • Parcel post to UK approx. € 18. 50. Again cheaper if packet size. • Mastiplan or Cobactan boxes ideal for posting approx 0. 5 kg of silage. • Turnaround time approx. 2 weeks • An Post regulations Jan 2010 –”Packet” combined length, width and height not to exceed 600 mm, and not to weigh > 2 kg. Mastiplan box is 230*102*115 and easily carries 0. 5 kg of silage. • 2 samples recently posted cost total of € 8. 70 in post.

Laboratories • Iodine PII ; Agri-Food and Biosciences Ltd. , Veterinary Science Division, Stoney Laboratories • Iodine PII ; Agri-Food and Biosciences Ltd. , Veterinary Science Division, Stoney Road, Stormont, Belfast, BT 4 35 D Tel 048 9052 5649 Cost £ 7. 00 per sample • NEFA Backweston only. Regional labs will forward samples to Backweston if requested. • All others: Regional Vet Labs, Riverview • Hand held unit for BHB and Glucose. Available from Acravet or Mayo Healthcare

Example of Cost of Nutrition Audit Recent Nutritional Audit carried out for dairy client. Example of Cost of Nutrition Audit Recent Nutritional Audit carried out for dairy client. Samples taken • Maize silage and grass silage for Quality and Minerals • 20 bloods for NEFA, BHB, Ca, Mg, P, Cu, • 10 bloods for Pii and GSPx

Cost of Nutrition Audit • Maize silage and Grass silage for quality = 2 Cost of Nutrition Audit • Maize silage and Grass silage for quality = 2 x € 25 = € 50 + Vat = € 60. 50 • Maize/grass silage minerals = 2 x £ 22 = £ 44 = € 52. 50 • 20 x BHB = € 25, 20 x NEFA= € 25, 20 x Ca = € 25, 20 x Mg = € 25, 20 x Cu = € 25, 20 x P = € 25 • 10 x Pii = £ 70 = € 83. 40 • 10 x GPSx = € 12. 50 • TOTAL = € 358. 90 + Postage !

Thanks to. . . • Finbar Mulligan UCD • Des Rice • Giovanni Gnemmi Thanks to. . . • Finbar Mulligan UCD • Des Rice • Giovanni Gnemmi The fertility and scanning gurus. . .