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Fertility and Sterilization Experiments on Human Subjects in Nazi Germany Michael Lipsky MD, Israel Fertility and Sterilization Experiments on Human Subjects in Nazi Germany Michael Lipsky MD, Israel P. Nosnik MD, Harris M. Nagler MD FACS, and Basir U. Tareen MD Sol and Margaret Berger Department of Urology Beth Israel Medical Center New York, NY Albert Einstein College of Medicine

The Nuremberg Laws- 1933 • Marriage and intercourse between Jews and citizens of German The Nuremberg Laws- 1933 • Marriage and intercourse between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden • Jews not permitted to employ female citizens under the age of 45 as domestic workers • Jews forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors • Jews stripped of German citizenship

Neues Volk, March 1, 1936, p. 37 Neues Volk, March 1, 1936, p. 37

“We Do Not Stand Alone” Neues Volk, March 1, 1936, p. 37 “We Do Not Stand Alone” Neues Volk, March 1, 1936, p. 37

Tubal Ligation and Vasectomy Tubal Ligation and Vasectomy

Carl Clauberg • Gynecologist • Progynon (estradiol valerate) • Prolution (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) • Tenure Carl Clauberg • Gynecologist • Progynon (estradiol valerate) • Prolution (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) • Tenure University of Königsberg • 1933 joined Nazi Party • 1940 promoted to Lieutenant General

Clauberg’s Experiments • Pre-operative hysterosalpingogram to establish patency • Injection of caustic chemicals through Clauberg’s Experiments • Pre-operative hysterosalpingogram to establish patency • Injection of caustic chemicals through the cervix – Formalin, acids, Caladium seguinum – No anesthesia • Endometrial scarring and adhesions • Devastating complications – Perforation, erosion, sepsis, unbearable pain and death • Post mortem examination and histology

"The non-surgical method of sterilizing women that I have invented is now almost perfected. . . then I shall be able to report in the foreseeable future that one experienced physician, with an appropriately equipped office and the aid of ten auxiliary personnel, will be able to carry out in the course of a single day the sterilization of hundreds, or even 1, 000 women. “ -Carl Clauberg in a letter to Himmler, 1943

Horst Schumann • Joined Nazi party in 1930 • MD at University of Halle Horst Schumann • Joined Nazi party in 1930 • MD at University of Halle • Joined T 4 euthanasia program in 1940 • Arrived at Auschwitz in 1942

Schumann’s Experiments • Subject placed between two X-ray sources • Beam “focused” on the Schumann’s Experiments • Subject placed between two X-ray sources • Beam “focused” on the pelvis or scrotum – Men- 500 -600 R x 2 minutes – Women 300 -350 R x 3 minutes • Post operative semen analysis by prostatic massage • Post mortem histology and examination • Complications – Skin breakdown and suppuration, bowel necrosis, sepsis, death • Estimated 150 -200 people could be sterilized with a single machine each day

Implications of Experimentation • Nuremberg Trials and Nuremberg Code • Basis for NIH research Implications of Experimentation • Nuremberg Trials and Nuremberg Code • Basis for NIH research guidelines on research subjects • Many other examples of subject exploitation in the post war period – 1963 -1971 Oregon/Washington prison studies

Among all criminals and murderers, the most dangerous type is the criminal physician” “ Among all criminals and murderers, the most dangerous type is the criminal physician” “ - Miklos Nyiszli, prisoner and pathologist to Dr. Josef Mengele at Auschwitz

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