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FEMA Regulations, Mapping and Letters of Map Amendments & Revisions Presented by: Vajira Gunawardana, FEMA Regulations, Mapping and Letters of Map Amendments & Revisions Presented by: Vajira Gunawardana, P. E. , P. P. , CFM NAJARIAN ASSOCIATES

TOOLS OF FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT TOOLS OF FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT

NFIP Definitions Ø Base Flood § Is the NFIP Flood of Regulation for Floodplain NFIP Definitions Ø Base Flood § Is the NFIP Flood of Regulation for Floodplain Management (Defined as the flood that has a 1% chance of being equaled or exceeded in a given year). Ø Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) § Areas subject to the 1%, or Greater, annual chance of flooding in any given year. (Aka – the “ 100 -Yr” Floodplain). Ø Base Flood Elevation (BFE) § Water surface elevation resulting from the Base Flood (Aka – the “ 100 -Yr” Elevation) that is tied into a known vertical datum. 3

NFIP Definitions 1% Annual Chance -Vs. - “ 100 -Yr” Language Ø Unfortunately, “ NFIP Definitions 1% Annual Chance -Vs. - “ 100 -Yr” Language Ø Unfortunately, “ 100 -Yr” Flood terminology has an attached mental picture of taking 100 years between flooding events. Ø However, it needs to be thought of as a raffle instead, all based on Odds. Ø Picture a bag with a hundred marbles with one being a different color. Every time it begins to rain reach your hand inside the bag and choose a marble. If you get the odd colored marble, that would be same chance of having a 1% flooding event. 4

NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway § Means the Channel of the Watercourse and the adjacent NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway § Means the Channel of the Watercourse and the adjacent overbank land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the Base Flood Elevation without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevations more than a designated amount. (This is 1 -Foot in MO) § Sometimes referred to as the “Regulatory Floodway”. 5

NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway (cont. ) § Once FEMA defines a Floodway for a NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway (cont. ) § Once FEMA defines a Floodway for a particular stream reach, then what was the entire 1% floodplain, has now been divided into what is called the Floodway & the Floodway Fringe. § The Floodway Fringe has the same development requirements as the 1% Floodplain. § However, the Floodway has more restricted development standards. 6

NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway (cont. ) 100 -Year Floodplain or SFHA Floodway Fringe Encroachment NFIP Definitions Ø Floodway (cont. ) 100 -Year Floodplain or SFHA Floodway Fringe Encroachment BFE For Existing Channel Flood Elevation after Encroachment of the Floodway Fringe Floodway Surcharge up to 1 foot Stream Channel 7

NFIP Definitions Ø Structure § For Floodplain Management Purposes Means: § A walled and NFIP Definitions Ø Structure § For Floodplain Management Purposes Means: § A walled and roofed building, including gas or liquid storage tanks, this is principally above ground, as well as manufactured homes (trailers or Modular structures). § Sometimes referred to as “Four Walls & a Roof”. § There are two (2) other definitions for Structures that are used on the Insurance Side of the NFIP. 8

NFIP Definitions Ø Lowest Floor § Means the top of the lowest enclosed area, NFIP Definitions Ø Lowest Floor § Means the top of the lowest enclosed area, including basements & crawlspaces, that has a finished or unfinished surface. § Lowest Floor is not Always the Lowest Floor. § When there is an enclosed area below BFE, that is made with flood resistant materials, used solely for parking, access to the building, limited storage, and all utilities & machinery is elevated above the BFE, with the required openings, and it is not considered to be a FEMA defined basement, then the compliance and rating floor would be the next higher floor elevation. 9

NFIP Definitions Ø Freeboard § Is the designated height above the existing BFE to NFIP Definitions Ø Freeboard § Is the designated height above the existing BFE to which Structures & Levees must be elevated or constructed. Ø Freeboard Accounts for: § The 1 -foot rise in BFE’s if the Floodway Fringe is completely filled. § Effects of upstream development. § Unexpected backwater due to debris or Ice. § And Uncertainties in the modeling & topography. 10

Unit IV FEMA Flood Insurance Maps & Documents Unit IV FEMA Flood Insurance Maps & Documents

Types of Maps Ø Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) Ø Flood Insurance Rate Map Types of Maps Ø Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) Ø Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) Ø Flood Boundary & Floodway Map (FBFM) or just referred to as the “Floodway Map” Ø Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Ø FIRMette Photo Credit Unknown 12

Flood Insurance Rate Map Ø There are several different FEMA Maps that are referred Flood Insurance Rate Map Ø There are several different FEMA Maps that are referred to as “FIRM”. § § § Converted FIRM (Previous Slide) FIRM Only FIRM & FLOODWAY (Separate Maps) FIRM & FLOODWAY (Same Map) DFIRM (Usually includes Floodway Information and provide in a “County-Wide” Format) 13

Flood Insurance Rate Map Ø FIRM & Separate FLOODWAY Map: § The First Floodway Flood Insurance Rate Map Ø FIRM & Separate FLOODWAY Map: § The First Floodway Maps were printed separately from the Community’s FIRM maps. § Floodway Concept not part of Original 1968 National Flood Insurance Act. § Floodplain on two separate maps not was not a good idea. § Doubles FEMA’s Printing Costs. § FLOODWAY map not always used for floodplain development reviews by Local Community. 14

Flood Insurance Rate Map 15 Flood Insurance Rate Map 15

Floodway Map 16 Floodway Map 16

Digital FIRM Ø DFIRM Map: § Usually in “County-Wide” format. § Usually has an Digital FIRM Ø DFIRM Map: § Usually in “County-Wide” format. § Usually has an Aerial Photograph background. FEMA/Michael Rieger 17

Digital FIRM 18 Digital FIRM 18

Flood Insurance Study 19 Flood Insurance Study 19

Flood Insurance Study Ø The FIS is a presentation of the Hydrologic and Hydraulic Flood Insurance Study Ø The FIS is a presentation of the Hydrologic and Hydraulic (H&H) determinations made for the specific watercourses within a given Community. Ø This Includes: § Estimating the Flow Frequencies (Hydrology). § Provides the Stream Elevation Profiles (Hydraulics). § Floodway Data (if Calculated). § Establishes the Insurance Risk Zones. 20

Flood Insurance Study Ø The FIS also contains information about the Horizontal & Vertical Flood Insurance Study Ø The FIS also contains information about the Horizontal & Vertical Datum used during the Study. Ø Provides information about FEMA’s Study Contractor who performed the Analysis. § Could be important later since FEMA has been know to misplace study data. 21

Flood Insurance Study Ø Floodway Data Table (FDT): 22 Flood Insurance Study Ø Floodway Data Table (FDT): 22

Flood Insurance Study Ø Stream Profiles: 23 Flood Insurance Study Ø Stream Profiles: 23

Mapping Example Ø Step 3 – Identify Specific Location A 150 ft by 150 Mapping Example Ø Step 3 – Identify Specific Location A 150 ft by 150 ft corner lot on the East side of Butler Dr. and on the North side of Heyden Dr. 1 inch = 600 feet ½ inch = 300 feet & ¼ inch = 150 ft 24

Mapping Example Ø Step 4 – Is Site is in the Floodplain? A 150 Mapping Example Ø Step 4 – Is Site is in the Floodplain? A 150 ft by 150 ft corner lot on the East side of Butler Dr. and on the North side of Heyden Dr. Is this site in the 1% floodplain? YES – Any Risk Zone beginning with the letter “A” is the 1% floodplain. In what Risk Zone is this site located? Zone A 3 25

Mapping Example Ø Step 5 – Is Site is in the Floodway? A 150 Mapping Example Ø Step 5 – Is Site is in the Floodway? A 150 ft by 150 ft corner lot on the East side of Butler Dr. and on the North side of Heyden Dr. Map Type is the New FIRM (no separate floodway map). Is this site located in the floodway? NO – If there was a designated floodway on this stream it would be represented by the “hatched” area. 26

Mapping Example Ø Step 7 – Determine the BFE Use FIRM to determine BFE Mapping Example Ø Step 7 – Determine the BFE Use FIRM to determine BFE Flo w NOTE: Step 6 – Make Flood Insurance Zone Determination was done in Step 4 (Zone A 3). 1. Determine Flow Direction. ½ Way 2. Draw BFE Line for Site. BFE = 455. 5 ft (by FIRM). 27

Mapping Example Ø Step 7 – Determine the BFE Now we have all the Mapping Example Ø Step 7 – Determine the BFE Now we have all the information we need to determine the BFE for this site. 459 458 457 456 455 454 453 452 451 1. Measure downstream from X-Section “D” 650 ft or 5. 2 “squares” or “boxes”. 2. Extend measurement line up to the 1% profile. 3. Measure horizontally over from the intersection of 1% profile to determine BFE = 454. 8 feet (by Profile). 5. 2 Note: Approx. 9 inches lower then using the FIRM. 430 3000 4250 5500 6750 8000 28

Map Revisions Ø Because of the Legal Significance, “Due Process” Procedures, and the many Map Revisions Ø Because of the Legal Significance, “Due Process” Procedures, and the many various NFIP Document Users, information supporting Map Revisions MUST be Scientifically & Technically Accurate. Ø There are Two (2) Type of Requests: § Request that DO NOT change the Published BFE’s, Floodplain Boundaries, or Floodway. § Request that DO change the Published BFE’s, Floodplain Boundaries, or Floodway. 29

Map Revisions Amendments –Vs. – Revision Ø Amendments can be thought of as a Map Revisions Amendments –Vs. – Revision Ø Amendments can be thought of as a “Correction”. Ø Revisions can be thought of as a “Change”. Ø Amendments: § Usually involves Structures or Parcels, do not involve detailed H&H analysis, and does not change the Map. Ø Revisions: § More Complex, requires detailed surveys, H&H analysis and will physically change the Published Map. 30

Map Revisions Ø Amendments are either: § Letter of Map Amendments (LOMA) or § Map Revisions Ø Amendments are either: § Letter of Map Amendments (LOMA) or § Letter of Map Revisions – Based on Fill (LOMR-F). Ø LOMA’s removed Structures or Parcels of Land that has NOT been Elevated by the placement of Fill. Ø LOMR-F’s removed Structures or Parcels of Land that HAVE Been Elevated by the placement of Fill. 31

Map Revisions Ø Amendments (LOMA’s) reflect the “Pre. Existing” FIRM Conditions where Structures or Map Revisions Ø Amendments (LOMA’s) reflect the “Pre. Existing” FIRM Conditions where Structures or Parcels were “Inadvertently Included” within the SFHA. § Usually they are located within an Approximate Study Areas (Unnumbered A-Zones). § These Errors typically occur due to the limitations of the base map data. § The 10 foot or 20 foot contour intervals developed for USGS 7. 5 Minute “Quad” maps was used for most County FIRM’s. 32

Map Revisions Ø The Amendment Removal Process is governed by Part 70 of the Map Revisions Ø The Amendment Removal Process is governed by Part 70 of the 44 CFR. Ø Amendments can be submitted for Single Structures or Parcels and for Multiple Structures or Parcels. Ø Conditional LOMA’s (CLOMA) can also be Requested. § Conditional Requests are based on Proposed Conditions and only provides FEMA’s opinion for your project, it is not a Removal. 33

Map Revisions Ø Revisions Based on Fill (LOMR-F) typically involve changes that have occurred Map Revisions Ø Revisions Based on Fill (LOMR-F) typically involve changes that have occurred to a parcel of land located in the SFHA since the FIRM became Effective (Man-Made Post-FIRM Conditions). § Specifically the addition of Fill to a parcel or parcels of land that elevates the existing ground elevations “to or above” the BFE. § These requests Requires Community Approval for FEMA to Remove them. 34

Map Revisions Ø Community Approval for LOMR-F request is Accomplished through the completion of Map Revisions Ø Community Approval for LOMR-F request is Accomplished through the completion of the Community Acknowledgement Form. Ø The requirements of the Community Acknowledgement form change significantly on June 4, 2001. Ø Prior to the change, Communities only acknowledged that: 1) Fill is being placed in the Floodplain and 2) It is NOT being placed in the Floodway 35

Map Revisions Ø After the revision to the procedures, Communities are now also certifying, Map Revisions Ø After the revision to the procedures, Communities are now also certifying, that the item being removed is: “Reasonable Safe from Flooding” Ø “Reasonable Safe from Flooding” means: “base flood waters will not inundate the land or damage structures to be removed from the SFHA and that any subsurface waters related to the base flood will not damage existing or proposed buildings. ” 36

Map Revisions Ø FEMA has provided three (3) documents to assist Communities in making Map Revisions Ø FEMA has provided three (3) documents to assist Communities in making this Determination. 1) The Published Final Rule Change that became effective on June 4, 2001. 2) Technical Bulletin 10 -01 titled “Ensuring That Structures Built on Fill In or Near Special Flood Hazard Areas Are Reasonably Safe From Flooding”. 3) Procedure Memorandum No. 22 Ø All three Documents are included in your packet. 37

Map Revisions Ø LOMR-F can be submitted for Single Structures or Parcels and for Map Revisions Ø LOMR-F can be submitted for Single Structures or Parcels and for Multiple Structures or Parcels. Ø Conditional LOMR-F’s (CLOMR-F) can also be Requested. § Once again these conditional Requests are based on Proposed Conditions and only provides FEMA’s opinion for your project (not a Removal). § Can be good practice for large developments. 38

Map Revisions Ø Individuals wanting to remove Structures or Parcels from the SFHA need Map Revisions Ø Individuals wanting to remove Structures or Parcels from the SFHA need to complete the appropriate MT (mitigation) Package Form. They are: § Mitigation Form Package Easy (MT-EZ). § Double-Sided single page form. § Mitigation Form Package One (MT-1). § § Property Information Form. Elevation Information Form. Community Acknowledgement Form. Payment Form. 39

Map Revisions Ø MT-EZ can only be used for: § Residential Single Parcel or Map Revisions Ø MT-EZ can only be used for: § Residential Single Parcel or Single Structure LOMA’s. Ø MT-EZ cannot be used for: § Multiple Requests. § Requests Based on Fill. § Conditional Request or § Request to Physically change the FIRM. Ø Current MT-EZ form expires on September 30, 2010. 40

Map Revisions Ø MT-1 can be used for: § Single Parcel or Structure & Map Revisions Ø MT-1 can be used for: § Single Parcel or Structure & Multiple Parcel or Structure requests. § Requests Based on Fill (LOMR-F). § Conditional Requests (CLOMA or CLOMR-F). § Non-Residential Parcels and Structures. Ø MT-1 cannot be used for: § Request to Physically change the FIRM. Ø Current MT-1 forms expired on June 30, 2007 but has been extended until the new form is available. 41

Map Revisions Ø The MT-EZ and MT-1 Forms are available online at FEMA’s NFIP Map Revisions Ø The MT-EZ and MT-1 Forms are available online at FEMA’s NFIP forms homepage: www. fema. gov/plan/prevent/fhm/frm_form. shtm Ø The NFIP forms homepage is where you will also find the digital copies of the Elevation & Floodproofing Certificates. Ø Forms can also be obtained by calling 877 FEMA-MAP (1 -877 -336 -2627). Ø Or by Calling SEMA (1 -573 -526 -9115) 42

Map Revisions Ø Revisions that physically Change the Effective or Revised Map are either: Map Revisions Ø Revisions that physically Change the Effective or Revised Map are either: § Letter of Map Revisions (LOMR) or § Physical Map Revisions (PMR). Ø Most submitted LOMR’s are processed as a LOMR but occasionally FEMA will “upgrade” the LOMR to a PMR. Ø LOMR’s are needed to incorporate Post. FIRM development changes into the FEMA defined SFHA. 43

Map Revisions Ø LOMR’s need to be submitted for Changes or Developments that: § Map Revisions Ø LOMR’s need to be submitted for Changes or Developments that: § Physically change to the watercourse or floodplain boundaries due to development or natural forces. § To incorporate better technical data into your existing study (topographic data for example). § To correct known FEMA study errors. § To provided better hydrologic or hydraulic methodology to FEMA. 44

Map Revisions Ø There is also a Conditional LOMR (CLOMR) process. Ø Unlike Amendments, Map Revisions Ø There is also a Conditional LOMR (CLOMR) process. Ø Unlike Amendments, there are two (2) circumstances where the 44 CFR requires a CLOMR’s to be submitted before a LOMR can be issued: 1) If the proposed changes are going to increase existing BFE’s by more than 1 -foot or 2) If a FEMA defined Regulatory Floodway is going to be altered. 45

Map Revisions Ø The CLOMR process allows property owners, developers, communities, and regional agencies Map Revisions Ø The CLOMR process allows property owners, developers, communities, and regional agencies to obtain verification from FEMA of the affects of a proposed development might have on the flood hazards shown on the effective FIRM. Ø Required because of the Legal Significance and Due Process issues associated with the NFIP related documents discussed earlier. 46

A Few Revision Notes Ø Elevation Certificates DO NOT: § Change Flood Insurance Risk A Few Revision Notes Ø Elevation Certificates DO NOT: § Change Flood Insurance Risk Zones on the FIRM. § Are not LOMA’s or LOMR-F’s. § Do not waive Federal Mandatory Purchase Requirements. Ø Only FEMA with Community Approval can Revised the Effective Map. Ø LOMA’s & LOMR’s are Valid until the Map is Revised. § LOMA’s may be revalidated on the Summary of Map Amendment (SOMA) Document. § LOMR’s should be Incorporated into the new Map. 47

FEMA/NFIP Ø Several Tutorials are available on line at: www. fema. gov Ø FEMA FEMA/NFIP Ø Several Tutorials are available on line at: www. fema. gov Ø FEMA tutorial Homepage is located at: www. fema. gov/plan/prevent/fhm/ot_main. shtm Ø Using FEMA Map Tutorial is located at: www. fema. gov/plan/prevent/fhm/ot_firmr. shtm Ø Elevation Certificate Tutorial is located at: http: //training. nfipstat. com/ecsurveyor 48

FEMA/NFIP Ø Copies of FEMA FIS’s, FIRM’s, and DFIRM’s can be viewed & ordered FEMA/NFIP Ø Copies of FEMA FIS’s, FIRM’s, and DFIRM’s can be viewed & ordered from the Map Service Center (MSC) at: http: //msc. fema. gov Ø The MSC can also be reached by calling: 800 -358 -9616 Ø MT-EZ & MT-1 Questions can be direct to: 877 -FEMA-MAP (877 -336 -2627) 49

FEMA/NFIP Ø MT-2 Questions can be submitted by email directly to the “Ask the FEMA/NFIP Ø MT-2 Questions can be submitted by email directly to the “Ask the Expert” Link at: [email protected] com Ø Mapping Information Platform (MIP) is at: http: //hazards. fema. gov/femaportal. wps/portal Ø Letter of Map Change Status is at: www. fema. gov/plan/prevent/fhm/st_main. shtm Ø NFIP Forms Homepage is at: www. fema. gov/plan/prevent/fhm/frm_form. shtm 50

FEMA Contact FEMA Region VII includes the States of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri & Nebraska. FEMA Contact FEMA Region VII includes the States of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri & Nebraska. The Mitigation Specialist for the State of Missouri: Connie Wisniewski, CFM 9221 Ward Parkway, Suite 300 Kansas City, MO 64114 -3372 816 -283 -7013 51

Questions & Answers Thank You Very Much!!! Questions & Answers Thank You Very Much!!!