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Fairs/Exhibitions Past, Present, Future (Perfect) 1 Fairs/Exhibitions Past, Present, Future (Perfect) 1

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History n Ancient Times n Middle Ages n Industrial Revolution n Current Times 4 History n Ancient Times n Middle Ages n Industrial Revolution n Current Times 4

History–I: Ancient times n n n Ancient Egypt, Greek Civilization, Roman Empire Romans began History–I: Ancient times n n n Ancient Egypt, Greek Civilization, Roman Empire Romans began to host fairs to permanent places developing a kind of "Fair Industry". Bible, a fair taking place in the town of Zor (now part of Lebanon) is mentioned in the Old Testament Herod King of Judea (37 -4 B. C. ) was the first to build a permanent fair centre (3, 200 m 2) visitors of this fair centre came from Syria, Egypt, Italy, Greece, Spain and France. 5

History-II: Middle Ages n The term History-II: Middle Ages n The term "fair", comes from the Latin word "feria", meaning a religious festival, n The same sense in German - "Messe", which derives from the Latin term "Missa„ (the service is over, (let the fair begin)) – usually held in the church square. n The first fair of this kind was the "Foire de Saint Denis" near Paris, founded by King Dagobert in 629, and which by 710 was already attracting more than 700 merchants. n The first fair which had not only cash-and-carry products, but also production means, was the Leipzig fair (Germany) held in year 1165. n Utrecht - Bishop Godebald gave the city a charter in 1127, which included the permit to organize "fairs" outside of the town ramparts. At that time, the city of Utrecht already organized 4 fairs annually n Zagreb – 1243 – King Béla the 4 th gave permit to organise fairs 6

History-III: Industrial Revolution (19 th cent. ) n n The process of industrialization, required History-III: Industrial Revolution (19 th cent. ) n n The process of industrialization, required new sales and distribution channels, Evolved from sites for direct sales to sites displaying a broad range of available goods: samples were exhibited. Sample fairs, with a wide range of investment and consumer goods, dominated the fair scene in Europe up to the middle of the 20 th century. In addition, numerous exhibitions of national significance were organized, dedicated to a specific theme, e. g. electricity, health or mechanical engineering, and primarily aimed at the general public. 7

History-IV: World Expos n Starting from mid 19 th century – desire to learn History-IV: World Expos n Starting from mid 19 th century – desire to learn the world, know much more about each other n Cultural, touristic, wish to attract, to dazzle others (competition started) n Countries invite others to visit – tourism started to become a big business 8

Current Times n n n 20 th, 21 st century After 2 nd WW Current Times n n n 20 th, 21 st century After 2 nd WW - trend of rising specialization of the economy. A large amount of specialized fairs, and consequently a broader diversity of fair locations, arose. (Hannover) Despite all factors, Internet etc. fairs today - as temporary marketplaces - continue to rank as one of the most dynamic and effective sales and marketing tools in existence. Fairs, as a complex mixture of information, communication and entertainment, are truly the only marketing communications media allowing the full exploitation of all five senses in an environment of face-to-face interaction. 21 st century, continuously growing variety of fairs and exhibitions: fair organizers become active on a worldwide level, while engaged in international co-operations. 9

Types of Fairs & Exhibitions Trade Fairs vs. Exhibitions International, National, and Regional Types Types of Fairs & Exhibitions Trade Fairs vs. Exhibitions International, National, and Regional Types of Fairs & Exhibitions 10

Trade Fairs vs. Exhibitions n n Trade fairs - main product range of one Trade Fairs vs. Exhibitions n n Trade fairs - main product range of one or more industry sectors Mainly sell it on the basis of samples. Trade Fairs predominantly attract trade and business visitors (B 2 B). Exhibitions - companies present a representative product range, Sell it or provide information (sales promotion). Exhibitions predominantly attract the general public. (B 2 C) 11

International, National, and Regional n n n Depend on range of visitor interest (how International, National, and Regional n n n Depend on range of visitor interest (how far they come from) It shows importance but also has a scale in secondary business advantages International: foreign visitors must represent at least 5% National (visitors coming from almost all the given country) Regional (visitors coming from a specific province or county) 12

Impact of EU n Substantial impact of EU on regional development – the Euro-regional Impact of EU n Substantial impact of EU on regional development – the Euro-regional – Overcoming century-long handicap of being outcast (border areas) – Excellent example Maastricht § Multi-functional 13

Types of Fairs n n n n General capital goods General consumer goods Specialized Types of Fairs n n n n General capital goods General consumer goods Specialized trade fair/exhibition (B 2 B) Multi-branch trade fair/exhibition - more than one business sector. General trade fair/exhibition - a mix of all areas of life. Corporate exhibition - only one manufacturer. Internet, virtual fairs – quazi – permanent displays of products and services online, but they do not (and will never) replace physical fairs. 14

The Product „Fair/Exhibition” The Exhibition Ground or The Product „Fair/Exhibition” The Exhibition Ground or "Hardware" The Event and its Related Services or "Software" Types of Fair Organizers 15

The Marketing Functions of Fairs & Exhibitions Basic Functions Promoting, Launching, and Selling Assessing, The Marketing Functions of Fairs & Exhibitions Basic Functions Promoting, Launching, and Selling Assessing, Learning, and Interacting Return On Investment 16

Basic Functions n n n To facilitate supply and demand to meet, provide information, Basic Functions n n n To facilitate supply and demand to meet, provide information, and show technical trends and developments, all in one time and in one place, using face-to-face communication. Unique opportunity for achieving trade objectives, because they are the most efficient way to reach a complete market audience and do business all in one shot. Are also an indicator of economic and market trends, directions and speed of future developments. Fairs & exhibitions are more than just a marketing tool, they are an entire market place. Serve as a place for personal contacts Serve as a focus point of personal education 17

Promote, Launch, Sell n n n n n Helps to enter new markets Win Promote, Launch, Sell n n n n n Helps to enter new markets Win new customers and collect high quality leads, Launch new products or services, Show and promote full range of products or services, Accelerate the selling process, and generate sales, Entertain existing and loyal customers, Renew contacts with past customers, Build and increase company and brand image, Consolidate public relations, Generate media interest. 18

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Assess, Learn, Interact Cost-effective to be directly in the heart of a business sector, Assess, Learn, Interact Cost-effective to be directly in the heart of a business sector, enable to: n · Learn more about the clients' expectations, n · Get immediate feedback on product range and corporate image, n · Build and enlarge prospects' database, n · Research the market and competition, and assess market potentials, n · Keep up-to-date with innovations and new technologies, n · Maintain a presence in the marketplace, n · Locate possible agents and distributors, n · Initiate cooperation, alliances, and joint ventures, n · Recruit new staff. 20

Return On Investment Has become critical factor n Generate high Return On Investment, time Return On Investment Has become critical factor n Generate high Return On Investment, time and money will be greatly refunded (if you do it right) n In addition, costs spent in the selling process are worth more when backed by fairs and exhibitions (quality of contacts) n CEIR study has shown that exhibition leads cost 56% less to close than field sales calls. n 21

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Important Factor for Economic Development n n n Secondary and additional effects Image – Important Factor for Economic Development n n n Secondary and additional effects Image – city, region – good things, success relates to this place Bring in foreign working culture – build bridge between cultures Generates business, money, strength to city – it is good (at least it is possible) to live here My stories of Hannover, Poznan, Brünn etc. 25

Secondary effects n n n Exhibitors and visitors spend a lot Exhibition services, stand Secondary effects n n n Exhibitors and visitors spend a lot Exhibition services, stand building, design, advertising, printing etc. Hotels, restaurants, temporary workforce, hostesses, petrol, police, travel Additional purchases Its employment effects Its additional tax revenues (mostly white business) 26

Impact n Revenue of fair organiser = X n Additional revenue in the city, Impact n Revenue of fair organiser = X n Additional revenue in the city, region X * 5 -7 n Additional tax revenues: X ~ 2 X n Employment retainment 27