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F. Q. 2 What migration movements are there within New Zealand what are the F. Q. 2 What migration movements are there within New Zealand what are the associated issues? Why are people moving from place to place? • People migrate because they want to improve their lives e. g more money, better education etc • For people to think of moving life must be either: ØBetter in another place (pull factor) ØBad where they live (push factor) For most it’s a mixture of both

Look how mobile we are : how often do we move in our lifetimes? Look how mobile we are : how often do we move in our lifetimes? Young people are more likely to move than other groups. 31% of all people who move from one area to another are likely to be aged between 15 -24 years. TASK: Draw a star diagram to give reasons why young people are more likely to move houses than any other age groups. HWK: Ask your parents how many homes they lived in between the ages of 15 -24 years. Do they fit this idea?

 • Moving affects both the region they have come from and the region • Moving affects both the region they have come from and the region they move to. Communities need to be aware of this so that changes can be made to cater for the new population. • Although people move in almost all directions, there are some patterns of movement that are more dominant than others.

Dominant population movements • Northward Drift • Rural to urban migration Dominant population movements • Northward Drift • Rural to urban migration

F. Q. 2 What migration movements are there within New Zealand what are the F. Q. 2 What migration movements are there within New Zealand what are the associated issues? Head up F. Q. 2… (we’re starting a new focussing question so write as above) Then: • Complete the activities in the box on page 51 • Complete the activities in the box on page 52 • Get an outline map of NZ from Ms De Souza and copy the arrows from the 13. 2 diagram • Get ‘Rural- Urban’ drift’ question sheet from Ms De Souza and complete

Northward Drift: The population moves north • • • The graph shows that the Northward Drift: The population moves north • • • The graph shows that the North Island has grown a lot faster than the South Island. Study the graph to find out which year the North Island ‘overtook’ the South Island. Is the difference getting less or more pronounced? Give 2 reasons for the rapid growth of the North Island.

Directions of Internal movement 1986 -1991 TASK: Using the diagram (13. 2 in textbook) Directions of Internal movement 1986 -1991 TASK: Using the diagram (13. 2 in textbook) and the information on the next slide: • Convert the information shown by the arrows on the map into short paragraphs. • Set the paragraphs out in sentences that: – Make a general statement about a group of arrows. – Explain the movement more exactly. – Suggest reasons for the movement.

Why do people move north? TASK: write the following points down, listing next to Why do people move north? TASK: write the following points down, listing next to each point whether it was a push factor or a pull factor (pushing out of southern areas, pulling people towards the north) • End of the Otago gold rushes 1860’s. • Maori wars ended brought peace and safety in the North Island for European settlement. • Immigration policies encouraged people to live in the North Island. • Opening up of the kauri fields in Northland. • Development of dairy farming in the N. I. • Increased urbanisation caused more diversity in jobs in the North Island • The significance of Auckland as an urban area.

Rural to urban drift Use pages 53 -55 of the Population Studies textbook to Rural to urban drift Use pages 53 -55 of the Population Studies textbook to complete the following: 1. Is rural- urban drift simply from country to town? 2. Why do people move to large towns/ large cities? 3. What are the two main factors for people moving within cities? 4. Multi-line graph (table and activity on next slide) 5. Copy diagram 13. 5 on page 54

Step-wise migration • Rural-urban drift is not simply from country to town. • People Step-wise migration • Rural-urban drift is not simply from country to town. • People often move in steps eg country areas to small towns to small cities then finally to a big city. • Called stepwise migration Q: Why do people move in small steps from country areas to cities? E. G Matamata- Cambridge- Hamilton- Auckland

Why do people move to large towns/ large cities? • Mechanisation on farms reduced Why do people move to large towns/ large cities? • Mechanisation on farms reduced employment. • Greater accessibility to health and education. Also entertainment. • Range of jobs available. • To follow family members who have moved. • Uncertainty of income in the country regions

Rural and urban population percentages in New Zealand, 1901 -2003 • Use the table Rural and urban population percentages in New Zealand, 1901 -2003 • Use the table below to draw a multi-line graph of the data – be sure to give your graph a title (including dates), label the axes, give your graph a key (one colour for rural and another for urban populations) and remember to start the graph on the y axis. Year Rural Population % Urban Population % 1901 54. 4 45. 6 1926 31. 61 68. 39 1945 25. 8 74. 2 1966 20. 7 79. 3 1986 15. 1 84. 9 1991 15. 0 85. 0 2003 12. 0 88. 0

Push/ Pull model of rural to urban migration Push/ Pull model of rural to urban migration

Intra-urban migration: people moving within cities • Family circumstances change. • Income and jobs Intra-urban migration: people moving within cities • Family circumstances change. • Income and jobs change. • Housing needs change. • Different areas attract different types of people.

Moving within a city- changes with stages of life Moving within a city- changes with stages of life

Examples of intra-urban movement in Auckland • Leaving home, studying at university e. g Examples of intra-urban movement in Auckland • Leaving home, studying at university e. g Mt Albert to Onehunga (flatting). • First job e. g apartment in Eden Terrace, flat in Grey Lynn/ Ponsonby • Marriage – renting house in Blockhouse Bay • First home – purchase home in Avondale • Bigger family home in Mt Albert with arrival of first child • Larger family home in Mt Eden – stay until retire • Retirement area in Orewa.

Inter-urban migration • Migration between cities. E. G from Wellington to Auckland • Why Inter-urban migration • Migration between cities. E. G from Wellington to Auckland • Why does this occur? – Jobs often the main reason for this movement.

Counter flows • Urban to rural – looking for a lifestyle change e. g… Counter flows • Urban to rural – looking for a lifestyle change e. g… • North to South – moving to South Island – change in lifestyle, cheaper accommodation, reunite with family. • Large cities to small towns/coastal towns – retirement, cheaper housing costs.

F. Q. 2 What are the effects of movements on the places of origin, F. Q. 2 What are the effects of movements on the places of origin, destination and migrants themselves What are the effects of movements on the places of origin • Rural Depopulation What are the effects of movements on the destination • Suburban sprawl • Infill housing • Gentrification

Suburban sprawl • Urbanisation has caused suburban sprawl • Trams brought the 1 st Suburban sprawl • Urbanisation has caused suburban sprawl • Trams brought the 1 st wave of suburban development to NZ’s towns/ cities • But after 1930’s cars were more popular!

 • Rapid urbanisation after the development of motorways caused the spread of residential • Rapid urbanisation after the development of motorways caused the spread of residential suburbs in Auckland Wellington…which caused: – Commuter traffic – Traffic congestion – Loss of quality farmland

Recent trends • Infill housing: subdivision of property, to build more houses • Gentrification: Recent trends • Infill housing: subdivision of property, to build more houses • Gentrification: renovation of poor and working class urban neighbourhoods and the displacement of the original residents

What differences are there in living conditions within NZ? Living conditions worksheet What differences are there in living conditions within NZ? Living conditions worksheet