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Exploring Task-based Curriculum Development in a Hybrid Web-based Conversational Chinese Program Yao Hill and Exploring Task-based Curriculum Development in a Hybrid Web-based Conversational Chinese Program Yao Hill and Stephen Tschudi [email protected] com stephen. [email protected] edu University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

Our Hybrid Web-based Conversational Chinese Program n Two-year conversational Mandarin program (CHN 111, 112, Our Hybrid Web-based Conversational Chinese Program n Two-year conversational Mandarin program (CHN 111, 112, 211, and 212) n Students work with materials themselves following the online schedule q q q n n Textbook, listening workbook, and CDs Online listening exercise Online weekly quiz Students meet in class once a week Outside-class interaction is done through online forums with audio tool independent / face-to-face / interactive online

TBLT Curriculum Design Model Needs Input • Constraints • Context (values) • Resources Curriculum TBLT Curriculum Design Model Needs Input • Constraints • Context (values) • Resources Curriculum Design • Scope • Material • Sequence • Teaching • Pedagogy Outcomes • Assessment • Target tasks E v a l u a t i o n Incorporated: Long and Norris (2000), Long and Crookes (1993), Brown (1995), and Doughty and Long (2003)

Curriculum-wide Needs Analysis Motivation study in Fall 05 & Class evaluation in Spring 06 Curriculum-wide Needs Analysis Motivation study in Fall 05 & Class evaluation in Spring 06 Student Survey Fall 06: 1. Motivation – travel & speak to NS 2. Language performance preference – fluency + pronunciation + socialcultural knowledge 3. Interested topics (from the textbook) – directions and transportation + food Task-situations & task-types 1. In-depth interview with one previous learner 2. Open-ended questions to four learners 3. Survey questionnaire (adapted from Iwai et al, 1999, Japanese Language needs analysis) 4. Instructors judgment on task sequence Assessment 1. 2. 3. Teachers’ ratings of students online, tutoring oral performance. Pre-test and post-test of learning outcome, rated by the instructor and outside rater Free conversation oral interview D i r e c t i o n s & t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Needs Analysis • Directions and transportation language use situation identification and learning needs from experienced, inexperienced, and no-experience travelers. • Learners want to learn chunk language, culture, and safety issues. • Phone Interview native speakers on culture. Material Development 1. Semi-authentic discourse collection from: • Four native speakers or 2 nd language speakers in Honolulu • Two natives from China by phone • Collected authentic discourse in China in Summer 07 2. Interviewed textbook writer for pedagogical task sequencing structure. Pedagogy and task sequencing 1. Schemata building and awareness raising: expectations and experience in the target situation 2. Input phase: The authentic discourse + input enhancement 3. Language and meaning mapping: • Discourse structure identification • matching words and pictures • Identify focal direction and transition vocabulary in context • Learner initiated learning 4. Output online: Recording simple directions according to the picture; leave a phone message Evaluation 5. Output face-to-face: information-gap 6. Focus on Form: online 7. Culture enhancement: notes on culture Assessment

Needs Analysis Process program evaluation course-level survey (n=21) Spring 2006 Fall 2006 broader-scope survey Needs Analysis Process program evaluation course-level survey (n=21) Spring 2006 Fall 2006 broader-scope survey (n=93) Fall 2006 interviews on needs in directions and transportation discourse collection

F 06 Survey to CHN 111 and 211 N=21, 10 from CHN 111, and F 06 Survey to CHN 111 and 211 N=21, 10 from CHN 111, and 11 from CHN 211 Importance of the topics in the textbook

Simulated authentic discourse collection n n Researcher “chatted” individually with four Chinesespeaking classmates (two Simulated authentic discourse collection n n Researcher “chatted” individually with four Chinesespeaking classmates (two from Mainland China and two from Taiwan) Researcher elicited directions from them q q q n n close places (e. g. , Safeway and Gym) medium-distance places (e. g. , zoo, shopping center) far places (e. g. , Pearl Harbor) Elicitation not “for right now” but “to use later” Asked about unfamiliar places (route not actually known)

Our discourse analysis focus (after Canale and Swain, 1980; Bartlett, 2005; Holmes, 2005; Winn, Our discourse analysis focus (after Canale and Swain, 1980; Bartlett, 2005; Holmes, 2005; Winn, 2005) q Discourse structure and components n q Lexical chunks specific to the tasks n q q then immediately… go to the bottom… A turns into B… Task-essential grammatical functions n q e. g. , negotiation: “How are you getting there? ” repetition; topicalization; renomination modals (prediction) Speech acts Features specific to naturally occurring discourse Negotiation of meaning n n n Clarification request (The one in front? ) Repetition request (So I… and then what? ) Backchanneling (Ao, o) next

Yao: Also, I want to know zhege-filler, whether you know how to get to Yao: Also, I want to know zhege-filler, whether you know how to get to the Safeway Supermarket from Moore Hall? Bei: Okay, Safeway Supermarket. Two ways. Do you take bus? Do you take bus (Taiwan Mandarin). Yao: Sometimes take bus. Bei: If you take bus, you can at Maile Way, that is, the bus stop from Moore Hall to Maile Way. You can take No. 6 bus to get there. … Yao: Good, good. Thank you. Then how get I get there if I walk? … Bei: Good, then, we can see that there is a parking lot besides the Korean Center. Yao: Yes. Bei: Yes, then that parking lot, you walk through that parking lot. After you walk through the parking lot, you can see a church. Yao: oh, yea, St. Francis Church. Bei: From that church place go straight, and keep going straight, (you) can see a parking lot. That parking lot side is a school. If you see that parking lot and that school, you are at the right direction. (Yao: oh) Now, go straight. When (you) go straight you will leave the school gate, you then will meet a fork road (Yao: uh) one leading left, one pointing ahead, at this moment, please go ahead, and take the smaller road. Yao: oh. Bei: Go straight all along. Yao: Isn’t that road very small? Bei: Very small. Very very small. Then if you keep going forward, you’ll see a green house, on your left-hand side. Yao: Oh, oh. About how long will it take? Bei: About 3 -5 minutes. Bei: Good, then, we can see that there is a parking lot besides the Korean Center. Yao: Yes. Bei: Yes, then that parking lot, you walk through that parking lot. After you walk through the parking lot, you can see a church. Back

Yao: Also, I want to know zhege-filler, whether you know how to get to Yao: Also, I want to know zhege-filler, whether you know how to get to the Safeway Supermarket from Moore Hall? Bei: Okay, Safeway Supermarket. Two ways. Do you take bus? Do you take bus (Taiwan Mandarin). Yao: Sometimes take bus. Bei: If you take bus, you can at Maile Way, that is, the bus stop from Moore Hall to Maile Way. You can take No. 6 bus to get there. … Yao: Good, good. Thank you. Then how get I get there if I walk? lot Bei: Good, then, we can see that there is a parking … besides we can see that Center. Bei: Good, then, the Koreanthere is a parking lot besides the Korean Center. Yao: Yes. … After you walk through the parking lot, you can see a Bei: Yes, then that parking lot, you walk through that parking lot. After you walk through the parking lot, Church. you can see a church. Yao: oh, yea, St. Francis Church. … From that church place go going straight, (you) can see a parking Bei: From that church place go straight, and keep going lot. That parking lot side is a school. you see that straight, (you) oh) Now, go. Ifstraight. Whenparkinggo straight you will leave are at theis lot and that school, you the school right direction. (Yao: can see a parking(you) That parking lot side then will agate, you please gomeetsee that(Yao: uh) one lot and thatpointing ahead, at this school. If you a fork road the smaller road. left, one school, you are parking leading moment, ahead, and take Yao: oh. at the right direction. (Yao: oh) Now, go straight. When (you) Bei: Go straight all along. go straight you will Yao: Isn’t that road very small? leave the school gate, you then will meet Bei: Very small. Very very small. Then if you keep going forward, you’ll see a green house, on ayour left-hand side. fork road (Yao: uh) one leading left, one pointing ahead, at Yao: Oh, moment, how long will it take? this oh, oh. About please go ahead, and take the smaller road. Bei: About 3 -5 minutes. …Then if you keep going forward, you’ll see a green house, on your left-hand side. Back

Curriculum-wide Needs Analysis Motivation study in Fall 05 & Class evaluation in Spring 06 Curriculum-wide Needs Analysis Motivation study in Fall 05 & Class evaluation in Spring 06 Student Survey Fall 06: 1. Motivation – travel & speak to NS 2. Language performance preference – fluency + pronunciation + socialcultural knowledge 3. Interested topics (from the textbook) – directions and transportation + food Task-situations & task-types 1. In-depth interview with one previous learner 2. Open-ended questions to four learners 3. Survey questionnaire (adapted from Iwai et al, 1999, Japanese Language needs analysis) 4. Instructors judgment on task sequence Assessment 1. 2. 3. Teachers’ ratings of students online, tutoring oral performance. Pre-test and post-test of learning outcome, rated by the instructor and outside rater Free conversation oral interview D i r e c t i o n s & t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Needs Analysis • Directions and transportation language use situation identification and learning needs from experienced, inexperienced, and no-experience travelers. • Learners want to learn chunk language, culture, and safety issues. • Phone Interview native speakers on culture. Material Development 1. Semi-authentic discourse collection from: • Four native speakers or 2 nd language speakers in Honolulu • Two natives from China by phone • Collected authentic discourse in China in Summer 07 2. Interviewed textbook writer for pedagogical task sequencing structure. Pedagogy and task sequencing 1. Schemata building and awareness raising: expectations and experience in the target situation 2. Input phase: The authentic discourse + input enhancement 3. Language and meaning mapping: • Discourse structure identification • matching words and pictures • Identify focal direction and transition vocabulary in context • Learner initiated learning 4. Output online: Recording simple directions according to the picture; leave a phone message Evaluation 5. Output face-to-face: information-gap 6. Focus on Form: online 7. Culture enhancement: notes on culture Assessment

Unit task sequence n n n Activation of learner schemata and provision of social-cultural Unit task sequence n n n Activation of learner schemata and provision of social-cultural information Authentic discourse + input enhancement Language and meaning mapping (task as unit of analysis): q q n n Output face-to-face: information-gap map task Output online: q q n identify discourse structure match words and pictures identify focal direction and transition vocabulary in context learner-initiated learning: student-generated questions record simple directions according to the picture leave a phone message Ongoing assessment with individual feedback (focus on form) independent / face-to-face / interactive online

Day 1: Authentic input and getting the general structure n n Students were asked Day 1: Authentic input and getting the general structure n n Students were asked to view the dialogue with animated Google map: Students were asked to identify the general dialogue discourse structure: Ordering web exercise

Day 2 and 3: Vocabulary and Culture n n n Students were asked to Day 2 and 3: Vocabulary and Culture n n n Students were asked to listen to focal direction/location and transitional vocabulary in discourse context as web-based exercise. Students posted their experience with the exercise and questions in the Q&A forum. Students shared their cultural experience on direction asking, and compare it with experienced travelers’ and native speaker’s experiences Days 4 & 5

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Individual reflection, self-initiated learning I really like the fill-in-the-blank format… I learned Individual reflection, self-initiated learning I really like the fill-in-the-blank format… I learned "zhíjie", which I didn't know before. . . This was a fruitful exercise but it took a while… Lots of interesting phrases for giving travel directions and I have some questions. What does che 1 dao 4 mean, and I guess that dan 1 xing 2 lu 4 is freeway. What about qi 2 dao 4 di 3?

I really enjoyed the narration with the map because it really helped me to I really enjoyed the narration with the map because it really helped me to better understand how fluent mandarin speaking people explain directions in a coherent way. T: Did you notice how she re-stated every single landmark -- like, "You go to Billy's house. OK, and Billy's house, from there you go to Janey's place. And then once you are at Janey's place. . . " Yeah, I noticed she repeated everything. At first, I thought it was kind of weird but as I listened [more] I actually thought it helped in making sure I know what area she was talking about. Back

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Days 4 & 5: Face-to-face tutoring and post-tutoring tasks n n Face-to-face: information gap Days 4 & 5: Face-to-face tutoring and post-tutoring tasks n n Face-to-face: information gap map task Online task 1: Where are you going from Beijing Railway Station — modeled exercise

First year output First year output

Second year output Second year output

Days 4&5: Face-to-face tutoring and post-tutoring tasks n n n Face-to-face: information gap map Days 4&5: Face-to-face tutoring and post-tutoring tasks n n n Face-to-face: information gap map task Online task 1: Where are you going from Beijing Railway Station — modeled exercise Online task 2: Leave a phone message to give directions to your friend—scaffolded

Constraints n Time: q q q n discourse collection and analysis needs analysis and Constraints n Time: q q q n discourse collection and analysis needs analysis and evaluation online activities Resources: q Only free software and resources n n q Cam. Studio – live screen-capture Hot Potatoes – Java. Script-based quiz/exercise Audacity – sound editing, MP 3 generation Google. Maps – Satellite view mostly self-trained

Reflections n n Work on small pieces; one piece at a time Seek collaboration Reflections n n Work on small pieces; one piece at a time Seek collaboration Be practical Act upon information collected information action reflection n Undertake professional development: theory and technology skills

What we can see: peer Learner instructor task What we can see: peer Learner instructor task

Carrying things forward n n n Investigate learner outcomes using data Analyze authentic discourse Carrying things forward n n n Investigate learner outcomes using data Analyze authentic discourse on more topics of interest (shopping, restaurant) Systematic syllabus and online material development Improve achievement assessment system Summative evaluation

Mahalo! yaohill@gmail. com stephen. tschudi@hawaii. edu Mahalo! [email protected] com stephen. [email protected] edu

Simple summary of learners’ output Topicalization Modal Renomination Repetition Restatement/ Elaboration Task 1 Train Simple summary of learners’ output Topicalization Modal Renomination Repetition Restatement/ Elaboration Task 1 Train Station (n=8) 0 2 2 2 4 Student # 0 1 1 2 1 Function # 0 12 12 1 2 Student # O N E Function # 0 6 4 1 2 Task 2 City Mill (n=7) Task 1 Train Station (n=13) T W O Function # 4 29 26 4 3 Student # 3 12 9 3 3 Function # 2 39 33 2 1 Student # 1 11 10 2 1 Task 2 City Mill (n=12)