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Exploration and Colonization of America Exploration and Colonization of America

Pre-Contact North Carolina • • Indigenous – people native to an area 20, 000 Pre-Contact North Carolina • • Indigenous – people native to an area 20, 000 BC – people arrive in North America 3 early Native American cultures A. Paleo-Indian - Nomads B. Archaic – Hunter-Gatherers C. Woodland/Mississippian – Hunter/Farmers Tribute – providing money or goods for help and protection

West Africa • Societies were similar to North America • Carried on most of West Africa • Societies were similar to North America • Carried on most of their trade with Europe and Asia • Became the center of the world’s slave trade • Slaves • A. War Prisoners • B. Criminals • C. People kidnapped from other tribes

Europe • Middle Ages – 500 to 1500 A. D. – widespread starvation, poverty, Europe • Middle Ages – 500 to 1500 A. D. – widespread starvation, poverty, disease and warfare in Europe • The Renaissance – the rebirth of art, literature, and education • Christianity becomes main religion of Europe • Crusades – brought Europe into contact with Asia, Europeans gained desire for Asian goods • Marco Polo from Italy to China; wrote book about adventures; made people want to travel • New technologies – ships, sails, compass, guns • Expanding populations – needed more space

 • Trade increased – merchants wanted access to Asia – spices, silk, porcelain • Trade increased – merchants wanted access to Asia – spices, silk, porcelain • Three G’s—in this order • 1. Gold *any riches (gold, silver, resources) Most important to most explorers • 2. God *to convert natives • 3. Glory *to make a name for themselves • Main trade route was called the Silk Road – long and dangerous land route • Portugal – led European exploration for water route to Asia – Vasco da Gama • Caravels – small, fast ships good for exploring

Caravel Caravel

Christopher Columbus • First European explorers to reach the Americas were Vikings – Leif Christopher Columbus • First European explorers to reach the Americas were Vikings – Leif Eriksson – Canada – around 1000 A. D. • Christopher Columbus – Italian sailor working for Spain – looking for Western water route to Asia • 1492 – 3 ships, 90 men – landed in Caribbean on the island of San Salvador, encountered the Taino tribe • Columbus makes 3 more trips to the New World • Spain is first European country to permanently colonize the New World

Leif Eriksson sights land Christopher Columbus Marco Polo Leif Eriksson sights land Christopher Columbus Marco Polo

Columbus Departs from Spain Columbus Departs from Spain

European Explorations European Explorations

The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Diseases: Smallpox Measles Chicken Pox The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Diseases: Smallpox Measles Chicken Pox Malaria Yellow Fever Influenza The Common Cold New World to Old World: Syphilis

The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Animals: Horses Cattle Pigs Sheep The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Animals: Horses Cattle Pigs Sheep Goats Chickens New World to Old World: Turkeys Llamas Alpacas Guinea Pigs

The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Plants: Rice Wheat Barley Oats The Columbian Biological Exchange Old World to New World: Plants: Rice Wheat Barley Oats Coffee Sugarcane Bananas Melons Olives Dandelions Daisies Clover Ragweed Kentucky Bluegrass New World to Old World: Corn (Maize) Potatoes (White & Sweet Varieties) Beans (Snap, Kidney, & Lima Varieties) Tobacco Peanuts Squash Peppers Tomatoes Pumpkins Pineapples Cacao (Source of Chocolate) Chicle (Source of Chewing Gum) Papayas Manioc (Tapioca) Guavas Avocados

Smallpox Victim Smallpox Victim

Other Explorers • Amerigo Vespucci – 1 st to find the mainland of the Other Explorers • Amerigo Vespucci – 1 st to find the mainland of the Americas – 1499, 1502 • Giovanni da Verrazano – 1 st European to reach North Carolina – 1524 • French – Canada • English – Atlantic coast of North America • Spanish – Central and South America

Amerigo Vespucci Giovanni da Verrazano Amerigo Vespucci Giovanni da Verrazano

Roanoke Voyages • English made 3 voyages to the Outer Banks of North Carolina Roanoke Voyages • English made 3 voyages to the Outer Banks of North Carolina (1584, 1585, 1587); organized by Sir Walter Raleigh (NC capital named for him) • 1 st voyage—led by Arthur Barlowe and Philip Amadas - landed at Hatteras - named land Virginia for Queen Elizabeth (the Virgin Queen) – two local Indians (Manteo and Wanchese) came back to England with them • 2 nd voyage—led by Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane - found Chesapeake Bay, attempted to create military settlement – mostly soldiers who spent their time looking for gold – relied on the Indians to feed them

 • ended in violence with local natives, colony was abandoned • 3 rd • ended in violence with local natives, colony was abandoned • 3 rd voyage—The Lost Colony – settled on Roanoke Island—a colony of men, women, and children led by John White – Virginia Dare - lacked supplies and food – White returns to England, but cannot return for three years – Entire colony is gone when he comes back – No one knows what happened to them.

Sir Walter Raleigh John White Sir Walter Raleigh John White

The Lost Colony The Lost Colony

Jamestown • 1 st permanent English settlement – Virginia in 1607 • John Smith Jamestown • 1 st permanent English settlement – Virginia in 1607 • John Smith (military leader), John Rolfe (tobacco), Pocahontas (married Rolfe, not Smith) • Colony almost did not survive – bad location • 1608 – Starving Time • 1619 (a big year): House of Burgess (1 st representative assembly), English women arrive, Africans brought as Indentured Servants

Jamestown Jamestown

John Rolfe marries Pocahontas John Smith Pocahontas John Rolfe marries Pocahontas John Smith Pocahontas