срсп 2 (англ).pptx
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Equipment and instruments of dental clinic. Passive voice. Подготовил студент 2 -007 стом группы Байметова Арина Проверила Дашкина Т. Г.
Bone Burs • The burs used for the removal of bone are the round bur and fissure bur. A large bone bur similar to an acrylic burmay be usedwhen the surgical procedure involves greater bone surface area (torus) or smoothing of bone edges of the wound.
Scalpel (Handle and Blade) • Handle. Themost commonly used handle in oral surgery is the Bard–Parker no. 3. Its tip may receive different types of blades. • Blades are disposable and are of three different types (nos. 11, 12, and 15). The most common type of blade is no. 15, which is used for flaps and incisions on edentulous alveolar ridges. Blade no. 12 is indicated for incisions in the gingival sulcus and incisions posterior to the teeth, especially in the maxillary tuberosity area. Blade no. 11 is used for small incisions, such as those used for incising abscesses.
Periosteal Elevator • This instrument has many different types of end. The most commonly used periosteal elevator in intraoral surgery is the no. 9 Molt, which has two different ends: a pointed end, used for elevating the interdental papillae of the gingiva, and a broad end, which facilitates elevating the muco periosteum from the bone. The Freer elevator is used for reflecting the gingiva surrounding the tooth before extraction. This instrument is considered suitable, compared to standard elevators, because it is easy to use and has thin anatomic ends. The elevator may also be used for holding the flap after reflecting, facilitating manipulations during the surgical procedure. The Seldin elevator is considered most suitable for this purpose.
Surgical – Anatomic Forceps • Surgical forceps are used for suturing the wound, firmly grasping the tissues while the needle is passed. There are two types of forceps: the long standard surgical forceps, used in posterior areas, and the small, narrow Adson forceps, used in anterior areas. • The beak of the forceps has a wedge-shaped projection or tooth onone side, and a receptor on the other, which fit into each other when the handles are locked. This mechanism allows the forceps to grasp the soft tissues found between the beaks very tightly. Anatomic forceps do not have a wedge-shaped projection, but parallel grooves. This type of forceps is used to aid in the suturing of thewound, as well as grasping small instruments, etc. , during the surgical procedure.
Bone File • This instrument has two ends: one small end another with a large surface. The cutting surface is made up of many small parallel blades, which are set in such a way that only pulling is effective. The bone file is used in oral surgery to smooth bone and not to remove large pieces of bone.
Chisel and Mallets are instruments with heavy-weighted ends. The surfaces of the ends are made of lead or of plastic so that some of the shock is absorbed when the mallet strikes the chisel. The chisels used in oral surgery have different shapes and sizes. Their cutting edges are concave, monobeveled or bibeveled. The bibevel chisel is used for sectioning multi-rooted teeth
Needle Holders Needle holders are used for suturing the wound. The Mayo–Hegar and Mathieu needle holders are considered suitable for this purpose. The first type looks similar to a hemostat and is preferred mainly for intraoral placement of sutures. The hemostat and needle holder have the following differences: • The short beaks of the hemostat are thinner and longer compared to those of the needle holder. • On the needle holder, the internal surface of the short beaks is. grooved and crosshatched, permitting a firmand stable grasp of the needle, while the short beaks of the hemostat have parallel grooves which are perpendicular to the long axis of the instrument • The needle holder can release the needle with simple pressure, because of the gap in the last step of the locking handle, whereas the hemostat requires a special maneuver, because it does not have that gap in the last step of the locking handle.
Extraction Forceps • The simple intra-alveolar extraction is accomplished with the help of extraction forceps and elevators. Each extraction forceps is composed of two parts, which are crossed in such a way that they make up one instrument when used to extract a tooth. The basic components of the extraction forceps are the handle, which is above the hinge, and the beaks, which are below the hinge. The instrument is held in the hand by the handle, upon which pressure is exerted during the extraction. The beaks are the functional component of the forceps and grasp the tooth at the cervical region and remove it fromthe alveolar socket. Because tooth anatomy varies, extraction forceps with specially designed beaks have been manufactured, so that they may be used for specific teeth. So, according to the size and shape of the handles and beaks, the following types exist.
Maxillary Extraction Forceps for the Six Anterior Teeth of the Maxilla. • Beaks that are found on the same level as the handles characterize these forceps, and the beaks are concave and not pointed.
Maxillary Molar Forceps, for the First and Second Molar. • There are two of these forceps: one for the left and one for the right side. Just like the previouslymentionedforceps, they have a slightly curved shape that looks like an “S”. The buccal beak of each forceps has a pointed design, which fits into the buccal bifurcation of the two buccal roots, while the palatal beak is concave and fits into the convex surface of the palatal root.
Maxillary Third Molar Forceps. • These forceps have a slightly curved shape, just like the aforementioned forceps, and are the longest forceps, due to the posterior position of the third molar. Because this tooth varies in shape and size, the beaks of the forceps are concave and smooth (without pointed ends), so that these forceps may be used for extraction of both the left and right thirdmolar of the upper jaw.
Maxillary Root Tip Forceps. • The handles of the root tip forceps are straight, while the beaks are narrow and angle -shaped. The ends of the beaks are concave and without a pointed design.
The Passive Voice to be + Participle II Passive Voice Indefinite Continuous Perfect Continuous Present Past am/are/is given was/were given am/are/is being was/were being given Given has/have been had been given - Future shall/will be given shall/will have been given -
Example: • • • Tooth was tearing doctor Tartar is remove the bur Tooth is treatment did not help The gum was cut with a scalpel Your tooth should be removed immediately