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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Ø Key Terms: Ecology Environmental Studies Ø Why Environmental Studies? Ø Objectives, Scope & Ø Key Terms: Ecology Environmental Studies Ø Why Environmental Studies? Ø Objectives, Scope & Importance of the course

ECOLOGY n Ecology is the science studying the interactions of organisms with their Environment ECOLOGY n Ecology is the science studying the interactions of organisms with their Environment and with one another. It comes from the Greek words ‘oikos (home/habitat) and ‘logos’ ’ (study/science).

What is Environment ? • The term is derived from a French word ‘Environ’ What is Environment ? • The term is derived from a French word ‘Environ’ which means ENCIRCLE. n Scientifically Environment means all of the outside forces, events, and things that act on a thing. The environment is everything that is around something.

n It is the complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political n It is the complex set of physical, geographic, biological, social, cultural and political conditions that surround an individual or organism and that ultimately determines its form and nature of its survival. – from World Bank report on education It includes: 1) All factors living and nonliving that affect an individual organism or population at any point in the life cycle. 2) Set of circumstances surrounding a particular occurrence. 3) All the things that surrounds us.

Environmental Studies ? Environmental studies deals with every issue that affects an organism living Environmental Studies ? Environmental studies deals with every issue that affects an organism living on the earth. n It is an applied science as its seeks practical answers to making human civilization sustainable on the earth’s finite resources. n It is essentially a multidisciplinary approach n Its components include Biology, Geology, Chemistry, Physics, Engineering, Sociology, Health Sciences, Anthropology, Economics, Statistics and Philosophy. n

INTRODUCTION n n Not just collection of information For awareness – social and individual INTRODUCTION n n Not just collection of information For awareness – social and individual Conflict between development and environmental conservation BALANCE At one end it studies how the life process of a tribal community protects the environment surrounding it; On the other hand it probes what will be the effect of state of the art technology on human environment! Thus the scope of environmental studies is extremely wide and covers some aspects of nearly every major discipline.

Objective of this Course n Develop CONCERN for our own environment. n The concern Objective of this Course n Develop CONCERN for our own environment. n The concern leads us to ACT at your own level to protect the environment we all live in.

The three reasons for studying the state of the environment There is the need The three reasons for studying the state of the environment There is the need for information - the need to use resources more equitably. ü There is a need to change the way - based on observation and self learning. ü pro-environmental action - including activities we can do in our daily life to protect it. ü

? ? WHY WE HAVE TO STUDY A COURSE IN ‘ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES’ ? ? ? ? WHY WE HAVE TO STUDY A COURSE IN ‘ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES’ ? ? ?

1. Is there any way out ! If I want degree I got to 1. Is there any way out ! If I want degree I got to do it!! n It is prescribed in the Syllabus and carries 3 Credits. If I want to get through 1 st year and finish my degree in 4 years, I have to do it!!

2. Legal Obligations Supreme Court in it’s judgment has made learning of the subject 2. Legal Obligations Supreme Court in it’s judgment has made learning of the subject mandatory at under graduate level (1991). University Grants Commission has directed all affiliated institutions to compulsorily teach the subject, for all the branches of engineering (2004). M. I. T. has introduced the subject at I year level as a core subject, in compliance with UGC directive (2005).

3. we are Victims of our own acts our consumption pattern & lifestyles indiscriminate 3. we are Victims of our own acts our consumption pattern & lifestyles indiscriminate use of pollution from production natural resources of artificial resources degradation of our environment We ourselves are victims

4. You are going to be Modern day Professionals Being Modern day Professionals, You 4. You are going to be Modern day Professionals Being Modern day Professionals, You will be required to encounter Environment related problems at all levels. Most importantly as Technical Managers directly facing the Society at large. What do You Mean by this ? In what way we are responsible ?

Industrial Investors Technical Professionals Society in General SOCIETAL PYRAMID OH! We are a class Industrial Investors Technical Professionals Society in General SOCIETAL PYRAMID OH! We are a class of our own!!

Industrial Usage Basic Societal Usage RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION PYRAMID But our base is shaky!! We Industrial Usage Basic Societal Usage RESOURCE DISTRIBUTION PYRAMID But our base is shaky!! We got to face the music !! Bosses will ask you to face the public !!

WHY SHOULD WE TEACH ! “If you plan for one year, plant paddy. If WHY SHOULD WE TEACH ! “If you plan for one year, plant paddy. If you plan for ten years, plant trees. But if you plan for hundred years, educate people. ”

No Water? Drink Thanda! Case Study of Plachimada n n A Soft Drink bottling No Water? Drink Thanda! Case Study of Plachimada n n A Soft Drink bottling unit of company X was established in Plachimada, a village in Kerala state, in the year 2000. Company dug bore wells to extract clean drinking water for soft drink. Company had obtained clearance from the state’s Environment Monitoring Authority and had been permitted by the local body to start the production. Production unit was extracting water to an extent of 3, 50, 000 Liters Per Day (LPD) { 3, 50, 000 LPD means per capita daily consumption of 5, 000 people. } Unit in it’s full production capacity had planned to draw 15, 000 LPD of water { Equal to LPCD of 21, 430 people. }

No Water? Drink Thanda! Case Study of Plachimada (Cont…) n n n By 2002, No Water? Drink Thanda! Case Study of Plachimada (Cont…) n n n By 2002, all the open wells- they were the main source of water for the people- not only in the village , but surrounding 10 villages dried out. With most common life sustaining resource not available, people were pushed to desperation. They started mass protests against the company and demanded immediate closure of the unit. The local body sensing the heat of people’s anger, withdrew the permission to run the unit. The company has sought the intervention from the court of law and the litigation is in Highest court of the land. Mean while, there is no respite for company from protesting public. The protest has spread not just across the region but across the world !

HENCE THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEMS WE ARE FACING AND HENCE THERE IS AN URGENT NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEMS WE ARE FACING AND FORESEE THE CALAMITIES THAT MAY FALL ON US IF WE DO NOT HEED THE RATIONAL WARNINGS. wise Peo. PLe sa. Y Better to Be late t. Han never

Scope and Importance n n Natural and Man made Environment When we look around Scope and Importance n n Natural and Man made Environment When we look around the area we live in (natural surrounding) it was originally a forest, a river, a mountain, a desert or a combination of these – the natural landscape. Modified heavily by human beings!

Web of life? n n We use water – drink and other activities We Web of life? n n We use water – drink and other activities We breath air We use resources – food is made We depend on community of living plants and animals – forms the web! - we are a part it.

n n Our dependence on nature is so great that we can’t continue to n n Our dependence on nature is so great that we can’t continue to live without protecting earth’s resources Most traditions refer our environment as “Mother Earth” and learned respecting nature is vital for their livelihoods.

Ø Ø n n n Agriculturist industrialist Application of technological innovations. eg: BT cotton, Ø Ø n n n Agriculturist industrialist Application of technological innovations. eg: BT cotton, megadams, industries, fertilizers and pesticides. Natural resources: use of large amount of natural resourses like water, minerals, wood, petroleum products etc. Exhaustion of nonrenewable resources: minerals, oils etc if used extensively with out any thought for present and future generations. Natural resources can be compared with money in our bank. (Sustainable utilisation). Consumer oriented society

n n n n Limited Natural Resources Added to this is misuse of resources. n n n n Limited Natural Resources Added to this is misuse of resources. We waste or pollute large amounts of nature’s clean water. Water Pollution (Gastro-intestinal diseases and many pollutants are known to cause cancer) We create more and more materials like plastic that we discard after a single use; and we waste colossal amounts of food, which is discarded as garbage. Air Pollution (Respiratory diseases) Industries – Fertilizers, waste generation Way of life – vehicles, plastics

n Manufacturing processes create solid waste byproducts that are discarded, as well as chemicals n Manufacturing processes create solid waste byproducts that are discarded, as well as chemicals that flow out as liquid waste and pollute water, and gases that pollute the air. Increasing amounts of waste cannot be managed by natural processes. These accumulate in our environment, leading to a variety of diseases and other adverse environmental impacts now seriously affecting all our lives.

n In such a alarming state of affairs, Improving this situation will only happen n In such a alarming state of affairs, Improving this situation will only happen if each of us begins to take actions in our daily lives that will help preserve our environmental resources. We cannot expect Governments alone to manage the safeguarding of the environment, nor can we expect other people to prevent environmental damage. We need to do it ourselves. It is a responsibility that each of us must take on as ones own.

DR. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 's Speech n Once in an interview, the DR. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 's Speech n Once in an interview, the famous Ex-municipal commissioner of Bombay, Mr. Tinaikar, had a point to make. 'Rich people's dogs are walked on the streets to leave their affluent droppings all over the place, ' he said. 'And then the same people turn around to criticize and blame the authorities for inefficiency and dirty pavements. What do they expect the officers to do? Go down with a broom every time their dog feels the pressure in his bowels? In America every dog owner has to clean up after his pet has done the job. Same in Japan. Will the Indian citizen do that here? ' He's right. We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibility. We sit back wanting to be pampered and expect the government to do everything for us whilst our contribution is totally negative. We expect the government to clean up but we are not going to stop chucking garbage all over the place nor are we going to stop to pick a up a stray piece of paper and throw it in the bin. We expect the railways to provide clean bathrooms but we are not going to learn the proper use of bathrooms. We want Indian Airlines and Air India to provide the best of food and toiletries but we are not going to stop pilfering at the least opportunity. This applies even to the staff who is known not to pass on the service to the public.

An Overview of Present state of Affairs In order to appreciate the vast areas An Overview of Present state of Affairs In order to appreciate the vast areas of Environmental Concerns which this subject aims to address, it is needed to have a bird’s eye view of the present state of Environment at both National and International levels. He are some quick points:

PRESENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF GLOBAL CONCERN The main environmental issues today are wide ranging PRESENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF GLOBAL CONCERN The main environmental issues today are wide ranging and allencompassing: deforestation, biodiversity, soil erosion, climate change, pesticide build-up, industrial and municipal pollution. Main cause: anthropogenic interventions in the natural and selfsustaining cycles. All these problems can be categorized into three main issues: 1. Population explosion 2. Land degradation 3. Environmental pollution: Industrialization, agriculture/fertilizer/pesticide/green house gases, air pollution, acid rain, ozone depletion, green house effect, water pollution, deforestation.

Environment Problems in India Environment problems in India can be put into three classes: Environment Problems in India Environment problems in India can be put into three classes: n Poverty n Problems arising as negative effects of the very process of development. n Problems arising from improper implementation of the directives and laws of Environmental protection.

Unsustainable use: n n Over draft/use, Misuse/Unwisely use, Wastage, Greed/Need, etc. – leads to Unsustainable use: n n Over draft/use, Misuse/Unwisely use, Wastage, Greed/Need, etc. – leads to stress! Short term economic benefit – indicator of progress! v/s Long term ecological benefit Result: Forests – disappear Rivers – run dry Deserts – spread Air, Water, Soil – polluted Conclusion: Human well being seriously affected!

For every resource to use, we must ask questions ourselves: n n n n For every resource to use, we must ask questions ourselves: n n n n For every resource to use, we must ask questions ourselves: Where does it originate? Who uses it most intensively? What is the value of resource? How is it over used / misused? Who is responsible for its improper use? (Resource collector/middleman/enduser) How can we help to conserve it and prevent its unsustainable use?

ASSIGNMENT – I Activity 1 • Take any article that you use in daily ASSIGNMENT – I Activity 1 • Take any article that you use in daily life –a bucket full of water, or an item of food, a table, or a book. • Trace its components journey backwards from your home to their origins as natural resources in our environment. • How many of these components are renewable resources and how many nonrenewable? Activity 2 Try to answer the following questions for one of the components in the article you chose in activity 2: • Are you using that resource unsustainably? • In what ways could you reduce, reuse and recycle that resource? • Is there an unequal distribution of this resource so that you are more fortunate than many others who have less access to it?

Syllabus Unit 1 : Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies Unit 2 : Natural Resources Syllabus Unit 1 : Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies Unit 2 : Natural Resources Unit 3 : Ecosystems Unit 4 : Biodiversity and its Conservation Unit 5 : Environmental Pollution Social issues and the Environment Human Population and the Environment

METHOD OF EVALUATION In Semester – 50 marks n End Semester – 50 marks METHOD OF EVALUATION In Semester – 50 marks n End Semester – 50 marks (added together and cutoff for grades A+, A, B, C, D, E and F will be decided) n Make up examination – for F grade only n In Semester evaluation : 3 tests (I test – 8 weeks, II test – 12 weeks, III test – 16 weeks) – best two will be considered – 40 marks. Assignments/Tutorials/Project works/Case study – 10 marks !! n

REFERENCES 1. Bharucha, E. 2004, Environmental Studies, University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 2. Joseph, REFERENCES 1. Bharucha, E. 2004, Environmental Studies, University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 2. Joseph, B. 2006, Environmental Science and Engineering, Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi. 3. Anjaneyalu, Y, 2004 Introduction to Environmental Science, Rao P. N. (Editor), BS Publications, Hyderabad, A. P. India. 4. Rajagopalan, R. 2005, Environmental Studies: From Crisis to Cure, Oxford University Press, London.

5. 6. 7. Anil Kumar DE and Arnab Kumar DE. , Environmental Studies, New 5. 6. 7. Anil Kumar DE and Arnab Kumar DE. , Environmental Studies, New AGE International Publishers, New Delhi. Anubha Kauishik and Kaushik CP. , Environmental Science and Engineering, New AGE International Publishers, New Delhi. Santosh Kumar Garg et. al. , Ecology and Environmental studies, Khanna Publishers, Delhi.

Other references: 1. Agarwal, K. C. 2001, Environmental biology, Nidi Publ. Ltd. Bikaner. 2. Other references: 1. Agarwal, K. C. 2001, Environmental biology, Nidi Publ. Ltd. Bikaner. 2. Bharucha Erach, The biodiversity of India, Mapin publishing Pvt. Ltd. , Ahmedabad – 380 013, India, email: [email protected] Net (R) 3. Brunner R. C. , 1989, Hazardous waste incineration, Mc. Graw hill inc. 480 p 4. Clark R. S. , Marine pollution, Clanderson press oxford (TB) 5. Cunningham, W. P. Cooper, T. H. Gorhani, E & Hepworth, M. T. 2001, environmental encyclopedia, Jaico Publ. House, Mumabai, 1196 p. 6. De A. K. , Environmental chemistry, Wiley eastern ltd. 7. Down to earth, centre for science and environment (R)

8. Gleick, H. P. 1993. Water in crisis, pacific institute for studies in dev. 8. Gleick, H. P. 1993. Water in crisis, pacific institute for studies in dev. , Environment & security. Stockholm Env. Institute oxford Univ. Press. 473 p 9. Hawkins R. E. , Encyclopedia of Indian natural history, Bombay natural history society, Bombay (R) 10. Heywood, V. H & Waston, R. T. 1995. Global biodiversity assessment. Cambridge Univ. Press 1140 p. 11. Jadhav, H & Bhosale, V. M. 1995. Environmental protection and laws. Himalaya pub. House, Delhi 284 p. 12. Mckinney, M. L. & School, R. M. 1996. Environmental Science systems & Solutions, Web enhanced edition. 639 p. 13. Mhaskar A. K. , Matter Hazardous, Techno-Science Publication (TB) 14. Miller T. G. Jr. Environmental Science, Wadsworth Publishing Co. (TB) 15. Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. W. B. Saunders Co. USA, 574 p

16. Rao M N. & Datta, A. K. 1987. Waste Water treatment. Oxford & 16. Rao M N. & Datta, A. K. 1987. Waste Water treatment. Oxford & IBH Publ. Co. Pvt. Ltd. 345 p. 17. Sharma B. K. , 2001. Environmental Chemistry. Geol Publ. House, Meerut 18. Survey of the Environment, The Hindu (M) 19. Townsend C. , Harper J, and Michael Begon, Essentials of Ecology, Blackwell Science (TB) 20. Trivedi R. K. , Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules Guidelines, Compliances and Stadards, Vol I and II, Enviro Media (R) 21. Trivedi R. K. and P. K. Goel, Introduction to air pollution, Techno-Science Publication (TB) 22. Wanger K. D. , 1998 Environmental Management. W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia, USA 499 p

Values of Nature n Productive value n Aesthetic value, recreational value n Option value Values of Nature n Productive value n Aesthetic value, recreational value n Option value

Productive Value of Nature n Biotechnology is fast advancing in this modern world. n Productive Value of Nature n Biotechnology is fast advancing in this modern world. n Nature has species which contain an incredible and uncountable number of complex chemicals that are raw material and can be used for developing new medicines and industrial products. Destruction of these species due to human activity is happening rapidly and hence these species might become extinct in near future. Ø n Ø Hence there is an urgent need to protect these species Protection of these species by individual or group efforts.

Aesthetic and Recreational Value of Nature n n Ø n n Nature encompasses every Aesthetic and Recreational Value of Nature n n Ø n n Nature encompasses every aspect of living (biodiversity: flora and fauna) and non-living (sea, forest, desert) part of the earth. Nature enlivens our existence on earth. Developing national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in relatively undisturbed areas. Enjoy the wilderness – nature tourism or wildlife tourism – pleasurable experience and also creates a deep respect and love for nature. Urban setting there will be green spaces and gardens – psychological and physical health of city dwellers and provides aesthetic value and visual appeal. It also gives access to certain amount of peace and tranquility.

The Option Values of Nature n Day-to-day activities have adverse impacts on nature’s integrity. The Option Values of Nature n Day-to-day activities have adverse impacts on nature’s integrity. n Present generation’s lifestyles and economies are based on unsustainable pattern which can lead to destruction of biodiversity and will leave nothing for future generations. n Option value: nature provides us with options to utilize it resources which we can use it either greedily (destroy its integrity and long term values) or sustainably and reducing our impacts on environment. Allows us to use its resources sustainably and preserve its goods and services for the future. Ø

Need for public awareness n Sustainable use of natural resources Join an environmental group Need for public awareness n Sustainable use of natural resources Join an environmental group (YISF) Prevention is better than cure (Prevention of Environmental degradation) Mass media (News papers, Radio, T. V. etc. , ) n Activities concerned with students n n n n n Be a volunteer in environmental organizations that fight for saving the Earth Reading news papers or articles which emphasizes on environmental issues Practice and promote 3 R principle (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) Practice and promote good civic sense (No smoking and no spitting in public places) Spend time in natural habitat Take part in events – world environmental day etc. ,

Institutions and Head quarter n BNHS (The Bombay Natural History Society): - Mumbai Publications: Institutions and Head quarter n BNHS (The Bombay Natural History Society): - Mumbai Publications: - Hornbill and international journal on Natural History. n WWFN (World Wild Fund for Nature): - New Delhi Emphasizes on wild life education and awareness n CSE (Centre for Science and Environment): - New Delhi Activities: Holding workshops and conferences on environmental isssues Publications: - Down to Earth n EEC (Environmental Education Center): - Chennai Promotes conservation of nature and natural resources n CEE (Center for Environmental Education): - Hyderabad Training and environmental education programmee

Institutions and Head quarter n Bharathiya Vidyapeet Institute of Environmental Education Research: Pune Offers Institutions and Head quarter n Bharathiya Vidyapeet Institute of Environmental Education Research: Pune Offers PG programme and Diploma on environmental education. Developed a text book for UG course. n The Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History: Coimbattore n Wild life Institute of India: - Dehradhun Publication: - Planning wild life and protected area network for India. It has environment impact assessment cell. n Zoological Survey of India: - Calcutta. n Madras Crocodile Bank Trust: - Madras. n WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature)-New Delhi.

Institutions in Environment Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS), Mumbai n n n An NGO Institutions in Environment Bombay Natural History Society (BHNS), Mumbai n n n An NGO founded in 1883. Wildlife policy building, research, popular publications and peoples action have been unique features of this multifaceted society. Works towards conservation of wildlife species and ecosystems. Publications: HORNBILL, journal on natural history, Salim Ali handbook on birds, JC Daniel’s book on Indian reptiles, SH Prater’s book of Indian mammals and PV bole’s book of Indian trees. Assisting government in framing of wildlife related laws. ‘SAVE THE SILENT VALLEY’ campaign.

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi n Initiated in 1969 in Mumbai World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-I), New Delhi n Initiated in 1969 in Mumbai and then moved to new Delhi with several branch offices all over India. n Wildlife education and awareness. n Organizes nature clubs of India program for children. Works as a think tank and lobby force for environment and development issues.

Center for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi n n Organizing campaigns, holding workshops/conferences Center for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi n n Organizing campaigns, holding workshops/conferences and producing environment related publications are some of its activities. It published ‘State of India’s Environment’, the first of its kind to be produced as a Citizen’s Report on the Environment. It publishes popular magazine ‘DOWN TO EARTH’ a Science and Environment fortnightly. It is also involved in publication of material in the form of books, posters, video films and also conducts workshops and seminars on biodiversity related issues.

CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras n CPR EEC was set up in 1988. n CPR Environmental Education Centre, Madras n CPR EEC was set up in 1988. n Conducts variety of programs to spread environmental awareness and creates an interest in conservation among the general public. n It focusses attention on NGOs, teachers, women, youth and children to generally promote conservation of nature and natural resources. n Its programs include components on wildlife and biodiversity issues. It also produces a large number of publications.

Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad n It was initiated in 1989. n It Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad n It was initiated in 1989. n It has wide range of programs on the environment and produces a variety of educational material. CEE’s training in Environment Education (TEE) program has trained many environment educators.

Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research (BVIEER), Pune n This institute is Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Environment Education and Research (BVIEER), Pune n This institute is a part of Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University and has a Ph. D, masters and Bachelors program in Environmental Sciences. n Also offers an innovative Diploma in Environment Education for in-service teachers. n It implements a large outreach programme that has covered over 135 schools in which it trains teachers and conducts fortnightly Environment Education Programs. n Biodiversity Conservation is a major focus of its research initiatives.

n It develops low cost Interpretation Centres for Natural and Architectural sites that are n It develops low cost Interpretation Centres for Natural and Architectural sites that are highly locale specific as well as a large amount of innovative environment educational material for a variety of target groups. n Its unique feature is that it conducts environment education from primary school level to the post graduate level. n It has produced several EE aids, developed a teacher’s handbook linked to school curriculum, a textbook for UGC for its undergraduate course on environment. n Its director has developed a CD ROM on India’s biodiversity published by Mapin Publishers, Ahmedabad.

Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora n A Nodal Agency and supports NGOs in need Uttarkhand Seva Nidhi (UKSN), Almora n A Nodal Agency and supports NGOs in need of funds for their environment related activities. n Major program is organising and training school teachers to use its locale specific Environment Education Workbook Program. n The main targets are linked with sustainable resource use at the village level through training school children. n Its environment education program covers about 500 schools.

Kalpavriksh, Pune n n It is an NGO and works on variety of fronts: Kalpavriksh, Pune n n It is an NGO and works on variety of fronts: education and awareness; investigation and research; direct action and lobbying; and litigation with regard to environment and development issues. Its activities include talks and audio-visuals in schools and colleges, nature walks and outstation camps, organizing student participation in ongoing campaigns including street demonstrations, pushing for consumer awareness regarding organic food, press statements, handling green alerts, and meetings with the city’s administrators. It is involved with the preparation of site-specific, environmental manuals for school teachers. Kalpavriksh was responsible for developing India’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan in 2003.

Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Coimbatore n Dr. Salim Ali Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON), Coimbatore n Dr. Salim Ali wished to support a group of committed conservation scientists on permanent basis and that dream became a reality only after his demise. n It is an independent organization and is based at Coimbatore since 1990. n It has instituted a variety of field programs that have added to the country’s information on our threatened biodiversity.

Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun n n n This institution was established in Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun n n n This institution was established in 1982 as a major training establishment for Forest Officials and Research in in Wildlife Management. Its most significant publication has been ‘Planning A Wildlife Protected Area Network for India’ (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). The organization has over the years added an enormous amount of information on India’s biological wealth. It has trained a large number of Forest Department Officials and Staff as Wildlife Managers. Its M. Sc. Program has trained excellent wildlife scientists. It also has an Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) cell. It trains personnel in ecodevelopment, wildlife biology, habitat management and Nature interpretation.

Botanical Survey of India (BSI) n It was established in 1890 at the Royal Botanical Survey of India (BSI) n It was established in 1890 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Calcutta. n However it was closed for several years after 1939 and was reopened in 1954. n It carries out surveys of plant resources in different regions.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) n n n It was established in 1916. Its Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) n n n It was established in 1916. Its mandate was to do a systematic survey of fauna in India. It has over the years collected ‘type specimens’ on the bases of which our animal life has been studied over the years. Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta, which was established in 1875. Older collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which were made between 1814 and 1875, as well as those of the Indian Museum made between 1875 and 1916 were then transferred to the ZSI. Today it has over a million species!. This makes it one of the largest collections in Asia. It has done an enormous amount of work on taxonomy and ecology.

People in Environment International n Charles Darwin: Origin of Species. n Rachel Carson: Silent People in Environment International n Charles Darwin: Origin of Species. n Rachel Carson: Silent Spring. n Ralph Emerson n Henry Thoreau: Wilderness should be preserved Indian n Salim Ali: Fall of Sparrow n Smt. Indira Gandhi: Wild life protection act was formulated during her tenure. n M. S. Swaminathan: Worked on conservation of biological diversity. n M. C. Metha: Initiated the Government to implement Environmental education in schools and colleges, struggles for protection of Taj Mahal and cleaning of Ganga water. n Sunder Lal Bahuguna: Chipko movement. n Medha Patker: Narmada Bhachavo Andolan.

People in Environment Individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history in People in Environment Individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history in our country: Salim Ali n He has written several great books including the famous ‘Book of Indian Birds’. n His autobiography, ’Fall of a Sparrow’ should be read by every nature enthusiast. n He was our country’s leading conservation scientist and influenced environmental policies in our country for over 50 years.

Indira Gandhi n As a PM, she has played a highly significant role in Indira Gandhi n As a PM, she has played a highly significant role in the preservation of India’s wild life. n It was during her period as a PM, that the network of protected areas (Pas) grew from 65 to 298!. n The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the period when she was PM and the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely active as she personally chaired all its meetings. n India gained a name for itself by being a major player in CITES and other International Environmental Treaties and Accords during her tenure.

SP Godrej n n One of India’s greatest supporters of wildlife conservation and nature SP Godrej n n One of India’s greatest supporters of wildlife conservation and nature awareness programs. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1999 and several other awards between 1975 and 1999. MS Swaminathan n n One of India’s foremost agricultural scientists and has also been concerned with various aspects of biodiversity conservation both of cultivars and wild biodiversity. Founder of the MS Swaminathan Research Foundation in Chennai, which does work on the conservation of biological diversity.

Madhav Gadgil n n A well known ecologist in India. His interests range from Madhav Gadgil n n A well known ecologist in India. His interests range from broad ecological issues such as developing Community Biodiversity Registers and conserving sacred groves to studies on the behavior of mammals, birds and insects. Anil Agarwal n n He was a journalist who wrote the first report on the ‘State of India’s Environment’ in 1982. He founded the Center for Science and Environment which is an active NGO that supports various environmental issues.

MC Mehta n India’s most famous environmental lawyer. n Since 1984, he has filed MC Mehta n India’s most famous environmental lawyer. n Since 1984, he has filed several Public Interest Litigation (PIL) for supporting the cause of environmental conservation. n Protecting the Taj Mahal, cleaning up the Ganges River, banning intensive shrimp farming on the coast, initiating Government to implement environmental education in schools and colleges, and a variety of other conservation issues.

Medha Patkar n She is known as one of India’s Champions who has supported Medha Patkar n She is known as one of India’s Champions who has supported the cause of downtrodden tribal people whose environment is being affected by the dams on the Narmada river. Sunderlal Bahuguna n n n His Chipko Movement has become an internationally well-known example of a highly successful conservation action program through the efforts of local people for guarding their forest resources. His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile earthquake prone setting is a battle the he continues to wage. The Garhwal Hills will always remember his dedication to the cause for which he has walked over 20 thousand kilometers.

Internationally known environmental thinkers who have made landmarks and whose names are frequently mentioned Internationally known environmental thinkers who have made landmarks and whose names are frequently mentioned are: Charles Darwin n Author of “Origin of Species” which brought to light the close relationship between habitats and species. n It also brought about a new thinking of man’s relationship with other species that was based on evolution. n Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions during his work. n n Henry Thoreau In 1860, he wrote that the wilderness should be preserved after he lived in the wild for a year. He felt that most people did not care for nature and would sell it off for a small sum of money.

Ralph Emerson n He spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way Ralph Emerson n He spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way back in the 1840 s. John Muir n n He is remembered as having saved the great ancient sequoia trees in California’s forests. In the 1890 s he formed the Sierra club, which is a major conservation NGO in the USA. Aldo Leopold n n He was a forest official in the US in the 1920 s. He designed the early policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management.

n n n Rachel Carson In the 1960 s Rachel Carson published several articles n n n Rachel Carson In the 1960 s Rachel Carson published several articles that caused immediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticide on nature and mankind. She wrote a well-known book called ‘Silent Spring’ which eventually led to a change in Government policy and public awareness. EO Wilson An entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity was a key to human survival on earth. He wrote ‘Diversity of Life’ in 1993, which was awarded a prize for the best book published on environmental issues. His writings brought home to the world the risks to mankind due to man made disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapid extinction of species at the global level.

SAVE (Society for Awareness and Vision on Environment) 10 point agenda on Environment Protection SAVE (Society for Awareness and Vision on Environment) 10 point agenda on Environment Protection Ø To implement prog on environment protection and water conservation special ministry need to be created at state level like in developed countries. Ø GOI approved policy on development and conservation of forests 30 years ago for 33% of area to be under forests. But !! Ø AIDS, A Disease, may kill one person, Environmental pollution may kill lakhs of people; so top priority should be given to increase awareness on Environment pollution.

Ø All lakes should be declared as protected areas. Ø Water harvesting pit even Ø All lakes should be declared as protected areas. Ø Water harvesting pit even in residences (250 sq. yards) Ø Walta law, indiscriminate use of ground water. Ø Awareness at school level Ø Vocational education on gardening, clean and green activities Ø Spend few hours a week in Environmental prog. Ø Environment Emergency