- Количество слайдов: 62
ENVIRONMENT CONTROL AND ENEMIES OF PAPER John F. Dean Department of Preservation and Collection Maintenance Cornell University Library Ithaca, New York 14853
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Reduce heat through the use of surrounding vegetation, such as shade trees. Reduce heat gain by covering windows to the East and West with screens or curtains to control direct sunlight, alternating according to the time of day.
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Improve air circulation by opening up any vents or small windows close to the ceiling to stimulate the circulation of air through open windows at floor level upwards through the room.
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Improve air circulation by opening up any vents or small windows close to the ceiling to stimulate the circulation of air through open windows at floor level upwards through the room. Enhance circulation with ceiling fans if available.
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Reduce heat intake by using reflective colors on roof surfaces. Reduce heat radiation through from the roof by installing false ceilings. Reduce extreme humidity with dehumidifiers if available.
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Reduce rising damp by setting damp courses in place in the base of masonry walls by progressively removing bricks and inserting a waterproof layer, such as slate or asphalt. In the case of cavity walls, air bricks or vents can be installed at the base of the wall to permit air to circulate through the air space.
PASSIVE CLIMATE CONTROL Circulate air under raised building structures by removing any obstructions, and by taking steps to ensure dry conditions.
Enemies of Books and Paper • The chief environmental enemies are: • Temperature • Humidity • Light • Pollutants • Insects
Temperature • The higher the temperature, the more rapidly materials deteriorate • If air conditioning is available, it should be set to practical limits, about 68 to 70 degrees.
Humidity Relative humidity (RH) is the given percentage of moisture in the air at a given temperature. • Controlling RH is more important than controlling temperature.
Humidity § An RH range of 35% to 50% is acceptable. § Low humidity is preferable to high. § As temperatures fall, the RH goes up.
Light § When paper is exposed to light it causes fading, darkening and yellowing, and the weakening of fibers. § Light is measured in foot candles (US) and “lux” (the rest of the world).
Light • One lux equals 0. 09 foot candles. • Storage and reading areas should be limited to 100 lux • Display areas limited to 80 lux.
Light § Light is cumulative, so an item that is a little light-damaged with one exposure will be further damaged if displayed again. § Use UV shields on fluorescent lights and try to use incandescent if possible
Pollutants • Usually in the form of gases and particulates • Pollutants can come from construction material and newly painted surfaces
MOLD Conditions in Which Mold Thrives Condensation High Relative Humidity Direct Wetting Insufficient Air Circulation
MOLD Immediate Steps on Discovery Check Building for Water Infiltration Check HVAC Function Check for Drastic Temperature Drop Remove Any Standing Water Adjust HVAC Activate Electric Fans to Speed up Airflow Employ Dehumidifiers
MOLD Basic Treatment of Mold-Infected Materials Wear Appropriate Face Masks or Respirators Wear Rubber/Plastic Gloves Remove Materials to a Well-Ventilated Area Employ Electric Fans Possibly Take Outdoors if Conditions Permit Allow Materials and Mold to Dry Out
MOLD Basic Treatment Remove Dry Mold with HEPA-Filter Vacuum Gently Remove Dry Mold with Activated Dust Cloths Gently Wipe the Outside of Books with a Little Ethyl Alcohol Check Inside of Books or Folders After Outside Mold Removed Swab with Ethyl Alcohol
MOLD Wrong Steps to Take Do not Return Treated Books to Same Area unless it is Safe Do not Brush Off Dry Mold Spores Do not Spray or Swab Books with Bleach Do Not Use Chemical Fumigant without Checking Possible Toxicity Do not Inhale Mold Spores
Insects: Steps to Reduce The Damage they Cause § In humid tropical areas, insects pose a serious threat to collections of all types. The environment that is the most damaging to collections is the most beneficial to insects. § high humidity, § poor air circulation, § poor housekeeping § Libraries and archives can provide insects with food, water, and shelter if the building is accessible and conditions welcoming to them.
PRECAUTIONARY STEPS TO CONTROL INSECTS Steps to control insects can be grouped into five main areas: Building Exterior Building Construction Building Space Configuration Housekeeping
Surveys § A careful survey of the building should be conducted using sticky traps to see what types of insects are in the library. The survey should systematically document the location and type of insects caught in the trap.
Cockroaches… § Cockroaches are found in every part of the world. There are 3, 500 types, some live outdoors and some inside. Four types damage books: the American cockroach, the Australian cockroach, the Oriental cockroach, and the German cockroach. Damage can be recognized by light patches on book cloth and ragged edges on paper. Droppings can also be detected in the form of pellets.
Cockroaches… § The American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) hides in dark areas during the day and emerges at night. It regurgitates a sexual attractant in the form of a brown liquid (atar), often seen on library materials. Approximately 40 millimeters in length, it is reddish brown. It is largely an indoor insect, preferring moist, warm areas.
Cockroaches… § The Australian cockroach (Periplaneta Australsiae), smaller than the American, has light or yellow markings on its thorax and wingtips. Common to moist tropical areas, this insect can live inside.
Cockroaches… § The Oriental cockroach (Blata Orientalis), also known as the water bug, is large and dark brown or black. It prefers cooler moist areas such as drains and inhabits the lower floors of buildings.
Cockroaches § Silverfish This prefers dark, moist, and moderate to warm conditions. Silverfish graze on the surface of paper and prefer coated paper. Paper that is ragged and thin at the edges is usually the work of silverfish. Their small flat shape makes it easy for them to be concealed in cardboard boxes and other items brought into a library.
Beetles… § There are more than a quarter million species of beetles. Some damage books directly by eating paper and binding materials, but it is their larvae that cause the most damage. One type, the dermestidae eats leather bindings.
Beetles… § The bacon or larder beetle (Dermestes lardarius) is 7 to 9 millimeters in length. The rear of the body is pale with black spots, while the rest of the body dark brown. The larvae feed on leather bindings and then bore into the text blocks of books to construct a pupation chamber.
Beetles… § The bread or biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum) is a small (2 millimeters) reddish brown insect with tiny larvae. The larvae eat starch, especially the paste used on endsheets and book spines. A borehole of approximately 1 to 2 millimeters runs parallel to the height and width of the book.
Beetles… § The cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne) is a small, light-brown flying beetle. Its larvae are known as bookworms. Upon hatching, the larvae tunnel under the binding cover, and it proceeds to tunnel up to 10 centimeters into the paper text, where it pupates into an adult beetle. The adult leaves a round exit hole, as well as powdered paper on the shelf. One of this beetle's favorite foods is dried flowers and spices; these should not be brought into the library.
Beetles § The larvae of the drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum) are also often referred to as bookworms. This beetle is found in moist storage areas, and the larvae can actually tunnel all the way through books, from one cover to the other. As with the cigarette beetle, piles of paper powder signal that this insect is active.
Termites… § The most damaging of all are termites. Entire collections can be ruined, often before the problem has been recognized. There are three main types of termites: drywood, dampwood, and subterranean. Termites eat all cellulose materials, including wood, paper, cloth, and binding board.
Termites § Some protection can be given by the building design (use of metal shielding over wooden foundations, painting any exposed wood). Termite infestations must be addressed by pesticides applied by a qualified operator. There has been some success with buried traps that attract subterranean termites.
Standard Methods to Reduce the Insect Population § Various chemical methods have been used to eradicate pests, with differing degrees of success. These include ethylene oxide (ETO), methyl bromide, formaldehyde and phosgene gas. Most chemical fumigants require that the materials be enclosed, a vacuum chamber in the case of ETO and plastic sheeting or tarpaulins in other cases.
Integrated Pest Management Non-toxic solutions should be used to avoid damaging the health of staff and users. The following steps must be taken. 1. Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside 2. Make the Building Inhospitable from the inside 3. Inside fittings and Furniture
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… The building itself can be made inhospitable to insects. The following sensible precautions can be taken to reduce and control insect populations:
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Do not plant shrubs or trees close to a building, and avoid flowering species.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Remove vines, ivy, and other climbing plants from the walls or roof.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Use a wide gravel or paving surround to the building. Make sure that there are good drains to prevent water from entering the structure.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Do not attach lights to buildings, as they will attract flying insects. Lights close to a building should have low ultraviolet output. Lights mounted away from the building should be the mercuryvapor type with a high ultraviolet output.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § All garbage and rubbish, including garden and library waste, should be kept in a vermin-proof container away from the building.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Ensure that all roof drains and downspouts are kept clear of debris and in good condition.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Bird and other animal nests should be removed from the building.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside… § Seal all holes in the building, and seal around holes for electrical cables, water pipes, telephone connections, and waste pipes.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside § Doors and windows should be tight fitting and kept closed at all times, and insect screening of an appropriate small mesh size should cover every opening.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Outside § When designing a new building, consider the installation of a revolving door.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Inside… Use solid, impermeable construction materials such as brick, stone, concrete, and steel. If possible, observe these additional steps: § Air conditioning (HVAC) systems create wet areas, and have condensate drains. HVAC should be located in a basement area rather than on the roof, and there should no standing water and condensate drains kept clear.
Make the Building Inhospitable from the Inside § Restrooms, janitors' closets, and workrooms are sources of water and should be segregated from collection areas. § Condensation on cold water pipes can be avoided by wrapping them with an insulation material. § A quarantine room should be established as close to the loading dock as possible. Cover incoming material tightly with plastic sheeting and place insect sticky traps under the plastic to check for possible infestation.
Housekeeping… § The building interior should be kept clean, free from dirt and dust that provide nutrients for insects. Water spills should be mopped up, and when washing windows and floors make sure that excess water does not splash into cracks in the walls or floor.
Housekeeping… § Keep food consumption and preparation areas away from collection areas—ideally in a separate building. Food and drink should not be consumed in reader and staff areas.
Housekeeping… § Spills and food debris should be removed and waste receptacles emptied regularly. Receptions and events involving food and drink should not be held in a reading room or collection area.
Housekeeping § Refrigerators and appliances that combine heat and moisture are popular habitats for insects. Areas under and around appliances should be regularly cleaned, and sticky traps placed if necessary.
Inside fittings Secure inside doors, especially those leading to kitchens or restrooms. If possible, fit doors with a weather seal. § Cracks in inner walls or the floor should be filled to prevent insects from entering and infesting cavity areas. § Exhibit cases and special storage cases should be fitted with gaskets to ensure tight-fitting seals. § Fittings, cases, and room corners should be vacuumed and the vacuum bags checked for insects. Filled vacuum bags should be disposed of outside the building immediately after removal.
Killing Insects: Freezing § A freezer set at or below -20° C (-3° F) can be used to kill after a four day exposure. Books should be placed in sealed plastic bags and after freezing conditioned under a constant air current from a fan. A simple chest freezer can be used.
Killing Insects: Heat § Heat can also be used to kill insects in infested materials. Temperatures of 50°C (120°F) will dry out insect bodies. In tropical areas, infested books can be wrapped in black plastic inside a metal container and left in direct sunlight for a few hours.
Health Issues § Because of health risks, insecticides should be used with great care and with full knowledge of the effects on humans and library materials. § Research is being conducted on safe and natural insect repellents, such as compounds made from Neem, which will help to make collections safe. Combined with freezing and heat treatment for small infestations, natural repellents can help to control insects while maintaining an environment safe for humans.
Rodents § Rats and mice are the most common rodents librarians are likely to encounter. Rats are difficult to control because they are capable of gnawing through cinder block, lead and aluminum sheeting, wood, plastic, and sheetrock.
Rats and Mice § The most common rats are the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the roof rat or black rat (Rattus rattus). The house mouse (Mus musculus) is very common and extremely difficult to eradicate entirely.
Rodent Damage § Both rats and mice use paper to make their nests, and many fine books have lost chunks of text through their jagged gnawing. § Rodents' fecal matter and urine are especially damaging and encourage insects.
Killing Rodents § It is generally better to trap rodents than to use a poison that will allow them to crawl into building crevices and die, for rodent carcasses are breeding grounds for insects that also damage library and archival materials