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ELECTRIC VEHICLE PATRICK COLLINS & JARRED LORUSSO August 28, 2009 - January 22, 2010
Electric Vehicle – Mission Statement: • In an effort to save the environment and reduce our dependence on foreign oil, we wanted to convert a gasoline powered car into an electric vehicle. • With the support of Mr. Mongillio, the Macari fund and Jim Lynch (mechanic for Lorusso Construction) as well as Bob and Bryan from Electric Vehicle of America (EVA), we converted a 1998 Saturn gas powered vehicle into an electric vehicle.
Overview On The Importance of Electric Vehicles:
The Importance of Electric Vehicles: • Gas is a scarce, natural resource. • Electricity is cheaper than gas. Electricity can come from renewable resources such as solar and wind power. • Electric cars pollute less than gas-powered cars. • Electric cars are much more reliable and require less maintenance than gas-powered cars. You don't even need to get your oil changed every 3, 000 miles! • By using domestically-generated electricity rather than relying on foreign oil, the USA can become more independent.
US Gasoline Consumption & Reliance On Imports Has Dramatically Increased: US consumption Increasing Reliance on imports dramatically Increasing. US production dramatically Decreasing
The Problems With Gasoline Powered Vehicles: 1. Gasoline Is A Scarce Resource: – – – 2. Heavy Reliance On Imports: Production Shortages • • Alaskan oil has reduced. US Coastal oil impacted by hurricanes. Oil Spills can occur Gasoline Is Expensive – US only manufactures 34% of gasoline needed in US. – Heavy reliance on foreign countries. – Pricing is uncontrollable – Future availability may be limited especially with 3 rd world country expansion. 3. Creates Smog & Ozone in Big Cities: – Nitrogen oxides, the main source of urban smog – Unburned hydrocarbons, the main source of urban ozone 4. Creates Greenhouse Gases: – Carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas is one of the major “Greenhouse Gases”. Greenhouse effects the planet, rising sea levels, flooding, etc. The main source (95%) of carbon monoxide in our air is from vehicle emissions. (Per EPA studies)
Accidents Happen: Oil Spills: • On January 23, 2010, an oil-spill Port Arthur Oil Spill- 01/23/10 occurred in Texas impacting wildlife areas. The U. S. Coast Guard said about 462, 000 gallons - or 11, 000 barrels - of oil spilled into the water Saturday when an 800 -foot tanker collided with a towing vessel pushing two barges near Port Arthur, about 90 miles east of Houston. It was the largest oil spill in Texas since 1994, when 4. 3 million gallons of crude oil spilled about 60 miles off Galveston. Exxon Valdez 1989 Accident resulted in oil pooling at shore. • One of the largest oil spills happened in Alaska in 1989 when the Exxon Valdez ship spilled 10. 8 million gallons of crude oil. It is considered one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters ever to occur at sea
Electric Vehicles Save Gas & Money; -Over $18, 000 potential savings:
Electric Vehicles Have A Few Downsides: • Batteries need to be charged. • Car can not be used when batteries are being charged. • Car can only go 40 Miles between charges. • Battery disposal needs to be carefully managed.
: Our Project • The objective of our project is to convert a gas-powered vehicle into an electric vehicle.
Our Project: The Electric Vehicle Process: • Research internet for electric vehicle information. March- June 20093 hours • Contacted [EVA] to discuss parameters of project and cost estimate. July 2009 – 1 hour • Proposed project to [Mr. Mongillo] Got approval from Macari fund. August 2009 - 2 hours • Researched automobiles which fit [EVA] specifications. August 20092 hours • Put in offer for 1995 Ford Escort, We were out bid. August 25, 2009 • Purchased 1998 Saturn from Ebelings Auto. August 28, 2009 for $1, 750. 00 - 2 hours
Electric Vehicle-Decision Making: • The car ran great! • The body of the car was in good condition. • It was under 3, 000 lbs gross body weight. • It had a standard transmission. • It fit the criteria for an eligible car to convert to an Electric Vehicle.
Electric Vehicle Conversion Budget: • • • Cost of Car. Cost of Electric Motor. Cost of Controller. Clutch less Transmission. Clutch plates and all brackets 10 Batteries Battery Charger Battery Cables, Terminals, Heat Shrink Inside Instruments Fuse Systems. Total Cost of Parts- $1, 750 $1, 550 $1, 495 $725 $400 $2, 250 $1, 030 $400 $225 $10, 050 Mr. Lorusso donated his garage & time of mechanics PRICELESSThank You!!
Electric Vehicle Conversion: Company Used • ELECTRIC VEHICLE OF AMERICA is a company in NH which has helped people convert over 1, 000 gas-powered vehicles to electric vehicles. We called them many times for help. • Worked with Bob & Bryan (EVA) sending specifications of the automobile to determine total budget for the project- 2 hours • Some of the cars converted can be seen on the following pages.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: Electric Car(s) Converted by EVA
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Other Electric Vehicle(s) Converted by EVA
Electric Vehicle – Motor Removal: • This is the look of the engine before we removed it. • We had to remove the muffler, radiator, alternator, air conditioner. – About 3 hours
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal • Jarred, Patrick & Jim removed engine from car- November 14 th 5 hours • What made removing the engine much easier was a car lift. We were able to loosen bolts from underneath the car instead of laying on our backs.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal • In order to remove the engine the front wheels and the transmission had to be removed first to allow us to get at the motor mounts.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal • We used an engine hoist to pull the engine out of the car. • The total process of Jarred, Pat, Jim, Matt & Gerry took 5 hours.
Electric Vehicle-Next Steps • The motor is out of the car. • The wheels and transmission are on the ground. • NOW WHAT? ? ? • We need help from EVA-
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • We had to take the motor and transmission measurements and send them to EVA. • EVA fabricated a clutch plate for us. Mr. Collins drove to NH to pick up all of the parts. 4 Hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Once the engine and transmission were out, we had to install the clutch plate which got connected to the new engine. • The clutch plate works with the transmission to shift the gears.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • We needed to use a drill press to make very precise holes where the clutch plate connected to the motor.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal: • Our car has a clutchless transmission. • This means that instead of using a clutch to switch the gears you wait for a certain speed to switch gears.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • The clutch plate was a 12” x 1” piece of metal. • It needed to be cut with a laser saw. • The laser saw cut metal with a 1200 degree laser. The laser was very precise. • Then we used a ban saw to smooth out the rough edges.
Electric Vehicle- Next Steps? ? • The steps to measure the clutch plate drill the holes and get the motor installed was done over 3 Saturdays in November and December. Approximately 15 hours. • Jarred & Pat are pondering the next steps.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Conversion • The motor then gets installed and the wheels and transmission get reinstalled. • The clutch plate which we cut is the big piece of metal on the right side of the motor. • The clutch plate and motor mounts hold the motor straight. 5 hours
Electric Vehicle: Battery Conversion • The car is powered by 10 batteries. • There will be 6 batteries in the trunk, and 4 in the front of the car for proper weight distribution.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Creative battery holders were made. This one is in a wheel well and on a hinge. 3 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • This is where the radiator was removed. • A metal table was made to hold 2 batteries in the front of the car. 4 hours to fabricate
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • The trunk was measured and a metal reinforced plate was created to hold 6 batteries. • Each battery weighs 70 lbs. or 420 lbs in the trunk and 280 lbs in the front of the car plus the weight of the motor, transmission and front end of the car. • 3 hours to fabricate.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • This is Curtis who did the fabricating. • Patrick & Jarred helped measure and cut the metal pieces. • Curtis welded the pieces together. • The total fabrication process took 10 hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • It is critical to get two coats of paint on all of the welded metal to avoid rusting. • Jarred painted the two wheel wells.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Patrick painted the battery holder for the trunk. This was done to protect from corrosionnot weather. • Patrick painted the holder under the hood as well. • All painting- 2 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Once the paint dried, the fabricated metal had to be secured into the trunk with lag bolts to hold the tray in place. • This process took 1 hour.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • We had to make cables to run from battery to battery. • We needed to crimp the battery terminal onto the wire. • 24 wires 2 terminals for each wire. 1 hour
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • We had to use small crimpers to crimp the small battery terminals and large crimpers to crimp the large terminals. • 10 batteries-2 terminals each battery; 2 ends to each cable 40 terminals. • Took about 2 hours to make.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Mr. Lorusso is teaching Pat & Jarred how to shrink rubber around the battery terminals.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Once we crimped the battery terminal, we had to shrink rubber around each terminal to protect it from moisture getting into the battery terminal. • Took about 1 hour to shrink all cables.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Mr. Lorusso, Jimmy and Mr. Stewart from the battery company use a volt meter to connect the batteries together to get maximum power. • Took about 1 hour.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • Once the tray was in place, the batteries were installed with foam insulation to protect the batteries in the event of an accident. • Mr. Lorusso is measuring for stabilizer bars. • This took 2 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • These are the two batteries which are in the front of the vehicle. • There are two batteries which are also on each wheel well. • Each battery is connected by the cables and terminals which we made. One cable goes from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. • Then the next cable takes the power to the next battery.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • This is the battery tray with all of the cables connected and the vertical stabilizer bars in place. • The red cable on the side connects the batteries from the back of the car to the front. • It connects under the car using a plastic sleeve. • Running and connecting cables took 4 hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • This is the side view of the car with the two front batteries connected. • The heavy cable is the front to back cable connecting the batteries from the trunk to the hood.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • There is a fire proof board which is on a hinge. These are all of the components which run the car. • The large black box is the controller which talks to the batteries and the motor. • Fabricating board and installing components 4 hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • The throttle is on the left side. This controls the speed of the car. • The battery on the right side of the car. This is the regular car battery which controls the horn, radio and wipers.
Electric Vehicle Conversion: • The alternator of the car was removed with the motor. There is a DC-DC converter which runs off of the other batteries which charges the car battery.
Electric Car Conversion: • This is the board with the hinge up. • The red cables connect the controller to the motor.
Electric Vehicle Conversion-What’s Next? ? • The battery charger needs to be connected. • We are going to install it by the gas tank. You will have to open the gas tank to plug in the batteries. 2 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion-What’s Next? ? • To register the car, there needs to be a stencil that shows this is an electric vehicle - 290 Auto Body to complete along with fixing the scratch on drivers door- 6 hours • We are going to replace the drivers seat because there is a rip in it- 2 hours • We need to install the gauges to show the power in the batteries – 4 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion-What’s Next? ? • Wash & polish the car inside and out- 3 hours. • Charge the batteries for 8 hours- Drive Car for 10 miles and recharge batteries 3 times. • Bring Car to Auction!
Electric Vehicle-TIME LINE RECAP: • • • Decision Preparation. Project Proposal. Research/buy car Budget proposal Pre Engine Removal Pick up Parts/clutch plate Clutch Plate Preparation/install Stabilize Motor Battery holder fabrication/welding Painting & Installing Battery holders 3 hours 4 hours 2 hours 3 hours 5 hours 4 hours 15 hours 10 hours 3 hours
Electric Vehicle-TIME LINE RECAP: • • • Cutting & Crimping Cables Battery Installation Cable Connection (All) Board Fabrication Assemble Components on board Install Battery Charger Stencil & Body Work Replace Drivers Seat Install gauges Clean & Polish car • TOTAL TIME ALLOCATED TO CONVERSION 4 hours 3 hours 4 hours 2 hours 6 hours 2 hours 4 hours 3 hours 86 HOURS
Electric Vehicle- What Did We Learn? • We learned to use a step by step process. • We learned how to use ratchets, lifts, engine hoists, blow torches, laser saws, band saws, and all other types of cool tools. • We learned that no mechanical project is too big as long as you have great mechanics. • Electric Vehicles will really help save our environment. • Electric Vehicles can save thousands of dollars in fuel costs. • The United States should continue to invest in alternative fuel sources. • Small environment changes will make a difference. We can make a difference! We did make a difference.
Electric Vehicle- Thank You • To Mr. Mongillo for inspiring us with the idea. • The Macari Fund & Sister Martha for helping us out financially (Our parents too for making up the difference with money and time. ) • EVA for providing us technical support. • Lorusso Corporation for providing us garage space and great mechanics like Jimmy & Curtis. • 290 Auto Body for stenciling and repairing the door and searching salvage yards for the drivers door.
Electric Vehicle Conversion THANK YOU The future really is in our hands!