- Количество слайдов: 35
EF-Scale Education orientation
Objectives • You will be briefed on: – – – overall goal of this training intended audience the structure of the training – Lesson 1 – Lesson 2 – EFkit – WCM bulletin board – LMS – the role of the WCM and SOO
Motivation for this training • The Goal of this Training is to effectively integrate the EF-Scale into the post storm damage Assessment. • The EF-Scale is complex. • We want to maintain climatological consistency with the past.
We want to avoid repeating this quote in the future “Since 1999, no tornado has been given a F 5 rating. This could be that the damage in Oklahoma City has set an unmatched standard for F 5 damage, or that the application of more stringent assessment of structures has led to lower damage ratings. Figure 5 a and 5 b show the difference in FScale ratings between the years 1990 -1999 and 2000 -2005. ” Mc. Carthy, Schaefer and Edwards, 2006: What Are We Doing with (or to) the FScale? , 23 rd Conf on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 5. 6.
Intended Audience of EF-Scale Training • All NWS employees that participate in damage surveys • WCMs may repurpose the training to people outside the NWS that are interested in helping with surveys – Powerpoints and EFkit available as training materials
EF-Scale Collaborative Training Development Continuing a successful strategy Steve Kuhl, NWS DVN Brian Smith, NWS OAX Jim Mc. Donald & Kishor Mehtor -TTU Tim Marshall, Haag Engineering Chris Maier, Mike Smith, Wayne Presnell, OCWWS Don Burgess – NSSL/OU Dan Mc. Carthy – SPC, Greg Stumpf – NWS MDL Jim La. Due and Ed Mahoney, WDTB Plus reviewers
The Education Plan Two online lessons (All staff to participate in damage surveys) EPSS Collaborative forum (WCMs and guests)
Lesson 1 • Comparison of EF and F scale – Goal – Learn the advantages of using the EF-Scale and the history behind creating the scale. – Objective: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Know why the EF-Scale was created. Identify the methodology in creating the EF-Scale. Understand the structure of the EF-Scale. Know the differences between the EF- and F-Scale. Understand the strengths of the EF-Scale. You will know the limitations of the EF-Scale.
Damage Indicators F-scale damage indicators DI No 1 2 3 4 5 Damage Indicator (DI) One- Two-family houses Trees size of airborne debris Non-reinforced masonry buildings Reinforced concrete structures residences Commercial/retail structures Schools Professional buildings Metal buildings/canopies Towers/poles vegetation
Degrees of Damage Note some consecutive DODs have larger overlap than others Damage Description EXP LB UB 1 Threshold of visible damage 63 53 80 2 Loss of roof covering material (<20%), gutters and/or awning; loss of vinyl or metal siding 79 63 97 3 Broken glass in doors and windows 96 79 114 4 Uplift of roof deck and loss of significant roof covering material (>20%); collapse of chimney; garage doors collapse inward or outward; failure of porch or carport 97 81 116 5 Entire house shifts off foundation 121 103 141 6 Large sections of roof structure removed; most walls remain standing 122 104 142 7 exterior walls collapsed 132 113 153 8 Most walls collapsed except small interior rooms. 152 127 178 9 All walls collapsed 170 142 198 10 Destruction of engineered and/or well constructed residence; slab swept clean 200 162 220 Wind Speed (mph) DOD Example DODs for a Framed House DI (FR 12 or DI 2) Note that the wind speeds and DOD descriptions have been changed for the higher DODs since August 2006 Objectives: 2, methodology; 3, EF-Scale structure
DOD to Wind Speed to EF-Scale Categories Wind Speed Ranges EF 0 65 -85 EF 1 EF 2 86 -110 111 -135 EF 3 136 -165 EF 4 166 -200 EF 5 >200 Wind Speed in mph, 3 -Second gust Objectives: 3, EF-Scale structure
Comparing F- and EF-scales The EF-scale is a damage scale: speeds were estimated from the damage M 1. 0 F 12 M 0. 8 M 0. 7 M 0. 6 EF-Scale 0 1 2 3 4 5 EF 5 B 1 B 3 B 5 B 7 B 9 EF 1 B 11 EF 0 EF 4 EF 3 F 4 EF 2 F 5 B 17 F 3 F 2 F 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Beaufort Scale Fujita Scale 0. 6 1. 0 Mach Scale
Lesson 2 • Using the EF-Scale to Assess Tornadoes and Tornado Damage – Goal – Learn the step by step process of assessing tornadoes and tornado damage using the EF-Scale. – Objective: 1. Understand the methodology on using the EF-scale to rate an individual Damage Indicator. 2. Given the EFKit and/or the report, you will be able to step through the process of rating a tornado event using the EF-Scale.
EF-Scale tools in lesson 2 A Recommendation for the Enhanced Fujita Scale http: //www. spc. noaa. gov/efscale/ The EFkit URL
FR 12: Benchmark Continuous Load Path Failing Exceeding Photographs ©Tim Marshall
Case study #1 Hallam, Nebraska 22 May, 2004 Brian E. Smith National Weather Service Valley, NE
Case Study #2 South of Anamosa, Iowa 13 April, 2006 Steve Kuhl National Weather Service Quad Cities IA/IL
One or Two Family Residences (FR 12, DI 2) Return to the aerial photo
One or Two Family Residences (FR 12, DI 2) You make the call. • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Return to the aerial photo
One or Two Family Residences (FR 12, DI 2) • • • DODs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Return to the aerial photo
EF-Scale tools A Recommendation for the Enhanced Fujita Scale http: //www. spc. noaa. gov/efscale/ The EFkit http: //wdtb. noaa. gov/courses/ef-scale
EFkit main display Scroll through examples in the same DOD Scroll through DODs Scroll through DIs
EFkit DOD page Scroll between UB and LB Expected Wind Speed EF rating
Collaborative Environment • Online WCM bulletin board – Interface with EF-scale experts – Supports QRT process – Share your findings, experts learn from you • https: //apps. weather. gov/WCMboard/
Setting up an RSS account in Thunderbird • If you do not have an RSS News and Blogs account… • • • Click on “tools” menu Click on “account settings” Click on “Add Account” Click “Finish” on account wizard Click “OK” on acccount settings Done
Setting up an RSS feed on the WCM Bulletin Board https: //apps. weather. gov/WCMboard/smartfeed_url. php Select RSS 2. 0
Setting up an RSS feed on the WCM Bulletin Board https: //apps. weather. gov/WCMboard/smartfeed_url. php Generate and copy URL Select RSS 2. 0
Adding the RSS feed into Thunderbird • • • Select RSS News & Blogs in folders window, then click “manage subscriptions”. Click on the “Add” button. Paste the RSS URL into the “Feed URL” text box. Click OK, then close RSS subscriptions windows and RSS Account Settings Window. It’s done. See what it looks like in Thunderbird next.
RSS appearance in Thunderbird Fully functional forum page in your e-mail browser
LMS and the EF-scale course • NWS staff take the course in the LMS • Facilitator Duties (current AWOC facilitator) – Assign a Learning Path (NWS EF-Scale) – “Complete” the two lessons in the learning path • LMS Resources – WDTB LMS support page: http: //www. wdtb. noaa. gov/LMS/index. asp – http: //e-learning. doc. gov
Course Completion Requirements • Complete the two lessons in the LMS. • To complete each lesson: – – – Take the post-lesson quiz Complete the post-lesson survey Student gets certificate of completion
The role of the SOO and WCM SOO or AWOCfac Monitor in-house training Work with WCM on LMS Collaboration on in-house training Ensure damage surveyers complete training Outreach training Interface with experts Leverage external people in survey support
Timeline M A M J J Development A S O N D J Delivery Nov 01, 2006: EF-Scale training delivery begins Feb 01, 2007: EF-Scale replaces F-Scale F
To Summarize • EF-scale training is for anyone who would like to assist in damage surveying of tornadoes and wind events – NWS staff and outside stakeholders • EF-scale training will consist of – – – Two lessons on the LMS EFkit Online collaborative forum for WCMs and other interested folks • Any NWS damage surveyer must complete the two lessons – Outside NWS people should be equivalently exposed to EF-scale training
Summary: contd • The SOO/AWOCfac works with the WCM to train NWS staff • The WCM has the power to train external interested people in the EF-scale and damage surveying • NWS encourages outside support in damage surveying • Online EF-scale site at WDTB – http: //www. wdtb. noaa. gov/courses/ef-scale/