e-Government Public Sector Reform in Thailand Republic of

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e-Government: Public Sector Reform in Thailand Republic of Korea Rewat Sangsuriyong (Ph. D) Vichien e-Government: Public Sector Reform in Thailand Republic of Korea Rewat Sangsuriyong (Ph. D) Vichien Tansirikongkhon (Ph. D) Burapha University 5 th Korean Studies Association of Southeast Asia University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Hanoi Vietnam 1

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Country Profile Politic and Economic Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Country Profile Politic and Economic e-Government Benchmarking ICT Policies and Organization e-Government e-Education e-Health Progressive Factors 2

Country Profiles Profile Area (km 2) Population (2011) Urban population (2010) Provinces Thailand Republic Country Profiles Profile Area (km 2) Population (2011) Urban population (2010) Provinces Thailand Republic of Korea 513, 120 99, 720 64, 076, 033 49, 779, 000 34 82 76+1 8+1 Political System Head of Executive Parliament Prime minister (4 year) President (5 year) Economic crisis (Year) 1997 1998 GDP growth (2011 %) 0 4 4, 972 22, 424 Upper middle income High income: OECD GDP per capita (2011 U$) Income level Source: CIA, 2012 and World Bank, 2012 3

Politic and Economic: 1950’s Autocratic Leader • Syngman Rhee/ Field Marshal Piboon • Electoral Politic and Economic: 1950’s Autocratic Leader • Syngman Rhee/ Field Marshal Piboon • Electoral fraud brought about the nationwide political protest • The coming of the military junta into politics with the height of cold war and anti-communist sentiment • Threat from the north: Threat from the east • Autocratic Government were supported by the US 4

Politic and Economic: 1960 s Economic Development without Political Development • General Park Chung Politic and Economic: 1960 s Economic Development without Political Development • General Park Chung Hee/Field Marshal Sari and Thanom • Military order followed by self coup d’etat and the promulgation of the Yusin constitution • Military order followed by self coup d’etat and the promulgation of the Provisional constitution • Large scale protest in ROK but very few protests in Thailand • Introduce the centralized economic plan • The expansion of the public sector in both countries 5

Politic and Economic: 1970 s Political Protest and Suppression • Unequal development and unequal Politic and Economic: 1970 s Political Protest and Suppression • Unequal development and unequal income distribution the rise of Chaebo • Labor movement and student protest for the democratic constitution • The rise of Chun Doo-hwan and the Kwangju suppression in 1980 • Political change in Thailand, the snap democracy with the civilian government and the return to the autocratic government • Change in US foreign policy and the declining of cold war in 1971 • The oil shock and the decline of world economy at the late 1970’s • The creation of the state enterprise by the suggestion of the world bank 6

Politic and Economic: 1980 s Political transition from authoritarian to democracy • President Chun Politic and Economic: 1980 s Political transition from authoritarian to democracy • President Chun Doo-hwan/General Prem • Suppression of political opposition leaders and the nationwide protest lead by the alliance of the university students, the labor union, and the church amid the world economic slump • Compromise between military and civilian politicians • Deficit and debt crisis, the economic assistant from IMF and the first wave of external influenced public reform 7

Politic and Economic: 1990 s the civilian government and its challenge • President Roh Politic and Economic: 1990 s the civilian government and its challenge • President Roh Tae-woo, the couple KIM/General Chartchai, the Coup, and the Bloody May • The political protest and the new constitution lead to the civilian government Kim Dae-Jung and Kim Young-sam • The political protest: the bloody May 1992, the civilian government, and the political reform movement lead to the 1997 constitution. • Debt driven economy amid globalization environment, the financial crisis 1997 and the second eave of external influenced public reform 8

Politic and Economic: 2000’s the consolidated democratic regime/the political turmoil • President Roh Moo-hyun Politic and Economic: 2000’s the consolidated democratic regime/the political turmoil • President Roh Moo-hyun and President Lee Myung-bak/Thaksin • The civilian supremacy and the economic recovery • The public reform to strengthen the competitiveness of all sectors 9

e-Government Benchmarking Source: UN, 2012 10 e-Government Benchmarking Source: UN, 2012 10

ICT Policies Stage Government Centric (past 2000) Thailand Republic of Korea Technology Policies: Data ICT Policies Stage Government Centric (past 2000) Thailand Republic of Korea Technology Policies: Data centers, Communication network, Data exchanges and Computer network Organization Policies: Committee, Agency and CIO Citizen Centric (2000 - Present) Early Stage: Integrated systems and e-Service delivery pilot projects Late Stage: e-Government m-Government 11

Host Organization Electronic Government Agency (Public Organization) Informatization Strategy Office 12 Host Organization Electronic Government Agency (Public Organization) Informatization Strategy Office 12

e-Government 20 Ministries and 13 Independent agencies 17 Ministries and 24 Independent agencies Government e-Government 20 Ministries and 13 Independent agencies 17 Ministries and 24 Independent agencies Government Contact Center www. gc. go. th Thailand e. Government www. egov. go. th Minwon 24 www. minwon. go. kr 13

Core e-Service Comparisons Thailand Republic of Korea e-Registration e-Tax e-Vehicle e-Customs Social Insurance Information Core e-Service Comparisons Thailand Republic of Korea e-Registration e-Tax e-Vehicle e-Customs Social Insurance Information Immigration Control System National Disaster Management System Services 14

e-Administration of Thailand Citizen Data BANGKOK : Districts Citizen Services Ministry of Interior Ministry e-Administration of Thailand Citizen Data BANGKOK : Districts Citizen Services Ministry of Interior Ministry of Finance Ministry of Transport PATAYA National Electronic Registration System Royal Thai Police e-Revenue e-Customs e-Excise e-Car Tax Renewal e-Driver ‘s License e-Immigration REGION : Districts Ministry of Foreign Affairs e-Passport LOCAL : Municipals Ministry of Commerce e-Starting Business 15

e-Local Administration of Thailand Ministry of Interior Department of Local Administration e-Local Admin MIS e-Local Administration of Thailand Ministry of Interior Department of Local Administration e-Local Admin MIS Central Administration National Electronic Registration System e-Registration Department of Provincial Administration Local Office Birth Resident Death Smartcard Counter Service Bangkok, Pattaya and Municipals Web site Access 16

e-Local Administration Comparisons Local Thailand Local Government 7, 851+2 Cities Initiatives Internet TAMBON (Sub. e-Local Administration Comparisons Local Thailand Local Government 7, 851+2 Cities Initiatives Internet TAMBON (Sub. District) Project Resident Registration Vehicle Registration Certified Papers Wireless Republic of Korea 232 Cities Local Government Information Network System Project Large Cities and Municipalities All - All Birth, Resident and Death Resident, Vehicle, Real Estate Large Cities and Municipalities All 17

Example: e-Vehicle in Thailand Drive Thru For Tax e-Training e-Exam e-Auction Super Number e-Driving Example: e-Vehicle in Thailand Drive Thru For Tax e-Training e-Exam e-Auction Super Number e-Driving Counter Service e-Driver License Online Car Tax Renewal 18

e-Participation of Thailand Processes Organization Goal Legislation Thai National Assembly Meeting live broadcast Administration e-Participation of Thailand Processes Organization Goal Legislation Thai National Assembly Meeting live broadcast Administration The Secretarial of the Cabinet Published the cabinet resolution Petition The Prime Minister's Office of the Ombudsman Thailand Tool Internet Website Phone, Website and e-Mail Citizen plaintiffs Government Agencies Website Service Delivery Thai Post Track item delivery Decision Making - - - Policy Making - - - Website 19

e-Education of Thailand Distance Learning Via Satellite TV Internet DLTV NEd. Net Primary School e-Education of Thailand Distance Learning Via Satellite TV Internet DLTV NEd. Net Primary School Secondary School Vocational Education Universities One Tablet Per Child Education Institutes Telecenter Thailand Knowledge Center 20

e-Education Comparison ICT Literacy Nation Agenda m-Education Thailand 1980 s Reforming Education with ICT e-Education Comparison ICT Literacy Nation Agenda m-Education Thailand 1980 s Reforming Education with ICT 1996 to present e-Education policy 2006, OLPC 2011 -2012, OTPC Republic of Korea 2006 -2010 u-Learning 21

e-Health of Thailand UHCS (Universal Health Care Scheme) CSMBS (Civil Servants’ Medical Benefit Scheme) e-Health of Thailand UHCS (Universal Health Care Scheme) CSMBS (Civil Servants’ Medical Benefit Scheme) GFMIS (Government Fiscal Management Information System) + HIS (Hospital Information System) e-Banking SSS (Social Security Scheme) 22

e-Health Comparison Events Healthcare Security System Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Mega Project Thailand 1. e-Health Comparison Events Healthcare Security System Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Mega Project Thailand 1. Civil Servants’ Medical Benefit Scheme 2. Social Security Scheme 3. Universal Health Care Scheme 1997 Republic of Korea National Health Insurance Program End of 1990 s Doesn’t have a specific legislation to protect privacy. Telemedicine 1998 -2003 N/A 2011 End of 1980 s m-Health mini-EMR, Family Folder Conlector = FFC N/A U-health 2013 (u-Government) 2015 (Fully) e-Health Policy 23

The Progressive Factors Political Socioeconomic Technology e-Government Progressive 24 The Progressive Factors Political Socioeconomic Technology e-Government Progressive 24

Political Factors 2001 NECTEC www. thaigov. net 2003 MICT 2006 Coup d'etat www. ecitizen. Political Factors 2001 NECTEC www. thaigov. net 2003 MICT 2006 Coup d'etat www. ecitizen. go. th 2010 MINWON 24 www. minwon. go. kr www. 1111. go. th www. egov. go. th 2002 Gateway Established 2011 Winner of the United Nations Public Service Award and 25

Socio-economic Factors Socio- economic Indicators GDP growth (%), 2000 -2010 General government final consumption Socio-economic Factors Socio- economic Indicators GDP growth (%), 2000 -2010 General government final consumption expenditure (% growth), 2000 -2010 Social contributions (% of revenue), 2003 -2010 Public spending on education, total (% of GDP), 2001 -2009 Urban population (%), 2010 Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%), 2000 -2010 Household final consumption expenditure (% growth), 2000 -2010 Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above), 2005 Source: World Bank, 2012 and Trading Economics, 2012 Thailand Average Slop 4. 40 -0. 15 Republic of Korea Average Slop 4. 57 -0. 32 4. 90 0. 54 4. 45 0. 11 4. 90 0. 20 15. 66 0. 11 4. 18 -0. 08 4. 32 0. 09 34. 0 60. 2 71. 6 -0. 004 58. 84 -0. 05 3. 97 -0. 39 3. 64 -0. 54 93. 51 N/A 26

Technological Factors Technology Indicators High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports), 2000 -2009 ICT goods Technological Factors Technology Indicators High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports), 2000 -2009 ICT goods exports (% of total goods exports) ICT goods imports (% total goods imports) Telephone lines (per 100 people), 2000 -2010 Fixed broadband Internet subscribers (per 100 people), 2002 -2010 Internet users (per 100 people) Mobile cellular subscriptions (100 people), 2000 -2010 Thailand Republic of Korea Average Slop 3. 63 0. 06 31. 31 - 0. 47 23. 30 18. 37 -0. 93 -1. 02 28. 26 15. 79 -1. 41 -0. 99 10. 15 0. 11 53. 16 -0. 10 1. 48 0. 57 28. 95 1. 71 13. 50 1. 87 68. 81 1. 00 52. 98 10. 58 81. 98 4. 64 Source: World Bank, 2012; Trading Economics, 2012 and National Statistical Office of Thailand, 2006 27

Information Society 2010 (Access Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 28 Information Society 2010 (Access Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 28

Information Society 2010 (Use Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 29 Information Society 2010 (Use Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 29

Information Society 2010 (Skills Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 30 Information Society 2010 (Skills Indicators) Source: ITU, 2011 30

References • International Telecommunication Union. (2011). Measuring the Information Society. Retrieved August 29, 2012, References • International Telecommunication Union. (2011). Measuring the Information Society. Retrieved August 29, 2012, form http: //www. itu. int/net/pressoffice/backgrounders/general/pdf/5. pdf • National Statistical Office of Thailand. (2006). The 2006 Information and Communication Technology Survey (Household). Retrieved August 18, 2012, form http: //service. nso. go. th/nso_center/project/search_center/23 project-th. htm • O’ Donnell, M. and Turner, M. (2012). Public Sector Reform and e-Government in Korea. The paper prepared for proceeding the 5 th Korea n Studies Association of Southeast Asia (KOSASA). • Sangsuriyong R. and Tansirikongkhon V. (2012). e-Government: Public Sector Reform in Thailand Republic of Korea. The paper prepared for proceeding the 5 th Korea n Studies Association of Southeast Asia (KOSASA). • Trading Economics. (2012). Fixed broadband Internet subscribers (per 100 people) in Thailand. Retrieved August 18, 2012, form http: //www. tradingeconomics. com/thailand/fixedbroadband-internet-subscribers-per-100 -people-wb-data. html • UN. (2012). UN e-Government Survey 2012: E-Government for the People. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http: //www 2. unpan. org/egovkb/global_reports/12 report. htm • World Bank. (2012). World Development Indicators (WDI) & Global Development Finance (GDF). Retrieved August 18, 2012, form http: //databank. worldbank. org/ddp/home. do? Step=12&id=4&CNO=2 31




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