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Dropout Prevention in WV Shelly De. Berry Student Success Advocate Coordinator West Virginia Department Dropout Prevention in WV Shelly De. Berry Student Success Advocate Coordinator West Virginia Department of Education [email protected] k 12. wv. us

WV Dropout Data 2008 -09 Ø Ø Ø Ø 124, 388 total enrolled grades WV Dropout Data 2008 -09 Ø Ø Ø Ø 124, 388 total enrolled grades 7 – 12 3, 527 students dropped out grades 7 – 12 2. 8 % statewide dropout rate 4 counties had 4% and above dropout rate 19 counties had 3% - 3. 9% dropout rate 3 counties had 0 – 1% dropout rate 83. 3% graduation rate using Leaver rate calculation (slightly above the national average)

Dropout Prevention Plan ¥ National Governor’s Association Grant to establish a state-wide dropout prevention Dropout Prevention Plan ¥ National Governor’s Association Grant to establish a state-wide dropout prevention plan. ¥ ¥ Policy and program audit House Bill 4593 – All counties are to develop a dropout prevention plan that includes: ¥ ¥ ¥ increasing the graduation rate for the county, identifying at the earliest age students who are at risk of dropping out and provide additional options to at risk students.

Who Are Students At Risk? A student at risk is “someone who is unlikely Who Are Students At Risk? A student at risk is “someone who is unlikely to graduate on schedule with both the skills and the selfesteem necessary to exercise meaningful options in the areas of work, leisure, culture, civic affairs, and inter/intrapersonal relationships. ” (Bailey & Stegelin, 2003) 4 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Dropout Prevention: A National Issue Students With Disabilities ¥ ¥ 5 Nationwide, dropout rates Dropout Prevention: A National Issue Students With Disabilities ¥ ¥ 5 Nationwide, dropout rates among students with disabilities for all categories of disability combined is approximately double that of general education peers. Dropout rates vary substantially among the various categories of disability. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Teen Pregnancy Statistics ¥ Teen girls in the bottom 20% of basic reading and Teen Pregnancy Statistics ¥ Teen girls in the bottom 20% of basic reading and math skills are five times more likely to become mothers over a two-year high school period than teen girls in the top 20%. ¥ Male and female students with low academic achievement are twice as likely to become parents by their senior year of high school compared to students with high academic achievement. (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2003) 6 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Grade Retention and School Dropout ¥ One grade – increases risk by 40% ¥ Grade Retention and School Dropout ¥ One grade – increases risk by 40% ¥ Two grades – increases risk by 90% (Roderick, M. PDK Research Bulletin, No. 15, 1995) 7 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Characteristics of Dropouts ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ 8 Absent more than 10 days Participated Characteristics of Dropouts ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ 8 Absent more than 10 days Participated in no school activities Received more counseling Disliked school Failed 3 -5 classes Retained one year Received 5 -9 discipline referrals Were identified in middle school National Dropout Prevention Center/Network (Huffman, K. L. , WVU Dissertation, 1999)

Reasons for Leaving School ¥ ¥ ¥ Classes were not interesting Misses too many Reasons for Leaving School ¥ ¥ ¥ Classes were not interesting Misses too many days and 43% could not catch up Spent time with people who were not interested in school Had too much freedom and not 38% enough rules in my life Was failing in school (The Silent Epidemic: Perspective of High School Dropouts, 2006) 9 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network 47% 42% 35%

Students’ Reasons for Staying in School ¥ Supportive family ¥ Involvement with committed adult Students’ Reasons for Staying in School ¥ Supportive family ¥ Involvement with committed adult ¥ Persevering attitude ¥ Respectful relationship with teachers ¥ Satisfaction with learning experiences ¥ Relevant curriculum ¥ Fair discipline policies (Christenson et al. , 2000) 10 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Attendance and Truancy: The Impact on Dropout Truancy (excessive absenteeism) has been identified as Attendance and Truancy: The Impact on Dropout Truancy (excessive absenteeism) has been identified as one of the top ten major problems in our schools. (De. Kalb, J. , 1999) 11 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Compulsory School Age ¥ House ¥ Raised Bill 4593 to age 17 years old Compulsory School Age ¥ House ¥ Raised Bill 4593 to age 17 years old beginning with the Freshmen class of 2011 -12.

Variables Associated With Dropouts Status Variables ¥ ¥ ¥ Age, gender Socioeconomic background Ethnicity Variables Associated With Dropouts Status Variables ¥ ¥ ¥ Age, gender Socioeconomic background Ethnicity Native language Mobility Family structure (Lehr et al. , Essential Tools, 2004) 13 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Variables Associated With Dropouts Alterable Variables ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ Grades, retention Disruptive behavior Variables Associated With Dropouts Alterable Variables ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ Grades, retention Disruptive behavior Absenteeism School policies, climate Sense of belonging Attitude toward school Support in the home (Lehr et al. , Essential Tools, 2004) 14 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Categories of Factors Contributing To Students Dropping Out ¥ Individual factors ¥ Family factors Categories of Factors Contributing To Students Dropping Out ¥ Individual factors ¥ Family factors ¥ School factors ¥ Community factors 15 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Individual Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 16 Lack of future orientation Inadequate peer relationships Drug Individual Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 16 Lack of future orientation Inadequate peer relationships Drug abuse Pregnancy Special learning needs Depression National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Family Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 17 Poverty Low expectations Abuse Mobility of family Parent Family Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 17 Poverty Low expectations Abuse Mobility of family Parent level of education Language and literacy levels National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

School Factors Lack of program for challenged students ¥ No significant, interested adult ¥ School Factors Lack of program for challenged students ¥ No significant, interested adult ¥ Lack of alternatives for learning ¥ Lack of active learning instruction ¥ No individual learning plans ¥ Behavior and discipline issues ¥ Retention policies ¥ 18 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Community Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 19 Lack of involvement with schools Lack of support Community Factors ¥ ¥ ¥ 19 Lack of involvement with schools Lack of support for schools Non-caring environment Low expectations Violence Few recreational facilities National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

While no one factor or even several factors put students at risk, combinations of While no one factor or even several factors put students at risk, combinations of factors can help identify potential dropouts. 20 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

The Bad News About Dropout Prevention n Awareness is lacking by most people n The Bad News About Dropout Prevention n Awareness is lacking by most people n Apathy is common and the issue is seen as someone else’s problem n Applied knowledge is not always used by decision makers n Acquisition of information about success is inadequate 21 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

The Good News About Dropout Prevention ¥ ¥ Independent ¥ Interrelated ¥ 22 Identifiable The Good News About Dropout Prevention ¥ ¥ Independent ¥ Interrelated ¥ 22 Identifiable Irrefutable National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Sixth Grade Predictors of “Falling Off Track” ¥ Attending school 80% or less of Sixth Grade Predictors of “Falling Off Track” ¥ Attending school 80% or less of the time ¥ Receiving a poor final behavior mark ¥ Failing math ¥ Failing English (Balfanz and Herzog, 2006) 23 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Dropout Prevention Is Not Rocket Science but it is Brain Surgery Behavior Modification 24 Dropout Prevention Is Not Rocket Science but it is Brain Surgery Behavior Modification 24 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Academic Achievement Civic Responsibility

Effective Strategies for Increasing Graduation Rates Dr. Jay Smink, Executive Director National Dropout Prevention Effective Strategies for Increasing Graduation Rates Dr. Jay Smink, Executive Director National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University

A School and Community Perspective §Systemic renewal §School and community collaboration §Safe learning environments A School and Community Perspective §Systemic renewal §School and community collaboration §Safe learning environments 26 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Systemic Renewal n n n n 27 Policies Populations Personnel Programs Practices Partners Pennies Systemic Renewal n n n n 27 Policies Populations Personnel Programs Practices Partners Pennies National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

School-Community Collaboration Schools can no longer be islands in communities with no bridges to School-Community Collaboration Schools can no longer be islands in communities with no bridges to the mainland. Bridges must be built to connect schools, homes, and communities. (Center for Mental Health in Schools, 2001) 28 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Creating Safe Learning Environments A Safe Learning Environment ¥ Provides a warm and welcoming Creating Safe Learning Environments A Safe Learning Environment ¥ Provides a warm and welcoming atmosphere that fosters a spirit of acceptance and caring for every child ¥ Is free of intimidation, violence, and fear ¥ Clearly communicates behavior expectations that are consistently enforced and fairly applied ¥ Builds 29 positive, responsible character National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Early Interventions ¥Family Engagement ¥Early Childhood Education ¥Early Literacy Development 30 National Dropout Prevention Early Interventions ¥Family Engagement ¥Early Childhood Education ¥Early Literacy Development 30 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Family Engagement When families are engaged in children’s learning, students are more likely to: Family Engagement When families are engaged in children’s learning, students are more likely to: ¥ Attend school regularly ¥ Display more positive attitudes about school ¥ ¥ Graduate from high school and enroll in postsecondary programs Refrain from destructive activities such as alcohol use and violence (Henderson & Mapp, 2003) 31 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Early Childhood Education Impact of Early Childhood Education. . . Perry Preschool Study – Early Childhood Education Impact of Early Childhood Education. . . Perry Preschool Study – High-quality Head Start programs Decreased level of school dropouts ¥ Lowered truancy ¥ Reduced teen pregnancy ¥ Lessened need to be in Special Education ¥ (Barnett, 1995) 32 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Early Literacy Development Research ¥ n At-risk students who have a strong reading teacher Early Literacy Development Research ¥ n At-risk students who have a strong reading teacher for two consecutive years can be successful readers. (Wren, 2003) Reading aloud to children is the single most important activity for building the knowledge required for success in reading. (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2002). 33 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Basic Core Strategies ¥ Mentoring ¥ Service-Learning ¥ Alternative Schooling ¥ After-School Program Experiences Basic Core Strategies ¥ Mentoring ¥ Service-Learning ¥ Alternative Schooling ¥ After-School Program Experiences 34 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Mentoring has many formats … Traditional: One adult with one student Peer: One older Mentoring has many formats … Traditional: One adult with one student Peer: One older youth with a younger youth Group/Team: One or more adults with several youth Telementoring: 35 One adult with one youth using the Internet National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Service-Learning Essential Elements of Good Service-Learning Programs ¥ ¥ Integrated into the curriculum Active Service-Learning Essential Elements of Good Service-Learning Programs ¥ ¥ Integrated into the curriculum Active learning Interesting and exciting Connected to community 36 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Alternative Schooling Innovative Approaches n Self-contained classrooms n Magnet schools n Separate alternative schools Alternative Schooling Innovative Approaches n Self-contained classrooms n Magnet schools n Separate alternative schools n School-within-a-school n Residential programs n Middle College/Early College 37 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Afterschool Program Experiences Components of Successful Programs ¥ ¥ Enrichment and accelerated learning ¥ Afterschool Program Experiences Components of Successful Programs ¥ ¥ Enrichment and accelerated learning ¥ Supervised recreation ¥ Community service ¥ Collaboration and partnerships ¥ 38 Academic focus Active family involvement National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Making the Most of Instruction ¥ Professional development ¥ Active learning ¥ Educational technology Making the Most of Instruction ¥ Professional development ¥ Active learning ¥ Educational technology ¥ Individualized instruction ¥ Career and technical education 39 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Professional Development The single largest factor affecting the academic growth of students is the Professional Development The single largest factor affecting the academic growth of students is the differences in the effectiveness of individual classroom teachers. (Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System, Sanders, 1998) 40 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Active Learning Teaching Strategies Include ¥ ¥ Multiple intelligences/learning styles theory ¥ 41 Cooperative Active Learning Teaching Strategies Include ¥ ¥ Multiple intelligences/learning styles theory ¥ 41 Cooperative learning Project-based learning National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Educational Technology Research on Using Technology ¥ Is a positive influence on students at Educational Technology Research on Using Technology ¥ Is a positive influence on students at risk of failure (Day, 2002) ¥ Teaches “real work applications” to help students succeed outside the classroom ¥ Increases student motivation, raises the success rate of students performing complex tasks, and changes classroom roles and organization (Means, 1997) 42 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Individualized Instruction Encourages the learner to be the producer of knowledge with. . . Individualized Instruction Encourages the learner to be the producer of knowledge with. . . ¥ ¥ ¥ 43 Problem-based learning & reciprocal teaching Peer tutoring Cooperative learning Journaling Hands-on projects Role play and simulation National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Career and Technical Education Career Technical Education (CTE) includes a wide array of career-based Career and Technical Education Career Technical Education (CTE) includes a wide array of career-based instruction ¥ ¥ ¥ 44 K-12 career education A comprehensive guidance program School- and work-based experiences National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

Career and Technical Education Impact of CTE ¥ ¥ Career guidance increased students remaining Career and Technical Education Impact of CTE ¥ ¥ Career guidance increased students remaining in school from 50% to 85%. (Bauer, 1992) ¥ 45 Enrollment in CTE does not increase the likelihood of students dropping out. (USDE, 2003) Higher percentages of CTE experiences lower the probability of dropping out. (Plank, 2001) National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

k oo L t th a As ta! a e. D kt GRADUATION RATES k oo L t th a As ta! a e. D kt GRADUATION RATES he Qu es tio Is it GOOD enough? Can we do BETTER? What can we do to be the BEST? DROPOUT PREVENTION PLAN Does it reflect the BEST research available? How can we do it even BETTER? Will it be GOOD enough for your children? 46 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network ns !

Contact Information National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University 209 Martin Street Clemson, SC 29631 Contact Information National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Clemson University 209 Martin Street Clemson, SC 29631 -1555 Phone: 864 -656 -2599 Fax: 864 -656 -0136 E-mail: [email protected] edu www. dropoutprevention. org 47 National Dropout Prevention Center/Network

“Every school-day in America, 171 school buses loaded with children leave school never to “Every school-day in America, 171 school buses loaded with children leave school never to return. That is our daily dropout rate. ” Quoted by Franklin Schargel in his book: "Helping Students Graduate, published by: Eye on Education.