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Digital Library, Institutional Repository and Open Access Movement for Universities By Girma A. & Mesfin G. girma [email protected] com &mesfin. [email protected] edu. et Addis Ababa, Ethiopia November 2/2016
Outline Overview of Library Automation Overview of Digital Library Way forward Open access movement and Institutional Repository AAU initiatives in modern library Development Summary
The future of science is Ethiopia, the Future of Ethiopia is Science (Adapted from EC BLOG)
Library Automation • Automation is a process of using the machineries for easily working and saving the human power and time. • The main purpose of library automation is to free the librarians and library staff and to allow them to contribute more meaningfully to spread of knowledge and Information.
Cont’d • Library automation is the general term for information and communications technologies (ICT) that are used to replace manual systems in the library.
Why Library Automation? Information explosion Availability of information in various formats (Print, non-print, graphical, audio-visual etc. ) Different approaches and needs of user Limitation of library (time, space & human power) Duplication in house keeping operation To well management and retrieval of information To search national and international database Impact of communication technology
Cont’d ü To Obtain increased operational efficiencies ü To improve the quality, speed and effectiveness of services ü To improve access to the resources on other networks and systems, including the Web ü To improve the management of their physical and financial resources ü To facilitate wider dissemination of their information products and services ü Enable their participation in resource-sharing library networks ü Increasing numbers of users
8 What is a library Management system? A library management system, also known as an automated library system is a software that has been developed to handle basic housekeeping functions of a library.
Some Tolls for LMS Open source: proprietary software § ABCD Elm. . we will check the available tools § Evergreen § New generation § Koha
Which tool for Academic libraries? Why? q Koha ü Because open sources: No Vendor-Locking üMARC management tools üSuperb Cataloging üComprehensive basic and advanced search üEnriched bibliographic content üWeb-based Staff Client/two interface
Cont’d üPowerful Search and Scalability üSecurity, Accounts and Permissions üExtremely flexible and highly customizable to your library’s unique policies üPatron management
Traditional vs Traditional Libraries Digital library Digital or Electronic Library Print collection All resources in digital form. objects not directly linked with each other. Multi-media and objects are linked and you can navigate within the document More than scholarly content with various validation processes centralized Unlimited access points, distributed collections and access control Scholarly content with validation process Limited access management The physical points and logical organization The physical and logical organization may be correlated. virtually One way interactions Dynamic real time dialogue
Traditional Digital library
Digital library “A digital library service is an assemblage of digital computing, storage, and communications machinery together with the software needed to reproduce, emulate, and extend the services provided by conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting, storing, cataloguing, finding, and disseminating information. ” (Gladney H. M, et. al. 1994) “Digital Libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information…they are an extension and enhancements of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds, static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks” (Borgman, 1996)
Cont. Borgman identifies two major aspects • DL researchers from Computer Science focus on content for user communities and therefore emphasize the enabling technologies • Library professionals appear to emphasize DLs as services However require both the skills of librarians as well as those of computer scientists
What is Digital library § A focused collection of digital objects( text, video, and audio) along with methods for access and retrieval, and for selection, organization, and maintenance of the collection. (Witten and Bainbridge, 2003)
Major Attributes of DL § § § The digital library is not a single entity; The digital library requires technology to link the resources of many; The linkages between the many digital libraries and information services are transparent to the end users; Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a goal; Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates: they extend to digital artefacts that cannot be represented or distributed in printed formats. Association of Research Libraries (1995)
What is Digitization The process of taking traditional library materials that are in form of books and papers and converting them to the electronic form where they can be stored and manipulated by a computer.
Digital Library Mission • To organize the information and make it universally accessible and useful. Online Content Offline Content Billions of web pages Billions of items still unindexed
DL Initiatives Only ~15% of books are in print ~85% of books are out of print and/or out of copyright – these books are only found in libraries GOAL: Create a comprehensive virtual card catalog of all books in all languages, while respecting publishers’ rights Source: Google
Data Production: Issue of Digitization • 1992 • 1997 • 2002 • 2013 • 2018 100 GB/per day 100 GB/hour 100 GB/sec 28875 GB/sec 50000 GB/sec Source: http: //www. vcloudnews. com/every-day-big-data-statistics
Goals of DL- and Its Generation • First Generation Focused on digitization technology, metadata schemes, data management techniques, and digital preservation. • Second-generation digital library Exploring new opportunities and developing new competencies. • Third-generation digital library Focusing on fully integrating digital material into the library’s collections through a modular systems architecture. (Source : Goudar, 2006)
Digital Production Process Quality Product Data Workflow Content Project Quality Management Management
Digital library Process
Standard Meta Data Element For DL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Title Creator Subject and Keywords Description Publisher Contributor Date 8. Format 9. Resource Identifier 10. Resource Type 11. Source 12. Language 13. Relation 14. Coverage 15. Rights Management
What is Dublin Core • Dublin Core is an initiative to create a digital "library card catalog" for the Web. Dublin Core is made up of 15 metadata (data that describes data) elements that offer expanded cataloging information and improved document indexing for search engine programs.
Search engine mindshare • Scientists: • Google • Yahoo • Altavesta • Librarians: • Science Direct • ISI Web of Science • Med. Line • Pub. Med SOURCE: John Regazzi “In a survey for this lecture, librarians and scientists were asked to name the top scientific and medical search resources that they use or are aware of. The difference is startling. ”
The 5 S model of DL • Streams • The flow of information in various formats • Structures • Organizational aspects of the DL • Spaces • Views of components; real or abstract images • Scenarios • Services and behaviors • Societies • Communities and relationships among them
5 S summary Model Primitives Formalisms Objectives Stream Text; video, audio, software program Sequences, types Describes properties of the DL content, encoding and textual material or particular forms of multimedia data. Structure Collection, catalog; hypertext; document; metadata; organizational tools Graphs; nodes; links; labels; hierarchies Specifies organizational aspects of the DL content Space User Interface; index; retrieval model Sets; operations; vector space; measure space; probability space Defines logical and presentational views of several DL components Scenarios Service, event; condition; action Sequence diagrams; collaboration diagrams Details the behavior of DL services Societies Community; managers; actors; classes; relationships; attributes; operators Object-oriented modeling constructs; design patterns Source: http: //www. dlib. vt. edu/projects/5 S-Model Defines managers responsible for running DL services; actors that use those services, and relationships among them
Digital library Vs FTP: Misconception for DL FTP Web based service No require special software Digital Library Web based services Require special software(GSDL) Content management software Not support content mgt Uploading: Drag and Drop or copy and paste Not searchable Uploading : (Meta data creation) q. Link Access to external materials q. Like Web sites, other library collections, or publishers' servers Full text search
Characteristics of Digital Library Contains Electronic or digital format Preserve permanent documents no physical space constraints Multiple access opportunity access from everywhere single document for many user at time Retrievability Efficient information retrieval Powerful search engines Full text search
Benefit of Digital Library A. Improved access They can be accessed virtually from anywhere and at anytime. B. Wider access simultaneous access requests for a document by easily creating multiple instances or copies of the requested document. C. Increase the research out put
Benefit of Digital Library…. D. Improved information sharing. the digital libraries can easily share information with other similar digital libraries and provide enhanced access to users. E. Improved preservation. Since the electronic documents are not prone to physical wear and tear, their exact copies can easily be made F. Minimize cost
Which Type of DL for Universities This is the regular classical library implemented in a fully computerized fashion. SDL is simply a library in which the holdings are digital (scanned or digitized). The SDL is self-contained - the material is localized and centralized.
Federated Digital Library (FDL) This is a federation of several independent SDLs in the network, organized around a common theme, and coupled together on the network. A FDL composes several autonomous SDLs that form a networked library with a transparent user interface. The different SDLs are heterogeneous and are connected via communication networks.
Harvested Digital Library (HDL) 1. 2. This is a virtual library providing summarized access to related material scattered over the network. . Examples of HDLs are the Internet Public Library (IPL) A HDL holds only metadata with pointers to the holdings that are "one click away" in Cyberspace. Developed by Library Professionals, or Computer Scientists
Types of AAU digital Library services I. Digitization of AAU thesis and dissertation Initiated and Implemented in 2007 more than 10, 000 thesis and dissertations in all field of studies are accessible Web address http: //etd. aau. edu. et/ or http: //10. 6. 20. 92/
Types of AAU digital Library services II. Digitization of Ethiopian Journals Ethiopian journals online initiatives Either to perform online publishing and archiving Or uploading the previous issues and creating online access free of fee 7 journal owner agreed and used the system Web address: http: //ejol. aau. edu. et/aauojs or http: //10. 6. 20. 17/aauojs
Types of AAU digital Library services III. Digitization of electronic Book (E-Library services) This project is Initiated in September 2013 and completed in May 2014. Consists of or digitized 20, 000 e- books collection in all field of study. Web site http: //dlib. aau. edu. et
Tools for Digitization Eprint Dspace Greenstone Fedora
Tools and Skills required for DL Implementation tools Eprint Dspace Greenstone Fedora DL Conversation tools Word to pdf , and merging and formatting Djvu to pdf Epub to pdf
Cont’d Basic librarianship: To identify bibliographic information’s or metadata element To assign proper subject heading. Basic computer skills
Introduction Open access (OA) refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access (e. g. access tolls) and free of many restrictions on use (e. g. certain copyright and license restrictions). Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.
44 OA is a public good. Published information is public information and so should be accessible. OA is good for scholarship, good for business, good for development and good for the people. The trend today is not money in a few peoples pockets but information availability to a lot of people to enable the creation of knowledge and innovation and this is what OA seeks to do.
What is an Open Access Publication? 45 Research articles or publications that are freely available on the internet, that permits any user to read, download, copy, distribute or print the articles or publications, … pass them as data to software, or use them lawfully , without any financial, legal, or technical barriers. The only constraint when reproducing, and distributing, and for copyright is to give authors control over the integrity of their work and to properly cite and acknowledge them. (Budapest Open Access Initiative). In effect, an OA publication is one that is freely available on the internet and can be freely used, on condition that the author is properly and accurately acknowledged.
Graph: Open access to scientific publication and research data in the wider context of dissemination and exploitation
Benefits & Challenges of OA to Developing Countries 47 Major Benefits - Unrestricted access to knowledge - Speed and reduced cost of distribution - Access to grey literatures from developing world - Expanded opportunity to publish Major Challenges - Poor State of ICT - limited computer literacy; high cost of internet access limiting access ; low bandwidth. - Copyright issues - authors sign away their rights and so cannot self archive their own papers. - Misconception of Open Access resulting from lack of awareness.
Gold and Green Publication Gold and Green are traditional terms used by the OA community, focused on the how open access is implemented, how the research is provided to the final users. Attributes reader rights (there is an embargo? ) reuse rights (what is the license of the research? CC-BY, CC-BY-SA, or CC-BY-NCND? ) CC – Creative Commons NC – Non-Commercial ND – No Derivatives SA – Share-Alike copyrights (does the author retain copyright, or it's the publisher? )
Cont’d author posting rights (can the author archive the research in other repositories or websites? ) machine readability (is it a PDF or a structure XML file with research data attached in proper formats? ) costs of publishing (who pays for publishing the article? the author or the institution? ) peer review (is the article peer reviewed or not? )
Cont’d But very often you are allowed to take the published article and upload that on an repository: that it's still green OA, but the article is peer reviewed. The peer review factor has been probably the single biggest difference between Green and Gold OA, there are many exceptions. Traditionally, if you uploaded a pre-print on an institutional or disciplinary archive, that was green OA; but if you wanted published in a proper journal (thus, with peer review), that was called gold OA.
OA Repositories – Global (Green Publishing) Open Access Repositories (ROAR) (http: //roar. eprints. org/ ) 1223 in Europe 534 in Asia 471 in North America 266 in South America 91 in Oceania 132 in Africa Directory of Open Access Repositories (Open. DOAR) (www. opendoar. org) 1073 in Europe 484 in North America 391 in Asia 177 in South America 62 in Africa 53
(http: //roar. eprints. org/view/geoname=5 F 1=5 F AF. html. php) October 2016 2013 Ethiopia 54
African Open Access Journals in DOAJ (Gold Publishing) (as at 25 th March 2013) Egypt – 351 South Africa – 56 Nigeria – 26 Tunisia – 10 Kenya – 6 Morocco - 6 Ethiopia – 5 Uganda – 4 Tanzania – 3 Algeria – 2 Ghana - 2 Libya – 2 Burundi – 1 Cote d’Ivoire – 1 Madagascar – 1 Sierra Leone – 1 Zambia – 1 Total = 478 www. doaj. org/doaj? func=by. Country&ui. Language=en 55
Open Access Journals – AJOL (Gold Publishing) About 150 OA Journals out of 450 total Journals in AJOL (as at 25 th March 2013) Nigeria – 48 Senegal – 5 Ghana -5 Egypt – 6 Botswana – 1 Cameroon – 1 South Africa – 40 Eritrea – 1 Libya – 1 Ethiopia – 13 Madagascar – 1 Kenya – 11 56
Some Big African OA Initiatives 57 African Journals Online – 1998 www. ajol. info/ African Digital Library - 1999 africaeducation. org/adl/ Database of African Theses and Dissertations – 2003 www. aau. org/datad Africa’s Open Knowledge Network – 2003 African Online Digital Library www. aodl. org/
OA initiatives in Ethiopia q AAUL has joined in OA movement with electronic graduate thesis and dissertation.
Impact of AAU-Repository at global =>web ranking AAU Repository Sources: http: //repositories. webometrics. info/en/Africa
Open Access initiatives-AAU q Ethiopian Online journal system
Open Access initatives-AAU q q National Digital Institutional Repository Open Research data- Recent movement
Key Open Access Principle q Free availability of knowledge on the public internet permitting users to read, down load, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. q The only constraint on reproduction and distribution and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
Key Open Access Principle--- cont’d q Making research output available to other researchers. q Making research done in other places available to other researchers. q Assisting in bringing together global research output of scientists as well as the scientists themselves. q Enhancing research funding opportunities and collaboration among researchers.
Concluding Remark 65 q q Universities/research institutes need to publish OA peer – reviewed journal articles on the institution’s open journal system , so institutions in Africa must accept it in order to reap its enviable benefits. Universities/research institutes need to deposit their thesis and dissertation on institution’s repository.
Concluding Remark … cont’d 66 q OA initiatives should be registered with all the key international directories , registers and agencies. q Support to young scientists/early career scholars to enable them write effectively – eg. Author. Aid. a global network that provides support, mentoring, resources and training for researchers in developing countries (http: //www. authoraid. info/en/) q q AAU Libraries will create and maintain OA Archives (IRs) in their institutions and assisting authors to self archive and do mediated archiving. AAU community can publishing OA journals, thesis and dissertation with the library setting up and maintaining it.
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