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Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries Muhammad Ajmal Khan Digital, Hybrid & Virtual Libraries Muhammad Ajmal Khan

Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is Library Definitions Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is Library Definitions History Classification Principles Characteristics Myths Challenges Conclusion

What is Library Collection of books, documents, newspapers, audio visual materials kept and organized What is Library Collection of books, documents, newspapers, audio visual materials kept and organized for people to read or borrow. Characteristics 1. Collection of data objects 2. Collection of Metadata Structures 3. Collection of Services 4. Domain Focus 5. Quality Control 6. Preservation

Definitions Digital Library Collection of electronic resources that provides direct/indirect access to a systematically Definitions Digital Library Collection of electronic resources that provides direct/indirect access to a systematically organized collection of digital objects. Hybrid Library Provides services in a mixed-mode, electronic and paper, environment, particularly in a co-coordinated way. Derived from a strand of e. Lib which explored the issues surrounding the retrieval and delivery of information in these types of environment but also investigated the integration of different electronic services so that single search approach could be offered to the End user. Virtual Library Access to electronic information in a variety of remote locations through a local online catalogue or other gateway, such as the internet

History International Perspective ¨Vennever Bush’s Memx Machine, 1945 ¨Invention of Internet 1983 ¨World Wide History International Perspective ¨Vennever Bush’s Memx Machine, 1945 ¨Invention of Internet 1983 ¨World Wide Web by Tim Berners Lee, 1989 ¨Digital Library Initiative I 1992 -1998 ¨Digital Library Initiative II ( 1999 -2002)

History Pakistani Perspective ¨ Karachi Institute of Information Technology Digital Library, 2002 ¨ United History Pakistani Perspective ¨ Karachi Institute of Information Technology Digital Library, 2002 ¨ United Nations Digital Library, 2003 ¨ Iqbal Urdu Cyber Library, 2003 ¨ Higher Education Commission Digital Library ¨ Pak. LAG Digital Library Model, 2005

Memex by Vennever Bush Memex by Vennever Bush

United Nations Digital Library United Nations Digital Library

Characteristics of Digital Library 1. 2. Universal and unlimited access Contents will be in Characteristics of Digital Library 1. 2. Universal and unlimited access Contents will be in digital format which can be utilized only with the help of computer 3. Contents in textual, image, sound and video form 4. Collection to connection

Principles of Digital Library Development 1. Expect Change 2. Know your contents 3. Involve Principles of Digital Library Development 1. Expect Change 2. Know your contents 3. Involve the right people 4. Design usable systems 5. Ensure open access 6. Be(a)ware of data rights 7. Automate whenever possible 8. Adopt and adhere to standards 9. Ensure quality 10. Be concerned about persistence

Components of Digital Library Components of Digital Library

Types of Digital Libraries 1. Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) 2. Federated Digital Library (FDL) Types of Digital Libraries 1. Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) 2. Federated Digital Library (FDL) 3. Harvested Digital Library (HDL)

Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) This is the regular classical library implemented in a fully Stand-alone Digital Library (SDL) This is the regular classical library implemented in a fully computerized fashion. SDL is simply a library in which the holdings are digital (scanned or digitized). The SDL is selfcontained - the material is localized and centralized.

The ACM Digital Library The ACM Digital Library

IEEE Computer Society DL IEEE Computer Society DL

Federated Digital Library (FDL) This is a federation of several independent SDLs in the Federated Digital Library (FDL) This is a federation of several independent SDLs in the network, organized around a common theme, and coupled together on the network. A FDL composes several autonomous SDLs that form a networked library with a transparent user interface. The different SDLs are heterogeneous and are connected via communication networks.

Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertation Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertation

Bibliographic Navigation Tools for Digital Libraries ¨SCOPUS ¨ELIN ¨Knowledge Cite Library ¨Database Advisor ¨OCLS’ Bibliographic Navigation Tools for Digital Libraries ¨SCOPUS ¨ELIN ¨Knowledge Cite Library ¨Database Advisor ¨OCLS’ First. Search

Harvested Digital Library (HDL) This is a virtual library providing summarized access to related Harvested Digital Library (HDL) This is a virtual library providing summarized access to related material scattered over the network. . Examples of HDLs are the Internet Public Library (IPL) 1. A HDL holds only metadata with pointers to the holdings that are "one click away" in Cyberspace. 2. Developed by Library Professionals, or Computer Scientists

Four Corner Stones of Digital Library Community Computer Communication technologies Content Four Corner Stones of Digital Library Community Computer Communication technologies Content

Community 1. Library Professionals 2. Library Users 3. IT Professionals 4. Vendors Community 1. Library Professionals 2. Library Users 3. IT Professionals 4. Vendors

Communication Technologies Communication Networks Web Servers, Bandwidth, Local Area Network, Internet and software Network Communication Technologies Communication Networks Web Servers, Bandwidth, Local Area Network, Internet and software Network standards 1. The Digital Object Identifier; http: //www. doi. org/ 2. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP); http: //www. w 3. org/Protocols/ 3. Persistent URL Home Page; http: //purl. oclc. org/ 4. Z 39. 50; http: //www. loc. gov/z 3950/agency/

Contents Images. BMP. TIF. GIF. PNG. WMF. PICT. PCD. EPS. EMF. CGM. TGA. JPG Contents Images. BMP. TIF. GIF. PNG. WMF. PICT. PCD. EPS. EMF. CGM. TGA. JPG Animation. ANI. FLC Video. AVI. MOV. MPG. QT

Contents Audio. WAV. MID. SND. AUD. mp 3 Web Page. HTML. DHTMLS. XML Text. Contents Audio. WAV. MID. SND. AUD. mp 3 Web Page. HTML. DHTMLS. XML Text. DOC. TXT. RTF. PDF Programs. COM. EXE

Contents Markup standards 1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); http: //www. w 3. org/Mark. Up/ Contents Markup standards 1. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); http: //www. w 3. org/Mark. Up/ 2. Extensible Markup Language (XML); http: //www. w 3. org/XML/ 3. Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML); http: //www. w 3. org/Mark. Up/SGML/

Contents Metadata standards 1. 2. 3. Dublin Core; http: //dublincore. org/ MARC 21; http: Contents Metadata standards 1. 2. 3. Dublin Core; http: //dublincore. org/ MARC 21; http: //Icweb. loc. gov/marc/ Encoded Archival Description (EAD); http: //Icweb. loc. gov/ead/

Computer v. Personal Computer v. Server Machines Computer v. Personal Computer v. Server Machines

Digital Library Conceptual Models Digital Library Conceptual Models

Pak. LAG Digital Library Model Relational Database (My. SQL) Stores Metadata Web Server (Tomcat)/ Pak. LAG Digital Library Model Relational Database (My. SQL) Stores Metadata Web Server (Tomcat)/ Digital Object Repository Web Browser (IE, Netscape etc. ) User

Myths 1. The internet is the digital library 2. Fully automated library is digital Myths 1. The internet is the digital library 2. Fully automated library is digital library 3. The myth of a single digital library or one-window view of digital library collections 4. Digital libraries will provide more equitable access, anywhere, any time 5. Digital libraries will be cheaper than print libraries

Challenges 1. Interoperability Technical, process, language, ( Different platforms etc) 2. Building digital collections Challenges 1. Interoperability Technical, process, language, ( Different platforms etc) 2. Building digital collections 2. a Digitization 2. b Acquisition of original digital works 2. c Access to external materials 3. Metadata 4. Naming, identifiers, and persistence 4. a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) 4. b Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) 4. c Uniform Resource Name (URN) 4. d Digital Object Identifier

Challenges 5. Copyright / rights management 5. a Usage tracking 5. b Identifying and Challenges 5. Copyright / rights management 5. a Usage tracking 5. b Identifying and authenticating users 5. c Providing the copyright status of each digital object, and the restrictions on its use or the fees associated with it 6. Preservation 7. 6. a Preservation of the storage medium 6. b Preservation of access to content

Conclusion The concepts of Digital and Virtual libraries are actually services added to the Conclusion The concepts of Digital and Virtual libraries are actually services added to the traditional libraries wherein the resources which can only be utilized with computers. We hope digital libraries will coexist with traditional libraries whether within them or as separate entities. However the role of professionals will be drastically changed in digital environment. Digital libraries have customers instead of users and provide pull and push information delivery methods.