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Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Shell Scripting hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. in School of Computer Science and Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Shell Scripting hmehta. [email protected] ac. in School of Computer Science and Information Technology hmehta. [email protected]; ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Task 1: There is a text file DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Task 1: There is a text file having data in columns. Store a particular column in a different file. ³ Task 2: Sort a file. ³ Task 3: Apply sorting in the output file of Task 1. ³ Task 4: Store only unique data in the output file. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Task 5: Store the data which satisfy SCSIT DAVV Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Task 5: Store the data which satisfy the given condition. ³ Task 6: Transfer the file to the client’s machine for the further processing. ³ Task 7: Determine whether the executed program completed successfully or not. ³ Task 8: In case of failure produce the signal for error. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Solution #!/bin/ksh HOST=‘ftp. myserverid. mydomain’ USER=‘My. Userid’ PASSWD=‘My. Password‘ FILE=“filename” OUTFILE=“newfile” MAILINGLIST=“supportmail. SCSIT DAVV Solution #!/bin/ksh HOST=‘ftp. myserverid. mydomain’ USER=‘My. Userid’ PASSWD=‘My. Password‘ FILE=“filename” OUTFILE=“newfile” MAILINGLIST=“supportmail. lst” LOG=“logfile” cut –c 5, 6 $FILE| sort| uniq > $OUTFILE awk '{if ($2 > 30) print $1}‘ $OUTFILE hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Solution ftp -n $HOST > /tmp/ftp. worked 2> /tmp/ftp. failed <<END_SCRIPT user DAVV SCSIT Solution ftp -n $HOST > /tmp/ftp. worked 2> /tmp/ftp. failed <>$LOG done fi hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on a particular time (System time). ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Logging the information about the execution DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Logging the information about the execution of a job. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on a particular time (System time) but after successful completion of a job. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to execute a program on a particular time (System time) but after successful completion of a job. Also check for the existence of a particular file. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to know that whether a DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Need to know that whether a particular job completed successfully or not. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Sending Mail/ SMS in case of DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Sending Mail/ SMS in case of error in the execution. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Working like database on the text DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Working like database on the text files. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Fetching columns/ rows from a file, DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Fetching columns/ rows from a file, counting the records, filtering the data, sorting the data, Pattern matching/ replacing. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Handling CSV Files. ? hmehta. scs@dauniv. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Handling CSV Files. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Periodic Monitoring the system activities like DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Periodic Monitoring the system activities like disk space utilization etc. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Sending / Receiving data to / DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Sending / Receiving data to / from Remote location/computer. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Checking for the existence and permission DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Checking for the existence and permission for a file. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: System administrators, for automating many aspects DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: System administrators, for automating many aspects of computer maintenance, user account creation etc. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Application package installation tools. ? hmehta. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Application package installation tools. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Application startup scripts, especially unattended applications. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Application startup scripts, especially unattended applications. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Data Synchronization. ? hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Data Synchronization. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Interface between Os and other tools/language DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Interface between Os and other tools/language like Java, Oracle, FTP. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Log Rotation. ? hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Log Rotation. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Purging of old files and data. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Purging of old files and data. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Removing blank files and File comparison. DAVV SCSIT Applications of Shell Scripts ³ Requirement: Removing blank files and File comparison. ? hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT The Shell & Shell Script ³ A shell is a command interpreter DAVV SCSIT The Shell & Shell Script ³ A shell is a command interpreter turns the input text in to actions. ±Bourne Shell ±Bourne Again Shell ±Korn Shell ±C Shell ±etc. . . . ³ A Shell Script is a logical sequence of commands. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT The Anatomy of a Command ³ grep Command –i Option localhost /etc/hosts DAVV SCSIT The Anatomy of a Command ³ grep Command –i Option localhost /etc/hosts Arguments Options Change the behavior of a command Arguments control what the command act upon hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Running the Shell Script ³ Type the name of a program and DAVV SCSIT Running the Shell Script ³ Type the name of a program and some command line options. ³ The shell reads this line, finds the program and runs it, feeding it the specified options. ³ The shell establishes 3 I/O channels: ² Standard Input ² Standard Output ² Standard Error hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT The Shebang (#!) ³ ³ The Shebang is a special comment. It DAVV SCSIT The Shebang (#!) ³ ³ The Shebang is a special comment. It specifies which shell to use to execute this shell script. If no “#!” found, the current shell will be used to run the script. Example #!/bin/ksh hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Two ways to execute the Shell ³ Set the permission attributes as SCSIT DAVV Two ways to execute the Shell ³ Set the permission attributes as a executable file then execute it like a command. OR ³ Invoke the shell explicitly. sh backup 8 pm. sh hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Debugging the Shell Script ³ Running a script in debug mode will SCSIT DAVV Debugging the Shell Script ³ Running a script in debug mode will print each line of shell script before it executes. ³ Enable debug mode after adding the –v after shell interpreter’s name in Shebang. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Advantages ³ Writing a shell script is much quicker than writing the SCSIT DAVV Advantages ³ Writing a shell script is much quicker than writing the equivalent code in other programming or scripting languages. ³ Shell scripts have no compilation step, so the script can be executed quickly while debugging. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Disadvantages ³ One significant disadvantage of using shell scripts is that they SCSIT DAVV Disadvantages ³ One significant disadvantage of using shell scripts is that they can run slowly due to the need to create potentially many new sub-processes for each of the many commands executed. ³ Simple sh scripts can be quite compatible with the extremely diverse range of Unix but more complex shell scripts can fail because of the many subtle differences between shells. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Programs and Standard I/O Standard Input (STDIN) Program Standard Output (STDOUT) Standard DAVV SCSIT Programs and Standard I/O Standard Input (STDIN) Program Standard Output (STDOUT) Standard Error (STDERR) hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Overwriting the Standard I/O Device ³ Input/ Output Redirection hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. SCSIT DAVV Overwriting the Standard I/O Device ³ Input/ Output Redirection hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Pipes • A pipe is a holder for a stream of data. DAVV SCSIT Pipes • A pipe is a holder for a stream of data. • A pipe can be used to hold the output of one program and feed it to the input of another. prog 1 prog 2 STDOUT STDIN hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

DAVV SCSIT Regular Expression ³ Regular Expressions provide a concise and flexible means for DAVV SCSIT Regular Expression ³ Regular Expressions provide a concise and flexible means for identifying text of interest. ³ Examples: ²[abc] matches a single a b or c ²[a-z] matches any of abcdef…xyz hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression ³ Examples: ². at matches any three-character string ending with SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression ³ Examples: ². at matches any three-character string ending with "at", including "hat", "cat", and "bat". ² [hc]at matches "hat" and "cat". ² [^b]at matches all strings matched by. at except "bat". ² ^[hc]at matches "hat" and "cat", but only at the beginning of the string or line. ² [hc]at$ matches "hat" and "cat", but only at the end of the string or line. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression ³ Examples: ². at matches any three-character string ending with SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression ³ Examples: ². at matches any three-character string ending with "at", including "hat", "cat", and "bat". ² [hc]at matches "hat" and "cat". ² [^b]at matches all strings matched by. at except "bat". ² ^[hc]at matches "hat" and "cat", but only at the beginning of the string or line. ² [hc]at$ matches "hat" and "cat", but only at the end of the string or line. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression Used by ²grep “Get Regular Expression and Print” – search SCSIT DAVV Regular Expression Used by ²grep “Get Regular Expression and Print” – search files line by line ²sed Simple Editing tool, right from the command line ²awk Scripting language, executes “program” on matching lines hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (UNIX) ³ touch: create a new file / update timestamp SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (UNIX) ³ touch: create a new file / update timestamp of existing file. ³ grep: search for a specified string or pattern ³ chmod/ chown/ chgrp: Change permissions / ownership / group on a file ³ du/ df: Display hard disk information. ³ find: find a file ³ sort: sort a file into alphanumeric order (by lines. ) ³ sed: Invoke the stream editor. ³ tr: Translate characters. ³ awk: Invoke the awk scripting language. ³ split: Split up a file into smaller chunks. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (UNIX) ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ at: Run a command SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (UNIX) ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ at: Run a command / script at a specified time and date. Cut: cut specified field(s)/ character(s) from lines in file(s) more, less, and pg: page through a file head/ tail: display the start/ end of a file cmp: compare two files and list where differences occur (T/B) diff : compare the two files and display the differences (T) wc: display word (or character or line) count for file(s) mail/ mailx/ Mail: simple email utility available on Unix systems. paste: The paste command allows two files to be combined side-by-side. hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (Win. NT) ³ ³ ³ AT: Schedule a command to SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (Win. NT) ³ ³ ³ AT: Schedule a command to run at a later time ATTRIB: Change file attributes CACLS: Change file permissions. Clean. Mgr: Automated cleanup of Temp files, recycle bin COMP: Compare the contents of two files or sets of files FC: Compare two files FDISK: Disk Format and partition FIND: Search for a text string in a file Magnify: Display windows magnification MAPISEND: Send email from the command line MEM: Display memory usage hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (Win. NT) ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ MORE: Display output, SCSIT DAVV Important Commands (Win. NT) ³ ³ ³ ³ ³ MORE: Display output, one screen at a time MSG: Send a message NET: Manage network resources PERFMON: Performance Monitor QGREP: Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern. SCHTASKS: Create or Edit Scheduled Tasks SCLIST: Display NT Services SORT: Sort input TOUCH: Change file timestamps USRSTAT List domain usernames and last login hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Book for UNIX hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. in SCSIT DAVV Book for UNIX hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

SCSIT DAVV Book for Win. NT hmehta. scs@dauniv. ac. in SCSIT DAVV Book for Win. NT hmehta. [email protected] ac. in

Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Any Questions Thank You School of Computer Science and Information Technology Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Any Questions Thank You School of Computer Science and Information Technology hmehta. [email protected]; ac. in