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Developmental Psychology Chapter 3 Mc. Elhaney Developmental Psychology Chapter 3 Mc. Elhaney

Key Topics Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Developmental Psychology Outline the Nature vs. Nurture Key Topics Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Developmental Psychology Outline the Nature vs. Nurture Debate DNA + Genes as related to behavior Human Growth Sequence. Know the period and description of each Example: prenatal…adolescence Why is Prenatal a sensitive period? (Teratogens) Fetal Vulnerability Fetal Alcohol Syndrome What do parents need to know about a healthy pregnancy? Lamaze- how doe this work psychologically? Physiology of a new born brain What can be understood about: deprivation and enhanced stimulation? List and describe-Neonate Inborn behaviors What do we need to know about Emotional Development Patterns? Social Referencing Konrad Lorenz- and Imprinting and infants Separation anxiety/Disorder Problems Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Attachments and how to promote secure attachments Harry Harlow and Baby Monkey Study Contact Comfort Breast Feeding and psych Optimal Caregiving-Maternal and Paternal influences Diana Baumrind and Parenting Styles. Spanking: is it ok? Which type of discipline has most potential for damage? Outline Language Development and maturation Noam Chomsky vs critics Cognitive Development and Jean Piaget Stages Piaget and parenting Piaget Criticism Vygotsky-Social Cultural theory and Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding Effective Parenting (page 126) Our parents Ingredients

Basic Ideas Genetic Heritage + Environment = Personality Parenting + nurturing + Environment is Basic Ideas Genetic Heritage + Environment = Personality Parenting + nurturing + Environment is important Development is effected by deprivation + Enrichment Emotional bonds with caregivers is very important Language learning is a key step in development Piaget’s Stage Theory- maps how thinking develops Vygotsky’s Theory- says A child’s mind is shaped by human relationships Ø Effective Child Discipline- is consistent, humane, encouraging + respectful communication Ø Genetics Research tells us stuff = Predications Related to Genetic Problems can be made Ø Ø Ø Ø

Developmental Psychology Ø The Study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Nature vs. Developmental Psychology Ø The Study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Nature vs. Nurture debate ØHeredity Environment ØFrom Parents Learning ØGenes/ Models ØChromosomes Examples Ø 46 contained in each Experiences cell ØSperm and ovum carry 23 each ØDNA

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid 46 Chromosomes- contained in each human cell nucleus Sperm and Ovum DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid 46 Chromosomes- contained in each human cell nucleus Sperm and Ovum Carry 23 Chromosomes Each Ø 3 billion pairs Ø Genes Ø Small areas of DNA code Ø 40, 000 genes in cells Polygenic- something controlled by many genes

Dominant and Recessive Features Ø The feature will appear when gene is present Ø Dominant and Recessive Features Ø The feature will appear when gene is present Ø Must be paired with 2 nd recessive gene before effect will be expressed Predictions related to genetic problems can be made

Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance. Ø Ø Recessive Inheritance Both parents carry a Mechanisms of recessive and dominant inheritance. Ø Ø Recessive Inheritance Both parents carry a normal gene (N), and a faulty, recessive, gene (n). The parents, although carriers, are unaffected by the faulty gene. Ø Their offspring are affected, not affected, or carriers. This type of inheritance was first shown by Mendel. Ø Dominant Inheritance One parent has a single, faulty dominant gene (D), which overpowers its normal counterpart (d), affecting that parent. When the affected parent mates with an unaffected and non-carrier mate (dd), the offspring are either affected or not affected, but they are not carriers.

X and Y Chromosomes Two of the chromosomes (the X and the Y chromosome) X and Y Chromosomes Two of the chromosomes (the X and the Y chromosome) determine your gender and are called sex chromosomes: Ø Females have 2 X chromosomes. Ø Males have 1 X and 1 Y chromosome. Ø The Y chromosome determines the male gender, but does little else. Ø Each parent contributes one half of each chromosome pair to their child – Ø 22 autosomal chromosomes and 1 sex chromosome. The mother always contributes an X chromosome to the child. Ø The father may contribute an X or a Y. Ø Father determines the gender of the child. Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder (1 out of 800). Ø l l l Affected individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21. This unbalanced set of genes results in mild to moderate mental retardation and numerous physical changes. Cause associated with older male sperm defect

Human Growth Sequence Types of Children (Charts of Developmental Milestones) another Prenatal (conception to Human Growth Sequence Types of Children (Charts of Developmental Milestones) another Prenatal (conception to birth) Germinal-zygote- (first 2 weeks) Embryonic-embryo (2 -8 weeks) Fetal-fetus (8 weeks to birth) Neonatal-neonate- (birth to a few weeks) Infancy-infant (few weeks after birth till walking 17 months) Early Childhood-toddler (15 months -2 ½ yrs) then 2 -3 yrs) Middle Childhood (6 -12 yrs) Pubescence (2 yrs before puberty) Puberty (Point of development of biological changes-sexual maturity) Adolescence (full social maturity)

Newborn Temperament Types of Children (Charts of Developmental Milestones) another Genetic? Sensitivity Ø Irritability Newborn Temperament Types of Children (Charts of Developmental Milestones) another Genetic? Sensitivity Ø Irritability Ø Distractibility Ø Typical mood Ø 40% are easy= relaxed + agreeable Ø 10% difficult=moody intense, easily angered Ø 15% slow to warm- restrained, unexpressive, shy Ø

Nurture= environment Ø Ø Environment influences people Sensitive- periods- times when children are more Nurture= environment Ø Ø Environment influences people Sensitive- periods- times when children are more susceptible to environmental influences Ø “Congenital disorder involves defects in or damage to a developing fetus. Genetic Disorders” http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Congenital_disorder Ø Poor Prenatal care- may cause birth defects-injuries- need good nutrition, Genetic disorders (inherited) NATURE Inherited Sickle Cell Anemia, hemophilia, cystic Fibrosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Albinism

Fetal Vulnerability Ø Ø Mothers can pass on addiction to babies Many medications & Fetal Vulnerability Ø Ø Mothers can pass on addiction to babies Many medications & drugs are harmful to fetus (page 96) Ø Fetal Alcohol Syndrome caused by Repeated heavy drinking l l l Low birth-weight Small head Bodily defects Facial Malformation Emotional, behavioral, mental disabilities

Smoking is Bad Ø Mothers who smoke Ø Babies have lower scores on language Smoking is Bad Ø Mothers who smoke Ø Babies have lower scores on language and mental ability Ø Teratogens- anything that can cause birth defects l List of chemical teratogens

Healthy Pregnancy Ø Education Ø Nutrition Ø Relaxation- stress reduction Ø Avoid teratogens Ø Healthy Pregnancy Ø Education Ø Nutrition Ø Relaxation- stress reduction Ø Avoid teratogens Ø Exercise Ø Education

Childbirth Ø Lamaze Classes- Ferdinand Lemaze Learn about what to expect and how it Childbirth Ø Lamaze Classes- Ferdinand Lemaze Learn about what to expect and how it works Coping + emotional support General Anesthesia= medication introduced to the blood stream of the mother, to reduce pain may cause lag in muscular & neural development Ø Epidural Block- blocks the channels of pain (video) Ø

New Born Brain Ø Brain has fewer- dendrites + synapses Ø During first 3 New Born Brain Ø Brain has fewer- dendrites + synapses Ø During first 3 years Brain Density increases Ø Stimulation causes brain growth Ø Deprivation = lack of stimulation

Deprivation vs. Enrichment Ø Enrichment l l l Ø Complex Environment Intellectually Stimulating *Extra Deprivation vs. Enrichment Ø Enrichment l l l Ø Complex Environment Intellectually Stimulating *Extra Enhanced Stimulation- increases brain size So enriched complex, stimulating environment is good. Parents open kids to experiences- colors, music, people, things to see, taste, smell, touch Deprivation l l l Lack of stimulation IQ down Emotional Scaring Poverty can impact development. Lower IQ- Fearful, unhappy Prone to hostile- aggressive behavior

Developmental Periods: Ø Neonates= New Born Infant l l l Very Responsive Interest in Developmental Periods: Ø Neonates= New Born Infant l l l Very Responsive Interest in Human Face Inborn Behaviors • Grasping Reflex- object pressed for the palm of neonate • Rooting Reflex= head turning & Nursing l Caused by touching babies cheek • Sucking Reflex= to obtain food • Moro Reflex= baby clings to mom when fear/sounds Neonate Vision Ø Mimic Facial Expressions Ø Can see 1 foot away Ø Drawn to Familiar faces Ø Babies can see large patterns & shapes Ø Adult vision is 30 times sharper Ø See curves, circles, bright lights Ø At 6 months different shapes Ø At 9 months differentiates between animals Ø Age 2 unusual objects interest kids

Maturation Ø Concept of physical growth + Body-Brain System Ø There is an ordered Maturation Ø Concept of physical growth + Body-Brain System Ø There is an ordered sequence of development

Emotional Development (see chart) Ø Patterns exist Ø Basics of Anger, Fear, Joy Ø Emotional Development (see chart) Ø Patterns exist Ø Basics of Anger, Fear, Joy Ø All basic emotions appear before age 2 Ø They appear in an order l l l Social Smile: By age of 10 months- infants smile when someone is nearby Early growth is extremely rapid

Social Attachments (key aspect) Ø Self Awareness l l l Ø 1. Depends on Social Attachments (key aspect) Ø Self Awareness l l l Ø 1. Depends on brain maturation 2. Self recognition. Occurs usually 15 months Social Referencing: l l End of first year Babies use social referencing Observing others to obtain information or guidance Helps tell us how to respond

Imprinting (Animals/some birds only) Ø Ø Ø Ø Rapid early learning of permanent behavior Imprinting (Animals/some birds only) Ø Ø Ø Ø Rapid early learning of permanent behavior patterns Konrad Lorenz Ethologist (Studied animal behavior patterns) Study of Imprinting Geese follow first large moving object they see Geese- imprinted on Lorenz Imprinting applied to humans = Emotional Attachment

Emotional Attachment (bonding) During first year of life Ø Attachment by infant to caregivers Emotional Attachment (bonding) During first year of life Ø Attachment by infant to caregivers Ø Separation Anxiety (evidence of emotional attachment) Ø l l l When babies exhibit behavior of crying, fear, When left alone or with strangers Intense Separation Anxiety is a problem

Separations Anxiety Disorder 5% of all children (1 in 20) Children manifest misery when Separations Anxiety Disorder 5% of all children (1 in 20) Children manifest misery when separated Excessive fear Reluctant to leave home Reluctant to sleep at friends house Reluctant to go to school

Attachment Qualities: Ø 1. Securely Attached: l l When mothers leave and return Stable Attachment Qualities: Ø 1. Securely Attached: l l When mothers leave and return Stable positive emotional bonds Upset by mom’s absence but seek to be near when returned Secure Attached by year 1 is good • More resilient- show curiosity • Problem solving ability • Social Competence in preschool Ø 2. Insecure-Avoidant: l l l Ø Anxious emotional bond Turn away from mother When they return 3. Insecure Ambivalent l l l Anxious emotional bond Seek to be near returning mom Resist contact with mom

Harry HarlowØ Baby Monkey Studies: Baby Monkey Separated from mothers Surrogate mothers- Wire and Harry HarlowØ Baby Monkey Studies: Baby Monkey Separated from mothers Surrogate mothers- Wire and Soft Monkeys went to soft mom Ø Contact Comfort l l l Babies cling to soft mothers for Security + Comfort in fearful situations Babies/kids get reassured feelings Relates to sensitivity of brain development

Breast Feeding Ø Colostrum- Rich protein produced by breast first days after birth l Breast Feeding Ø Colostrum- Rich protein produced by breast first days after birth l l l l Prevents disease includes anti-bodies Includes lots of touching IQ: Study showed average of 6 point IQ Boost For babies fed for 7 -9 months Why? : Brain nourishment + more touching Close to mother infant relationship

Researchers Diana Baumrind found 3 styles Parenting Styles Ø Authoritarian: Ø Expectations stay out Researchers Diana Baumrind found 3 styles Parenting Styles Ø Authoritarian: Ø Expectations stay out of trouble Ø Rigid rules Ø Strict obedience Ø Put responsibilities on kids Ø Kids have few rights Ø Children- usually obedient, self controlled Ø Must accept parent view of right and wrong Ø Emotionally stiff Ø Withdrawn Ø Higher rates of drug abuse Ø Overly Permissive: l l l l Little guidance Too much freedom Low accountability Rights but few responsibilities Rules not enforced Spoiled kids = poorly behaved child Authoritative l l l l Ø Firm consistent guidance With love & affection Not harsh Not rigid Encourage child: To act responsibility To think To make good decisio Children are competent l l l Independent Self controlled Assertive

Spanking: Studies say no Most kids show no signs of long term damage Ø Spanking: Studies say no Most kids show no signs of long term damage Ø If spanking is used with supportive parenting Ø Ø Problem: Frequent spanking = aggression Ø Could cause emotional damage Ø Problem: spanking doesn’t change behavior by itself.

Ø 1. Power Assertion: l l Ø Physical Punishment Force Take away privileges Effects: Ø 1. Power Assertion: l l Ø Physical Punishment Force Take away privileges Effects: Types of Discipline: Defiance, rebellious, fear, hatred of parents 2. Withdrawal of Love l Withholding affection l Refusing to speak to a child l Rejecting l Threatening to leave Effects: Ø Self –Esteem= Self Regard Ø High Self Esteem = worthwhile= is important Ø Low Self Esteem = connected to physical punishment and withholding of love Ø Anxious Ø Insecure, dependent on adults for approval 3. Management Techniques: l l l l l Combine Praise Recognition Approval Rules Reasoning Related to self-esteem Problem: Need to adjust to kids level

Psychology in Action= Effective Parenting *Most people parent the way they were parented. Thus Psychology in Action= Effective Parenting *Most people parent the way they were parented. Thus more mistakes are made. 2 Ingredients of Effective Parenting: 1 Communication 2 Discipline What to do: Set Boundaries of behavior for kids Be consistent= stable rules of conduct- creates security Problems Saying one thing and doing something else Making statements you don’t mean Overstating consequences Not checking to see if the child has done something wrong Contradicting rules set by spouse Mean what you say Responding differently to same behavior

Piaget Ø Ø Ø Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (Swiss 1950 s) Theory & Insight Piaget Ø Ø Ø Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (Swiss 1950 s) Theory & Insight into how kids develop thinking Found cognition progresses through stages Children’s thinking is concrete (less abstract) Need examples- objects to see or touch Piaget believed learning occurs through Assimilation: Kids use existing knowledge to new situations Accommodation: Ideas + knowledge are modified to fit new requirements “New ideas are created to accommodate new experiences. ”

Piaget Stages: Ø Age 0 -2 Sensorimotor Stage Ø Non-verbal intellect Ø Learning Coordination Piaget Stages: Ø Age 0 -2 Sensorimotor Stage Ø Non-verbal intellect Ø Learning Coordination Ø Senses Ø Object permanence Ø Objects continue to exist when out of sight

Age 2 -7 Pre-Operational Stage Before 6 -7 children think concretely Ø Age 7 Age 2 -7 Pre-Operational Stage Before 6 -7 children think concretely Ø Age 7 more logical thinking Ø Begin to think symbolically Ø Still intuitive beginning logic Ø Language developing Ø Egocentric= unable to see the viewpoint of others – self concerned Ø Selfish Ø

Age 7 -11 Concrete Operational Stage Concept of conservation developed Idea that objects have Age 7 -11 Concrete Operational Stage Concept of conservation developed Idea that objects have mass and volume constancy Ø Proportions Ø Children begin to use time, space and number Ø Logical Thinking Ø Concrete objects Ø Categories Ø Principles Ø Ø Ø

Age 11 and up Formal Operational: Abstract Ø Ø Ø Abstract Principles develop Less Age 11 and up Formal Operational: Abstract Ø Ø Ø Abstract Principles develop Less egocentric Adolescent Can consider Hypothetical Possibilities Adult abilities Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Formal thinking needs and enhanced by (not just maturity) Environment Knowledge Experience Wisdom

Blooms Taxonomy Blooms Taxonomy

Vygotsky and Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognition Ø Ø Ø Children’s thinking develops through dialogues Vygotsky and Socio-Cultural Theory of Cognition Ø Ø Ø Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with expert others (more skilled) Children are guided by experts = Tutors= parents=teachers Zone of Proximal (close) Development (Learning) Children can achieve more complex/higher levels with support working with expert others or skilled partners Scaffolding= l l l Temporary Support to help kids learn Must be responsive to children’s needs Mental bridges