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Determining the New Moon Day And Intercalating the Year

The Sun and Moon Determine The Seasons, Days, and Years And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years (Gen. 1: 14, KJV). 1. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) discovered the mathematics which govern the laws of celestial motion with sufficient accuracy to forecast the motion of the sun and moon for ages past and ages to come. 2. In the early 20 th century using astro-archaeological records from Babylon and Assyria and modern observations, scientists were able to calculate the value of the earth's changing rotational rate. 3. We have been in a position for the last 50 years to calculate with utmost precision the new moons for the last 4000 years, and thousands of years into the future. 4. Newton had a great interest in Daniel 9.

Arc of vision Calculating A New moon Ar c of lig ht Horizon 1. Arc of Light corresponds to the portion of the moon's disk that is lighted, and hence its see-ability. 2. Arc of Vision corresponds to the amount of sunlight interfering with seeing the new moon

Ar c of lig ht Arc of vision Observational Data from Eyewitnesses 1. Observational results from eyewitness observers is recorded for various values of AL and AV. 2. Historical AL and AV values for valid news moons, determined by witnesses, are used to create a function to predict future (or past) observational results. 3. The function is highly accurate and predicts well when the observers will see the moon under "ideal" conditions.

Ar c of lig ht Arc of vision What to do when conditions are not Ideal: 1. If clouds, dust, or haze obscure the observers positions, then the analyzed results of past observations have to be used to determine when the new moon is. 2. It is known from past observation that a month can be no longer than 30 days and no shorter than 29 days. 3. It is also known from past observation what values of AL and AV guarantee a visible new moon (given an ideal observing point, such as from an aircraft or balloon above cloud level at Jerusalem). 4. Therefore the testimony of past witnesses is used when present witnesses cannot see the horizon.

Is the Karaite Rejection of Calculation Valid? 1. The Karaites use the fact that a month can have no more than 30 days to limit the length of a month when they cannot see the horizon. 2. This fact, that a month cannot have more than 30 days, is based on historical observation. 3. An astronomical calculation is a deduction based on past historical observations. 4. Therefore the Karaites who argue that astronomical calculation is invalid should practice what they preach and also reject the 30 day limit on a month since they reject the results of past testimony. 5. But if they claim that they know the new moon has already occurred, then how do they know it? Not by the present eyewitnesses they assert that are needed. 6. Therefore, it is admitted by all that fixing the new moon on the basis of past observation is valid.

The Testimony of Many Witnesses Outweighs that of a few 1. In the Torah the testimony of a majority of witnesses outweighs that of a few questionable witnesses. 2. If the testimony of a few present witnesses cannot be impugned by cross examination or doubted because of celestial circumstances, then, 3. It may be that the celestial mechanics of the moon or sun have been disturbed. 4. All historical evidence argues that the celestial mechanics of heaven have not been disturbed since the Great Deluge. 5. The Celestial Mechanics of Heaven will again be affected in the Day of YHWH. 6. The two witnesses will tell us what to do.

The Location of Observation 1. The proper place of observation is the mountain of YHWH. 2. This is the place that he chooses to put his name. 3. This place is Jerusalem. What if local observation disagrees by a Day? 1. There are usually not enough people committed to local observation to get valid results. 2. If you accept such results then feel free to observe two days just as the ancient dispersion did. 3. If you can't live with the indecision then come to Israel.

How to Intercalate the Year 1. Three times a year Israel is to go up to the feasts (Exodus 23: 14) 2. Therefore three feasts must fall in one year. 3. The definitions of the year: 1. The natural year determined by the sun from equinox to equinox. 2. The sacred year determined by the moon from the new moon of the seventh month to the last day of Ellul. 4. The natural year must be meant (Deut. 16: 16). 5. The ripening of the barley is a factor.

How to Intercalate the Year 1. Three times a year Israel is to go up to the feasts (Exodus 23: 14) 2. Therefore three feasts must fall in one year. 3. The definitions of the year: 1. The natural year determined by the sun from equinox to equinox. 2. The sacred year determined by the moon from the new moon of the seventh month to the last day of Ellul. 4. The natural year must be meant (Deut. 16: 16). 5. The ripening of the barley is a factor.

Circuit of the year/ days Normal/Average =spring equinox, new year Peak of first edible green barley March 15 day limit of new moon before equinox, since Passover must fall in new year April 15 day limit of new moon after equinox, since if greater than 15 days Passover could be placed closer to barley peak.

1 h d v h a b y b Karaites may fail to see Aviv in Early Nisan and then delay the First month This delay after the equinox must be less then ½ of a month Ye shall not delay first fruits Equinox March 20 th Circuit of The year Passover ½ or more of the month must lie after the equinox to be the first of the months of the year Conclusion: Guard the month 7 of the Aviv Means the Normal time For earliest edible Barley, and Not abnormal Times, such as In drought years Latest first month Earliest first month Early Barley Late Varieties A legal first month March 11 4 The new year delayed “first” month The Aviv may show up just before 2 Passover after the Karaites have already postponed the first month 6 Normal (average) Time of Early Barley in aviv state If the Karaites see barley here the 1 st Month is first by the 50% definition 3 More than 50% of a month in the new Year has been skipped over, i. e. the first whole month after the equinox 5 Differing measures Inconsistent meaning Of first month Cf. Lev. 19: 35

Equinox March 20 th Circuit of The year First month means the first month possible with ½ or more of its days in the new year (Average Aviv) Karaites use two meanings of First month, which is inconsistent Cf. Lev. 19: 35 Case One The old year The new year The normal barley allows us to Decide between the two cases Of what is meant by first month. The rule not to cause a delay of the First fruits offering overrules taking a risk by assuming it is proper to set the calendar with Out of season barely. Normal (average) Time of Early Barley in aviv state First month means the first month with all its days in The new year (Babylonian) Case Two

The Bottom Line on Karaite Intercalation 1. The Karaites refuse to recognize the sun in determining the length of the natural year. 2. The Karaites use percentages to determine whether enough barely is ripe in a field. These values are arbitrary. 3. The Karaites also use averages over many fields. This also is arbitrary. 4. The Karaites reject the testimony of past observations from past years. 5. The Karaites will not make a year more than 13 months, but how do they know that a year must not be more than 13 months – based on past observations? 6. Supposing that a drought causes nothing to grow until the 14 th month, there will be no barley, then they will limit the year to 13 months? 7. Therefore we must admit all the data from past years of observations. 8. The purpose of barley is to show that we must not use the Babylonian criteria for the new year.

Calculating Yeshua's Passion Month: 1. AVIV (Nisan) SUN 4 11 18 25 MON 3/14 3/21 3/28 4/ 4 5 12 19 26 AVIV (Nisan) , Year: 34 TUE 3/15 3/22 3/29 4/ 5 6 13 20 27 WED 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/ 6 7 14 21 28 3/17 3/24 3/31 4/ 7 THR 1 8 15 22 29 3/11 3/18 3/25 4/ 1 4/ 8 FRI 2 9 16 23 3/12 3/19 3/26 4/ 2 SAB 3 10 17 24 3/13 3/20 3/27 4/ 3 AL: 20. 2 AV: 20. 2 AN: 7. 2 D: 13. 0 PR: <7 AN = -1/2*AL + 17. 00 when AL>=20 or AL < 22 AVIV (Nisan) 3/10/ 34 UT: 15 h: 43 m LMT: (UT+2 hrs) 17 h: 43 m DT: 2. 471 * UT = Universal Time | LMT = Local Mean Time | DT = TDT - UT * TDT = Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT = DT + UT) * The time is that of sunset on the stated date at Jerusalem Spring Equinox: 3/22/ 34 22 h: 13 m Passover 3/25/ 34 THR Julday: 1733560

Calculating Yeshua's Birth: Yom Teruah Month: 7. ETHANIM (Tishri), Year: -3 SUN MON TUE WED 4 9/15 11 9/22 18 9/29 25 10/ 6 5 9/16 12 9/23 19 9/30 26 10/ 7 6 9/17 13 9/24 20 10/ 1 27 10/ 8 7 9/18 14 9/25 21 10/ 2 28 10/ 9 THR 1 9/12 8 9/19 15 9/26 22 10/ 3 29 10/10 FRI 2 9/13 9 9/20 16 9/27 23 10/ 4 30 10/11 SAB 3 9/14 10 9/21 17 9/28 24 10/ 5 1. Corresponding to the new moon before the spring equinox as the first month (but Passover after the equinox). 2. When the sun was in Virgo and the moon under its feet (Rev. 12). 3. See The Star that Astonished the World, Martin. And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 12: 1).

Calculating the Exodus Month: 1. AVIV (Nisan) SUN 3 10 17 24 MON 3/30 4/ 6 4/13 4/20 4 11 18 25 , Year: -1632 TUE 3/31 4/ 7 4/14 4/21 5 12 19 26 WED 4/ 1 4/ 8 4/15 4/22 6 13 20 27 THR 4/ 2 4/ 9 4/16 4/23 7 14 21 28 4/ 3 4/10 4/17 4/24 FRI 1 8 15 22 29 3/28 4/ 4 4/11 4/18 4/25 SAB 2 9 16 23 30 3/29 4/ 5 4/12 4/19 4/26 1. Corresponding to the new moon before the spring equinox as the first month (but Passover after the equinox).

Calculating the Manna A Confirmation Month: 2. ZIV (Iyyar) SUN 1 8 15 22 29 MON 4/27 5/ 4 5/11 5/18 5/25 2 9 16 23 , Year: -1632 TUE 4/28 5/ 5 5/12 5/19 3 10 17 24 WED 4/29 5/ 6 5/13 5/20 4 11 18 25 THR 4/30 5/ 7 5/14 5/21 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt (Exodus 16: 1). 5 12 19 26 FRI 5/ 1 5/ 8 5/15 5/22 6 13 20 27 SAB 5/ 2 5/ 9 5/16 5/23 7 14 21 28 5/ 3 5/10 5/17 5/24

Calculating Shavuot A Confirmation Month: 3. Sivan SUN 7 14 21 28 6/ 1 6/ 8 6/15 6/22 MON 1 8 15 22 29 5/26 6/ 2 6/ 9 6/16 6/23 , Year: -1632 TUE 2 9 16 23 5/27 6/ 3 6/10 6/17 WED 3 10 17 24 5/28 6/ 4 6/11 6/18 In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. (Exodus 19: 1). We will go three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice to Yahweh our God, as he shall command us. (Exodus 8: 27). THR 4 11 18 25 5/29 6/ 5 6/12 6/19 FRI 5 12 19 26 5/30 6/ 6 6/13 6/20 SAB 6 13 20 27 5/31 6/ 7 6/14 6/21 And Yahweh said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to day and to morrow, and let them wash their clothes, 11 And be ready against the third day: for the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people upon mount Sinai (Exodus 19: 10 -11).

Counting 50 Days & Seven Sabbaths Month: 1 -3. Aviv-Ziv-Sivan (Nisan) SUN MON 10 4/ 6 2 17 4/13 9 24 4/20 11 3 TUE 4/ 7 18 4/14 10 25 4/21 12 19 WED 4/ 8 4 13 THR 4/15 4/22 18 3 4/29 25 10 5/ 6 FRI 4/10 Passover 15 4/11 4/17 13 28 4/24 7 22 4/18 14 29 4/25 4/ 9 14 20 4/16 12 27 4/23 21 5 11 26 , Year: -1632 6 16 4/27 23 8 5/ 4 30 15 5/11 37 22 5/18 44 29 5/25 31 16 5/12 38 23 5/19 32 17 5/13 19 4 4/30 26 11 5/ 7 33 18 5/14 39 24 5/20 40 25 5/21 20 5 5/ 1 27 12 5/ 8 34 19 5/15 41 26 5/22 45 1 5/26 1 46 2 5/27 47 3 5/28 48 4 5/29 2 9 17 24 4/28 5/ 5 SAB 1 16 4/12 23 8 4/19 15 30 4/26 21 6 5/ 2 28 13 5/ 9 35 20 5/16 42 27 5/23 22 7 5/ 3 29 14 5/10 36 21 5/17 43 28 5/24 49 5 5/30 50 6 5/31 1. After going out of Egypt on the 15 th day of Aviv they took their journey of 50 days to the giving of Torah on Mt. Sinai (16 th Aviv to 6 th Sivan). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Calculating Passover When They Entered the Land Month: 1. AVIV (Nisan) SUN 7 14 21 28 4/12 4/19 4/26 5/ 3 MON 1 8 15 22 29 4/ 6 4/13 4/20 4/27 5/ 4 TUE 2 9 16 23 , Year: -1592 4/ 7 4/14 4/21 4/28 WED 3 10 17 24 4/ 8 4/15 4/22 4/29 THR 4 11 18 25 4/ 9 4/16 4/23 4/30 FRI 5 12 19 26 4/10 4/17 4/24 5/ 1 SAB 6 13 20 27 And ye shall compass the city, all ye men of war, and go round about the city once. Thus shalt thou do six days. And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets of rams' horns: and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow with the trumpets. (Joshua 6: 3 -4). 4/11 4/18 4/25 5/ 2

When Solomon Starts Building the Temple Month: 2. ZIV (Iyyar) SUN 2 9 16 23 MON 5/ 1 5/ 8 5/15 5/22 3 10 17 24 , Year: -1019 TUE 5/ 2 5/ 9 5/16 5/23 4 11 18 25 WED 5/ 3 5/10 5/17 5/24 5 12 19 26 THR 5/ 4 5/11 5/18 5/25 6 13 20 27 FRI 5/ 5 5/12 5/19 5/26 7 14 21 28 And he began to build in the second day of the second month, in the fourth year of his reign. 2 Chron. 3: 2. 5/ 6 5/13 5/20 5/27 SAB 1 8 15 22 29 4/30 5/ 7 5/14 5/21 5/28

When Ezekiel Saw Heaven Opened Month: 4. Shoshana SUN 6 13 20 27 MON 7/ 2 7/ 9 7/16 7/23 7 14 21 28 7/ 3 7/10 7/17 7/24 , Year: -593 TUE 1 8 15 22 29 6/27 7/ 4 7/11 7/18 7/25 WED 2 9 16 23 30 6/28 7/ 5 7/12 7/19 7/26 THR 3 10 17 24 6/29 7/ 6 7/13 7/20 FRI 4 11 18 25 6/30 7/ 7 7/14 7/21 1: 1 Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. 1: 2 In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity, (Ezek. 1: 1 -2). SAB 5 12 19 26 7/ 1 7/ 8 7/15 7/22

When Ezekiel saw Idolaters Worshipping the Sun Month: 6. Elul SUN 5 12 19 26 , Year: -592 MON 8/19 8/26 9/ 2 9/ 9 6 13 20 27 TUE 8/20 8/27 9/ 3 9/10 7 14 21 28 8/21 8/28 9/ 4 9/11 WED 1 8 15 22 29 8/15 8/22 8/29 9/ 5 9/12 THR 2 9 16 23 8/16 8/23 8/30 9/ 6 FRI 3 10 17 24 8/17 8/24 8/31 9/ 7 SAB 4 11 18 25 8/18 8/25 9/ 1 9/ 8 8: 1 And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Yahweh GOD fell there upon me. 8: 16 And he brought me into the inner court of Yahweh's house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of Yahweh, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of Yahweh, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east. (Ezekiel 8: 1, 16).

The Start of Daniel's 70 th Seven (following slides: assuming next Jubilee) Month: 7. ETHANIM (Tishri), Year: 2028 SUN MON TUE WED 4 9/24 11 10/ 1 18 10/ 8 25 10/15 5 9/25 12 10/ 2 19 10/ 9 26 10/16 6 9/26 13 10/ 3 20 10/10 27 10/17 7 9/27 14 10/ 4 21 10/11 28 10/18 1. Year 1 of the Sabbatical Cycle 2. Start 1260 Days For Two Witnesses 3. Julian day no: x 2035 THR 1 9/21 8 9/28 15 10/ 5 22 10/12 29 10/19 FRI 2 9/22 9 9/29 16 10/ 6 23 10/13 SAB 3 9/23 10 9/30 17 10/ 7 24 10/14

Anti-Messiah Causes the Offerings to Cease Month: 11. Shebat SUN 5 12 19 26 MON 1/18 1/25 2/ 1 2/ 8 6 13 20 27 , Year: 2032 TUE 1/19 1/26 2/ 2 2/ 9 7 14 21 28 1/20 1/27 2/ 3 2/10 WED 1 8 15 22 29 1/14 1/21 1/28 2/ 4 2/11 THR 2 9 16 23 30 1. Begin 1335 days, Julian day no: x 3253 2. Begin 42 months 1/15 1/22 1/29 2/ 5 2/12 FRI 3 10 17 24 1/16 1/23 1/30 2/ 6 SAB 4 11 18 25 1/17 1/24 1/31 2/ 7

The Midpoint of the 70 th Seven Month: 12. Adar SUN MON , Year: 2032 TUE 3 2/15 10 2/22 17 2/29 24 3/ 7 Month: 1. 4 2/16 5 11 2/23 12 18 3/ 1 19 25 3/ 8 26 AVIV (Nisan) SUN MON 2 9 16 23 30 1. 2. 3. 4. 3/14 3/21 3/28 4/ 4 4/11 3 10 17 24 WED 2/17 6 2/24 13 3/ 2 20 3/ 9 27 , Year: TUE 3/15 3/22 3/29 4/ 5 4 11 18 25 THR 2/18 2/25 3/ 3 3/10 2032 WED 3/16 3/23 3/30 4/ 6 5 12 19 26 7 14 21 28 2/19 2/26 3/ 4 3/11 THR 3/17 3/24 3/31 4/ 7 6 13 20 27 FRI 1 8 15 22 29 2/13 2/20 2/27 3/ 5 3/12 FRI 3/18 3/25 4/ 1 4/ 8 7 14 21 28 3/19 3/26 4/ 2 4/ 9 SAB 2 9 16 23 2/14 2/21 2/28 3/ 6 SAB 1 8 15 22 29 3/13 3/20 3/27 4/ 3 4/10 Two Witnesses Slain 3/3; 1290 days begins: Julian day x 3295 Two Witnesses Rise 3/6 Evening and morning vision begins 3/22. 1150 days; JD: x 3313 Woman reaches safety 4/2; being 1260 days; JD x 3324

The Temple Restored Month: 3. Sivan SUN 5 12 19 26 MON 5/13 5/20 5/27 6/ 3 6 13 20 27 , Year: 2035 TUE 5/14 5/21 5/28 6/ 4 7 14 21 28 5/15 5/22 5/29 6/ 5 WED 1 8 15 22 29 5/16 5/23 5/30 6/ 6 1. End of 2300 eve-morn (1150 days). 2. Temple restored 3. End of 42 Months THR 2 9 16 23 30 5/17 5/24 5/31 6/ 7 FRI 3 10 17 24 5/11 5/18 5/25 6/ 1 SAB 4 11 18 25 5/12 5/19 5/26 6/ 2

The End of the 70 th Seven Month: 7. ETHANIM (Tishri), Year: 2035 SUN 6 13 20 27 MON 9/ 9 9/16 9/23 9/30 7 9/10 14 9/17 21 9/24 28 10/ 1 TUE 1 9/ 4 8 9/11 15 9/18 22 9/25 29 10/ 2 WED 2 9 16 23 9/ 5 9/12 9/19 9/26 THR 3 10 17 24 9/ 6 9/13 9/20 9/27 1. 1260 and 1290 days end of 9/13 Yom Kippur. 2. 1335 days ends on 9/18 Succot FRI 4 11 18 25 9/ 7 9/14 9/21 9/28 SAB 5 12 19 26 9/ 8 9/15 9/22 9/29

Sources 1. Neo-Babylonian Dates: Babylonian Chronology (626 B. C. to A. D. 75), Parker and Dubberstein. 1. Confirms Passion Calculations 2. Goldstein, New Moons. 3. EZCosmos Software. 4. JPL Source code, Steve Moshier. 1. From which I constructed the new moon program 2. I used the code to calculate positional data without modifying any of the internal software. 5. Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology, rev. edition. 1. Confirms Passion Calculations. 6. Expert Astronomer Software. 7. Internet databases. 8. Earth Centered Universe. 9. Sky. Map 10. Note: some programs calculate positional data in Ephemeris Time only and do not adjust for Universal Time.

Research Milestones 1. 1980 Read Ralph Woodrow's, Babylon Mystery Religion. 2. 1982 -1984 1. Discovered Bullinger's Chronology. 2. Solved Luke 24: 21 problem with Passion Chronology. 3. Discovered David Cooper and Martin Antsey Chronologies. 4. Used hand calculations: result piles of paper. 3. 1990 -1993 1. Learned about phase calendar for new moons. 2. Located year of Passion A. D. 34. 3. First Versions of Biblical Chronology. 4. First Versions of moon programs 5. First Internet access. 4. 1994 -1998 1. Explained Daniel 9 on sabbatical Year basis. 2. Discovered Year of Jubilee. 3. Finished Constructing Chronology. 5. 1998 -2003 1. Applied Discoveries to Eschatology.