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Designing and Deploying Wireless IP Communications Systems Mike Coffin TME IPCBU/VTG Session Number Presentation_ID Designing and Deploying Wireless IP Communications Systems Mike Coffin TME IPCBU/VTG Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

Enterprise Mobility - Market Overview • Enterprise Customer Demand: IPC mobility is becoming enterprise Enterprise Mobility - Market Overview • Enterprise Customer Demand: IPC mobility is becoming enterprise requirement to meet increasing number of mobile workers needs IPC mobility is an integrated call control and voice application solution that customers wish to purchase directly from IPT vendor • Enterprise IPC Mobility solution categories: 1) Single mode solutions (i. e. 7920 s for wireless enterprise voice) 2) Single number reachability (i. e. IP PBX extension to cellular application) 3) Dual mode solutions (i. e. two line DM, call hand-off, etc. ) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 2

Voice over WLAN How to Justify Employee Productivity • • Reduced call backs, fewer Voice over WLAN How to Justify Employee Productivity • • Reduced call backs, fewer call attempts Single mailbox, fewer duplicate messages Flexibility: choice of device and location for calls End-to-end IP telephony Customer Satisfaction • • Increases speed of response Flexible communication flow with media choices Personalized service Location and Identification services OPEX Reductions • Predictable/controllable cellular expenses • Least cost routing/Intelligent on corporate network • Better visibility, better control Device consolidation Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 3

Vo. WLAN Market Figures • IPC (wired/wireless) is growing at 19% CAGR • ~6% Vo. WLAN Market Figures • IPC (wired/wireless) is growing at 19% CAGR • ~6% of WLANs are currently running Vo. WLAN (SMB-Ent) increasing to ~20% in 2007 • 36% of IPC customers view mobility as the driving app today increasing to 47% by 2007 • Of the Vo. WLAN deployments, 50% are using a single mode phone • Singlemode share is expect to decrease to 38% by 2007 • Dualmode share is expect to increase to 37% by 2007 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Source: Infonetics 2005 4

Wireless Voice Strategy Thought Leadership in key high Re-seize the securityareas ground • Advanced Wireless Voice Strategy Thought Leadership in key high Re-seize the securityareas ground • Advanced Qo. S/CAC Thought Leadership in key areas • Wide support for handsets • MFP • Enabling technologies – HD/Mesh/e 911 • Location Awareness (LBAC and IDS) • NAC, NIC, Multi-Layer IDS Extend IPC investments through mobility • Mobility a driver for convergence • Costs savings + productivity increase Unification & Investment Protection Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Innovation Deployment Success • Deployment guidance • WLAN/Network readiness assesment Messaging 5

A Business Class Wireless Experience What's in Business Class Wireless? Advanced Mobility Services Cisco A Business Class Wireless Experience What's in Business Class Wireless? Advanced Mobility Services Cisco Self-Defending Network Unified built-in support of leading edge applications - not an after thought. Cisco Wireless Location Appliance, Wi-Fi phones, and Guest Access World-Class Network Management World Class NMS that visualizes and helps secure your air space. Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS) Network Unification Future Seamless network infrastructure across a range of platforms. Cisco 4400, 2000 Wireless LAN Controllers. Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series Wi. SM, ISR and 3750 integration. Mobility Platform APs dynamically configured and managed through LWAPP. Cisco Aironet Access Points: 1500, 1300, 1240 AG, 1230 AG, 1130 AG, and 1000. Bridges: 1400 and 1300. Client Devices Secure clients that work out of the box Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

A Comprehensive Vo. WLAN Solution Headquarters – New York Cisco Integrated Services Router (ISR) A Comprehensive Vo. WLAN Solution Headquarters – New York Cisco Integrated Services Router (ISR) Pair • WAN Access • Security Services (FW, IDS, CSA, VSM etc. ) • Vo. IP Gateway • HSRP Integrated Wired and Wireless Network • WLSM for Fast Secure L 3 Roaming • Aironet WLAN Infrastructure with WLSE Mgt/Control Wireless Voice Clients • Cisco 7920 • CCX clients • Partner Clients • Cisco IPC Client © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ISR • Security Services (FW, IDS, etc. ) • Vo. IP Gateway • SRST Integrated Wired & Wireless Network • Wireless AP’s • WLSE Express Management Wireless Voice Clients T 1 WAN PSTN Internet IPC Infrastructure • Call. Manager • Unity • Conferencing Media Gateways • Meeting. Place Session Number Presentation_ID Branch Office – Newark, NJ DSL Branch Office – Austin, TX Cisco ISR • Security Services (FW, IDS, etc. ) • Vo. IP Gateway • SRST Integrated Wired & Wireless Network • Wireless AP’s • WLSE Express Management Wireless Voice Clients 7

Unified Wireless Network • • Lightweight solution Lightweight AP + WLAN controller + Cisco Unified Wireless Network • • Lightweight solution Lightweight AP + WLAN controller + Cisco WCS Features High-accuracy location Downstream WLAN Qo. S APIs for software integration Benefits Ease of use and simplified deployment Cisco Protection from unauthorized Lightweight access and WLAN attacks APs Scalability with controller clustering Reliability N: 1 automated failover Location aware Leadership Dual Band AP deployment with simultaneous support of 802. 11 a and 802. 11 g Estimated 14 simultaneous calls per AP for. a and 7 simultaneous calls per AP. g Cisco has proven experience deploying Vo. WLAN in the enterprise White Papers, Deployment Guides, Presentations, Training, etc. Cisco WLAN Office Controller Cisco WCS Cisco WLAN Remote Office Controller Cisco Lightweight APs Leverage Cisco Advanced Services to accelerate voice over WLAN expertise Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 8

What Does an Enterprise WLAN Need for Wireless Voice ? Cisco Wired + Wireless What Does an Enterprise WLAN Need for Wireless Voice ? Cisco Wired + Wireless Infrastructure Centralized Management • Good Voice Quality • Security Controllers & Switches • Fast Roaming • Ubiquitous Coverage • Scalability • Long Battery Life • Troubleshooting Tools • Managed RF Environment Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Controllers Wireless Access Points Cat 6500 Series BR 1300 AP 1200 AP 1130 Cisco-brand & Cisco-Compatible Clients 9

Innovating in Vo. WLAN with • GPR handling • Roaming element CCX Version 4 Innovating in Vo. WLAN with • GPR handling • Roaming element CCX Version 4 is what we need clients to be at for dense deployments CCX v 5 • Voice metrics • Fast Roaming/CCKM (PEAP/TLS/TTLS) • QBSS Load IE CCX v 4 • CAC (TSPEC) • U-APSD • Traffic stream metrics • WME compliance • Fast Roaming/CCKM (FAST) CCX v 3 • Client Tx sync • AP neighbor list • Fast Roaming/CCKM (LEAP) Session Number Presentation_ID CCX v 2 © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

Benefits of Cisco’s Vo. WLAN Solution • Enterprise-class Security WPA encryption + 802. 1 Benefits of Cisco’s Vo. WLAN Solution • Enterprise-class Security WPA encryption + 802. 1 X authentication • Secure, Low-Latency Roaming between AP’s and Subnets Using standards-based security (WPA + 802. 1 X) • Improved Battery Life Proxy ARP allows phone to skip broadcast/multicast beacons, so device can wakeup/go-to-sleep more quickly and stay in doze mode for longer periods of time Substantial improvement in standby time Savings depends on the amount of broadcast/multicast traffic on the network Transmit Power Sync reduces transmit power, resulting in improved talktime • Qo. S for prioritization of voice traffic over data traffic Supports converged voice + data WLAN networks Fully compatible with installed base of 802. 11 clients Wi-Fi Standard WMM-based Qo. S now available on Cisco AP’s Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 11

Why New Site Surveys? • Increased roaming with Vo. WLAN • Coverage must be Why New Site Surveys? • Increased roaming with Vo. WLAN • Coverage must be seamless with adequate overlap for smooth roaming handoffs • Old site surveys need to be revisited to ensure the WLAN meets the Vo. WLAN requirements Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 12

Typical WLAN Data Topologies Wireless “Cell” Channel 1 Channel 6 Access Point Wireless Clients Typical WLAN Data Topologies Wireless “Cell” Channel 1 Channel 6 Access Point Wireless Clients Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Overlapping 10 -15% LAN Backbone Access Point Wireless Clients 13

Single Floor Site Survey for Voice: 802. 11 b Ch 11 Ch 6 Ch Single Floor Site Survey for Voice: 802. 11 b Ch 11 Ch 6 Ch 6 Greater Overlap Needed Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 14

IDEAL Vo. WLAN RF ENVIRONMENT Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone Cells Should Have Overlap IDEAL Vo. WLAN RF ENVIRONMENT Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone Cells Should Have Overlap of 15 -20% Redundancy throughout cell -67 dbm at Edge (see deployment guide for recommendations) Maintain Proper Separation of Cells (see deployment guide for recommendations) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 15

Multi-Floor Site Survey AP 4 Ch 1 AP 3 Flr 3 Ch 6 AP Multi-Floor Site Survey AP 4 Ch 1 AP 3 Flr 3 Ch 6 AP 2 Ch 11 AP 1 Flr 2 Flr 1 Ch 1 Session Number Presentation_ID Flr 4 © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 16

Ideal Environment • Reduction of noise Noise leads to static and choppy voice More Ideal Environment • Reduction of noise Noise leads to static and choppy voice More APs / clients will increase the noise levels • Proper RF overlap Faster / smoother roaming Provide a secondary AP if one of the APs is unavailable or congested Load-Balancing • Correct data rates Faster data transmissions, reduction of AP utilization, more calls per AP Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 17

Ideal Environment • Minimum 2 access points on non-overlapping channels at all times with: Ideal Environment • Minimum 2 access points on non-overlapping channels at all times with: RSSI >= 35 (minimum value) -67 d. Bm CU (QBSS) load < Max Threshold • Provides for redundancy and load-balancing Definitions: RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) CU (Channel Utilization) QBSS (Qo. S Basic Service Set) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 18

Ideal RF Environment • Non-overlapping cells are 22 MHz apart 1, 6, 11 (North Ideal RF Environment • Non-overlapping cells are 22 MHz apart 1, 6, 11 (North America) 1, 6, 11 or 2, 7, 12, etc. (Europe and Japan) Do not have to be exactly 5 channels apart (i. e. 1, 7, 13) Channels 1 2. 402 GHz Session Number Presentation_ID 2 3 4 5 6 22 MHz © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 2. 484 GHz 19

Non-Overlapping Channels • Phone will scan all channels at power up • Attempts to Non-Overlapping Channels • Phone will scan all channels at power up • Attempts to associate to AP with the highest signal • Will periodically scan all channels after association giving priority to discovered non-overlapping channels 1 6 1 11 6 Session Number Presentation_ID 11 1 11 6 1 © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20

802. 11 g Radios • Disable 6, 9, and 12 Mbps for 802. 11 802. 11 g Radios • Disable 6, 9, and 12 Mbps for 802. 11 g Will reduce throughput if enabled • Set 802. 11 g rates as “enable” vs. “required” • 7920 phones are 802. 11 b only • Enable all other 802. 11 g data rates for data devices Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 21

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) • Signal of -67 d. Bm or higher • Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) • Signal of -67 d. Bm or higher • Packet Error Rate (PER) no higher than 1% • Minimum SNR of 25 d. B = -92 d. Bm noise level Power (d. Bm) RSSI / Signal Strength Signal to Noise Ratio Noise Level Time (Seconds) Adding signal does not always increase SNR Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 22

Recommended SNR Values Data Rate (Mbps) Data Cell WIPT Cell Minimum SNR (d. B) Recommended SNR Values Data Rate (Mbps) Data Cell WIPT Cell Minimum SNR (d. B) Minimum Signal Strength (d. Bm) Minimum SNR (d. B) 54 -71 25 -56 40 36 -73 18 -58 33 24 -77 12 -62 27 11 or 12 -82 10 -67 25 5. 5 or 6 -89 8 -74 23 2 -91 6 -76 21 1 Session Number Presentation_ID Minimum Signal Strength (d. Bm) -94 4 -79 19 © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 23

COMPARISON OF 802. 11 SPECTRUM – Throughput & Channels Data Rate (Mbps) Non. Overlapping COMPARISON OF 802. 11 SPECTRUM – Throughput & Channels Data Rate (Mbps) Non. Overlapping Channels 802. 11 b 11 6 3 802. 11 g (with. 11 b clients in cell) 54 8 3 802. 11 g (no. 11 b clients in cell) 54 22 3 802. 11 a Session Number Presentation_ID Approximate Throughput (Mbps) 54 25 19 © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 24

Dynamic Transmit Power Control (DTPC) • Set the same transmit power on the AP Dynamic Transmit Power Control (DTPC) • Set the same transmit power on the AP and on the phones If using an AP that supports DTPC, then ensure client power matches the local AP power (Do not use default setting of Max power) If the AP does not support DTPC, then need to statically set the phone’s transmit power to match the AP with the highest transmit power in the WLAN (default 7920 setting = 20 m. W) • Prevents one-way audio i. e. RF traffic is only being heard in one direction 100 m. W Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 m. W 25

Multi-Path • AP antennas need placements that are away from reflective surfaces • Maximize Multi-Path • AP antennas need placements that are away from reflective surfaces • Maximize line of sight Ceiling P 1 TX RX P 2 P 3 Obstruction Floor Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. NEVER MOUNT ANTENNAS NEAR METAL OBJECTS or REFLECTIVE SURFACES 26

Diversity • Match the antenna types and ensure they cover the same radio pattern Diversity • Match the antenna types and ensure they cover the same radio pattern • If using cable extenders, should be the same length and type Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 27

Ideal Environment • G. 711 - 7 concurrent voice streams • G. 729 - Ideal Environment • G. 711 - 7 concurrent voice streams • G. 729 - 8 concurrent voice streams (# of 7920 s on call per AP) • Call numbers are with Voice Activity Detection (VAD) disabled, which is recommended • Voice quality maintained with standard data traffic on AP Note: These numbers can vary depending on the specific RF environment and the amount of data traffic Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 28

Set Expectations • Difficult to achieve 99. 999% availability with Vo. WLAN (2. 4 Set Expectations • Difficult to achieve 99. 999% availability with Vo. WLAN (2. 4 Ghz) • The better the RF environment is controlled the better the quality will be • Coverage in elevators is challenging • Recommended to use CCKM when doing 802. 1 x authentication otherwise voice gaps may exist during roaming Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 29

Site Survey Process • Identify areas in the physical environment where there is non Site Survey Process • Identify areas in the physical environment where there is non 802. 11 RF interference • Identify and eliminate rogue APs • Identify key utilization requirements • Determine proper AP location and transmit power levels • Proper configuration of APs • Proper configuration on network and server Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 30

Pre-Site Survey Form • Assists you in the assessment Type of survey needed How Pre-Site Survey Form • Assists you in the assessment Type of survey needed How long it will take Equipment needed Introduction to the customer’s facility • General fact gathering form Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 31

Site Survey • Survey each floor individually then combined to check leakage • Ensure Site Survey • Survey each floor individually then combined to check leakage • Ensure testing is done with users and wireless network traffic • Do not assume all channels can be used in every environment • Try to logically segment subnets based on roaming behavior • Keep in mind users will talk in locations where they don’t normally use wireless data Staircases Quiet locations Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 32

Off-hours or Green Site Survey • No noise during site survey, however will be Off-hours or Green Site Survey • No noise during site survey, however will be post deployment • Measure noise during the day or at other similar deployments Equivalent number of people and devices Similar type of RF utilization Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 33

Evaluate Key Areas File / Supply Room (Large Filing or Metal Cabinets) Elevator Shafts Evaluate Key Areas File / Supply Room (Large Filing or Metal Cabinets) Elevator Shafts Office Test Lab Break Room (Microwave Ovens - 2450 Mhz) Conference Room Cubes Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Stairwells (Reinforced Building Area) VIP (CEO) 34

Site Maps High Capacity Area Stock Room—Metal Shelves Coverage Not Required Parking Garage Cubes Site Maps High Capacity Area Stock Room—Metal Shelves Coverage Not Required Parking Garage Cubes Office Low Capacity Areas Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 35

Site Survey Report • Be very specific when describing locations • Use tape and Site Survey Report • Be very specific when describing locations • Use tape and facility markers • A picture is worth 1, 000 words • Antenna orientation Not all installers familiar with the equipment The more directional an antenna is, the more important the orientation description has to be Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 36

Incorrect Placement of APs • Incorrect placement of APs can lead to coverage or Incorrect Placement of APs • Incorrect placement of APs can lead to coverage or quality issues Move AP a minimum of 2 feet from metal beam Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 37

Incorrect Placement of APs • Mount a wood board between metal tracks Session Number Incorrect Placement of APs • Mount a wood board between metal tracks Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 38

Incorrect Antenna Orientation • Antennas are pointing incorrectly • Point the antennas toward the Incorrect Antenna Orientation • Antennas are pointing incorrectly • Point the antennas toward the desired coverage area Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 39

Long-Term Site Survey Report • Site survey report is required for the life of Long-Term Site Survey Report • Site survey report is required for the life of the WLAN deployment Configurations of the APs Location of the APs Channel and transmit power map Switch port configurations AP model types Coverage map per frequency Antenna type per AP Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 40

Tools for Vo. WLAN Site Surveys • WLSE assisted site survey tool is currently Tools for Vo. WLAN Site Surveys • WLSE assisted site survey tool is currently NOT recommended for voice deployments (The minimum cell overlap for seamless roaming is not present) • WLSE is recommended for managing APs post-deployment • Use tools like Airmagnet Analyzer and Surveyor, Cognio Spectrum Anaylzer • Finish using end-user devices such as Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone 7920 and wireless laptops to ensure 100% coverage and quality Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 41

Installation and Network Verification • As important as site survey • Insures entire system Installation and Network Verification • As important as site survey • Insures entire system works as designed • Make actual phone calls to test voice quality • Phone equipment requirements: Headsets to monitor RSSI and communicate on Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone 7920 Call between Cisco Unified Wireless IP Phone 7920 and wired Cisco Unified IP phone • Wired infrastructure pre-requisite: Proper wired network must be in place www. cisco. com/go/srnd Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 42

Installation Verification • Suggested test areas: Primary area of each AP cell (1) Any Installation Verification • Suggested test areas: Primary area of each AP cell (1) Any location where there might be high call volume (2) At the fringes of an AP’s coverage area (3) Areas of where overlap might be questionable (4) At locations where coverage might be slightly questionable but still need to be certified (i. e. stairwells, bathrooms, etc. ) 1 2 Session Number Presentation_ID Conference Room © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 3 43

Wireless Voice Verification Plan (WVV) • Important every time changes are made to: Wired Wireless Voice Verification Plan (WVV) • Important every time changes are made to: Wired network Wireless network Physical environment End user devices (Voice or data) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 44

Q and A Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Q and A Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 45

Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 46 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 46