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Dear user, Thank you for the outreach you are undertaking for the IPCC Special Dear user, Thank you for the outreach you are undertaking for the IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage! This note contains some instructions on how this standard presentation can be used. • Please note that the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is agreed government text and the official point of view of the IPCC. The slides in this presentation reflect this carefully established scientific consensus. While presenting the results of the IPCC Special Report, please stay close to the contents of the report and indicate clearly when you are giving your personal rather than the IPCC view. • The presentation is very long and repetitive. Depending on your audience, please pick and choose from the slides, and modify them where you deem it appropriate, keeping in mind the agreed SPM text. • The notes under the slides contain language from the SPM and the Technical Summary and other explanations for your reference. With kind regards, Bert Metz and Ogunlade Davidson, co-chairs WGIII INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

The IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Your name Your institute The IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Your name Your institute Date, place INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

About IPCC • Founded 1988 by UNEP and WMO • No research, no monitoring, About IPCC • Founded 1988 by UNEP and WMO • No research, no monitoring, no recommendations • Only assessment of peer-reviewed literature • Authors academic, industrial and NGO experts • Reviews by independent Experts and Governments • Policy relevant, but NOT policy prescriptive • Full report and technical summary: accepted by governments without change • Summary for policymakers: government approval INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

IPCC chair IPCC Secretariat WMO/UNEP IPCC Bureau Working Group III Task force Science Impacts IPCC chair IPCC Secretariat WMO/UNEP IPCC Bureau Working Group III Task force Science Impacts and adaptation Mitigation GHG Inventories WGI co-chairs WGIII co-chairs NGGIP co-chairs Technical Support Unit USA Technical Support Unit UK Technical Support Unit Netherlands Technical Support Unit Japan on National Experts, Authors, Contributors, Reviewers INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

About this report • Approved by IPCC in September 2005 • Published December 2005 About this report • Approved by IPCC in September 2005 • Published December 2005 • Written by over 100 authors from 30 countries , all continents • Extensively reviewed by over 200 experts • Presented at UNFCCC COP-11/ Kyoto COP/MOP -1 in Montreal INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Key issues addressed in this presentation • What is CO 2 capture and storage? Key issues addressed in this presentation • What is CO 2 capture and storage? • How could CCS play a role in mitigating climate change? • Maturity of the technology • Sources of CO 2 and potential reservoirs • Cost and potential • Health safety and environment risks • Legal and regulatory issues INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

CO 2 capture and storage system Fuels Processes Storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CO 2 capture and storage system Fuels Processes Storage options INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

How could CCS play a role in mitigating climate change? • Part of a How could CCS play a role in mitigating climate change? • Part of a portfolio of mitigation options • Reduce overall mitigation costs by incresing flexibility in achieving greenhouse gas emission reductions • Application in developing countries important • Energy requirements point of attention INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Energy requirements • Additional energy use of 10 - 40% (for same output) • Energy requirements • Additional energy use of 10 - 40% (for same output) • Capture efficiency: 85 - 95% • Net CO 2 reduction: 80 - 90% • Assuming safe storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Maturity of CCS technology • Research phase means that the basic science is understood, Maturity of CCS technology • Research phase means that the basic science is understood, but the technology is currently in the stage of conceptual design or testing at the laboratory or bench scale, and has not been demonstrated in a pilot plant. • Demonstration phase means that the technology has been built and operated at the scale of a pilot plant, but further development is required before the technology is ready for the design and construction of a full-scale system. • Economically feasible under specific conditions means that the technology is well understood and used in selected commercial applications, such as in case of a favourable tax regime or a niche market, processing at least 0. 1 Mt. CO 2/yr , with few (less than 5) replications of the technology. • Mature market means that the technology is now in operation with multiple replications of the commercial-scale technology worldwide. INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Maturity of CCS technology Post-combustion Oxyfuel combustion Mineral carbonation Pre-combustion Industrial separation Transport Enhanced Maturity of CCS technology Post-combustion Oxyfuel combustion Mineral carbonation Pre-combustion Industrial separation Transport Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Ocean storage Gas and oil fields Industrial utilization Saline formations Research phase Demonstration phase Enhanced Oil Recovery Economically feasible under specific conditions Mature market INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Qualifying CO 2 sources • Large stationary point sources • High CO 2 concentration Qualifying CO 2 sources • Large stationary point sources • High CO 2 concentration in the waste, flue gas or by -product stream (purity) • Pressure of CO 2 stream • Distance from suitable storage sites INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Global large stationary CO 2 sources with emissions of more than 0. 1 Mt. Global large stationary CO 2 sources with emissions of more than 0. 1 Mt. CO 2/year INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Capture of CO 2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Capture of CO 2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Capture of CO 2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Source: IPCC SRCCS Capture of CO 2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Source: IPCC SRCCS

Examples of existing CO 2 capture installations (Courtesy of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL Examples of existing CO 2 capture installations (Courtesy of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Planned and current locations of geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Planned and current locations of geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Current locations of geological storage Project name Country Injection start Daily injection (t. CO Current locations of geological storage Project name Country Injection start Daily injection (t. CO 2/day) Total planned Reservoir storage (t. CO 2) type Weyburn Canada 2000 3, 000 - 5, 000 20, 000 EOR In Salah Algeria 2004 3, 000 - 4, 000 17, 000 Gas field Sleipner Norway 1996 3, 000 20, 000 Saline formation K 12 B Netherlands 2004 100 8, 000 EGR Frio United States 2004 177 1, 600 Saline formation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Ocean storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Ocean storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Mineral carbonation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Mineral carbonation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Global distribution of large stationary sources of Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Global distribution of large stationary sources of CO 2 (Based on a compilation of publicly available information on global emission sources, IEA GHG 2002) INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Storage prospectivity Highly prospective sedimentary basins Prospective Geographical relationship between sources and storage opportunities Storage prospectivity Highly prospective sedimentary basins Prospective sedimentary basins Non-prospective sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rock Data quality and availability vary among regions Prospective areas in sedimentary basins where suitable saline formations, oil or gas fields, or coal beds may be found. Locations for storage in coal beds are only partly included. Prospectivity is a qualitative assessment of the likelihood that a suitable storage location is present in a given area based on the available information. This figure should be taken as a guide only, because it is based on partial data, the quality of which may vary from region to region, and which may change over time and with new information (Courtesy of Geoscience Australia). INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Costs Two ways of expressing costs: Different outcomes: • Additional electricity costs – Energy Costs Two ways of expressing costs: Different outcomes: • Additional electricity costs – Energy policymaking community • CO 2 avoidance costs – Climate policymaking community 0. 01 - 0. 05 US$/k. Wh 20* - 270 US$/t. CO 2 avoided (with EOR: 0*– 240 US$/t. CO 2 avoided) * low-end: capture-ready, low transport cost, revenues from storage: 360 Mt. CO 2/yr INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

CCS component costs CCS component Cost range Capture from a power plant 15 - CCS component costs CCS component Cost range Capture from a power plant 15 - 75 US$/t. CO 2 net captured Capture from gas processing or ammonia production 5 - 55 US$/t. CO 2 net captured Capture from other industrial sources 25 - 115 US$/t. CO 2 net captured Transportation 1 - 8 US$/t. CO 2 transported per 250 km Geological storage 0. 5 - 8 US$/t. CO 2 injected Ocean storage 5 - 30 US$/t. CO 2 injected Mineral carbonation 50 - 100 US$/t. CO 2 net mineralized INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Economic potential INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) Economic potential INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Economic potential • Cost reduction of climate change stabilisation: 30% or more • Most Economic potential • Cost reduction of climate change stabilisation: 30% or more • Most scenario studies: role of CCS increases over the course of the century • Substantial application above CO 2 price of 25 -30 US$/t. CO 2 • 15 to 55% of the cumulative mitigation effort worldwide until 2100 • 220 - 2, 200 Gt. CO 2 cumulatively up to 2100, depending on the baseline scenario, stabilisation level (450 - 750 ppmv), cost assumptions INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Storage potential • Geological storage: likely at least about 2, 000 Gt. CO 2 Storage potential • Geological storage: likely at least about 2, 000 Gt. CO 2 in geological formations "Likely" is a probability between 66 and 90%. • Ocean storage: on the order of thousands of Gt. CO 2, depending on environmental constraints • Mineral carbonation: can currently not be determined • Industrial uses: Not much net reduction of CO 2 emissions INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Technical and economic potential • “It is likely that the technical potential for geological Technical and economic potential • “It is likely that the technical potential for geological storage is sufficient to cover the high end of the economic potential range, but for specific regions, this may not be true. ” "Likely" is a probability between 66 and 90%. INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Health, safety, environment risks • In general: lack of real data, so comparison with Health, safety, environment risks • In general: lack of real data, so comparison with current operations • CO 2 pipelines: similar to or lower than those posed by hydrocarbon pipelines • Geological storage: – appropriate site selection, a monitoring program to detect problems, a regulatory system, remediation methods to stop or control CO 2 releases if they arise: – comparable to risks of current activities (natural gas storage, EOR, disposal of acid gas) INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Health, safety, environment risks: potential leakage from geological reservoirs and remediation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON Health, safety, environment risks: potential leakage from geological reservoirs and remediation INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Health, safety, environment risks: trapping mechanisms for geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE Health, safety, environment risks: trapping mechanisms for geological storage INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Health, safety, environment risks • Ocean storage: – p. H change – Mortality of Health, safety, environment risks • Ocean storage: – p. H change – Mortality of ocean organisms – Ecosystem consequences – Chronic effects unknown • Mineral carbonation: – Mining and disposal of resulting products – Some of it may be re-used INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Ocean Storage 100% Impacts 80% 60% 5000 ppm 40% Change population – p. H Ocean Storage 100% Impacts 80% 60% 5000 ppm 40% Change population – p. H change – Mortality of ocean organisms – Ecosystem consequences – Chronic effects unknown 20, 000 ppm 20% 0% -20% -40% Change of bacteria, nanobenthos and meiobenthos abundace after exposure to 20, 000 and 5, 000 ppm for 77 -375 hrs during experiments carried out at 2000 m depth in NW Pacific -60% -80% -100% Bacteria <10 mm 10 -30 mm Nanobenthos Meibenthos INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Will leakage compromise CCS as a climate change mitigation option? • Fraction retained in Will leakage compromise CCS as a climate change mitigation option? • Fraction retained in appropriately selected and managed geological reservoirs is – very likely to exceed 99% over 100 years, and – is likely to exceed 99% over 1, 000 years. "Likely" is a probability between 66 and 90%, "very likely" of 90 to 99% • Release of CO 2 from ocean storage would be gradual over hundreds of years • Sufficient? INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

What are the legal and regulatory issues for implementing CO 2 storage? • Onshore: What are the legal and regulatory issues for implementing CO 2 storage? • Onshore: national regulation – Few legal or regulatory frameworks for long-term CO 2 storage liabilities • Offshore: international treaties – OSPAR (regional), London Convention – Ocean storage and sub-seabed geological storage – Unclear whether or under what conditions CO 2 injection is compatible with international law INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)

Thank you Report published by Cambridge University Press Order at www. cambridge. org Documents Thank you Report published by Cambridge University Press Order at www. cambridge. org Documents available on www. ipcc. ch More information: ipcc 3 [email protected] nl INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC)