- Количество слайдов: 32
Day 1 Ensuring access to microfinance services for people with disabilities Workshop for Disabled People’s Organisations and Microfinance Institutions
Workshop rules • • Confidentiality Respect for the opinions of others Listening Speaking freely Co-responsibility Punctuality Photographs
Definition Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. (Art. 1 - UNCRPD)
International Convention • The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities received its 20 th ratification on 3 April 2008, triggering the entry into force of the Convention and its Optional Protocol 30 days later. • This marks a major milestone in the effort to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity.
Disability is a Human Rights issue • Disability is an unavoidable and universal part of human diversity • There has been a change in how the person with disabilities is viewed: – From being seen as an object of charity and a burden = approach of assistance – To a subject of law = approach based on the respect of all human beings – Shift from a charitable to a rights-based approach whereby individual is respected and empowered
• In light of this change, four core human rights values take on particular importance in the context of disability : Ø Dignity: respect for a person’s physical and moral integrity Ø Autonomy: capacity for self-directed action, decision and behaviour Ø Equality: prohibition of discrimination Ø Solidarity: social support Everybody has the same rights and should have the same access to their rights
Contrasting disability models Disability viewed as an individual pathology MEDICAL MODEL Disability viewed as a social pathology SOCIAL MODEL The problem is within the individual: the disability is the direct result of the person’s impairment Reference to people with disabilities as an oppressed minority Disability is only a health (thus medical) issue The environment of persons with disabilities is a problem Solutions are designed by « medical experts » on the basis of a medical diagnosis The disability is the result of barriers linked to : physical environment, attitudes, information and communication. This leads to unequal access to opportunities Focus: elimination or cure of disability ; normalisation Focus: elimination of barriers linked to physical space, attitudines and information/communication Adapted from Rioux, 1997 - Cité par Interactif déc 2002 - Understanding disability : look, then act
HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL Personal factors Environmental factors Intrinsic Extrinsic Interaction SOCIAL PARTICIPATION Human development model (RIPPH, 1996)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL Adapted from Disability Creation Process, Fougeyrollas et al. , 1997 Personal factors Organic systems Integrity - Impairment Environmental Factors Capabilities Ability – Funct. impairment Facilitator - Obstacles Interactions Life Habits Social Participation - Disabling Situation
A heterogeneous group. . . They have different types of impairments of varying degrees of severity Organic systems They have diverse combinations of education, skills and experiences Capabilities They live in different environments with specific obstacles and facilitators Environmental factors
…with a lot of potential Many impairments could be treated or compensated for! People with disabilities have capabilities and can develop new ones ! Obstacles could be reduced and facilitators multiplied !
This is the story of Annie, a 23 year old woman from Zambia. Annie Mweemba is a wheelchair-user. Annie has completed a two-year tailoring course. She knows she was lucky to complete this training. After spending some time at home helping her parents with domestic chores, Annie thought of using their old sewing machine to start her own business. She began by advertising her home-based business, but met with negative attitudes, especially from her parents, because of her disability. However, Annie persisted and eventually people began bringing her sewing. Her business was not profitable because she had a lot of competition from other tailors, but she continued to work hard to earn a living. However, her sewing machine was not adapted to her needs and her old wheelchair made it even more difficult for her to work efficiently. She tried to get a loan from a bank to buy a new better-adapted sewing machine, but she couldn’t get into the building with her wheelchair. After much effort she convinced a friend to help her to get inside, but the bank personnel rejected her request outright because of her impairment, without even trying to gauge her skills in business management, her technical expertise or the collateral guarantee. Despite all her efforts, Annie was forced to give up her dream of becoming financially independent and had to go back to being dependent on her family. She is now confined to her home and reduced to doing the domestic chores. She often wonders how different her life would have been if she had access to information on places that help people like her to realise their aspirations. Annie is just a case in point. There are countless Annies in our society, people who have the skills, determination and aspirations to make it on their own, but are unable to do so…. .
Annie’s case-study What are the personal and environmental factors that affect Annie’s life habits/situation? What facilitators would have contributed to Annie’s success?
Participation and inclusion: a cross-cutting issue Ensuring the participation of people with disabilities involves complementary activities in a variety of sectors… Healthcare, rehabilitation, assistive devices, public education, barrier-free access, transport, communications, education, social welfare and community development, awareness of the rights of people with disabilities, social security, sport and recreation, and adequate and enforced public policies and legislation. & financial services … involving a wide range of stakeholders Hospitals, schools, government bodies, firms, NGOs, media companies… & microfinance institutions
In brief ü Disability is a relative situation that results from the interaction between a person’s abilities and a person’s environment. ü Disability is not a fixed state but rather an evolving one. ü A multi-sector approach addressing the various disabling barriers is required for the successful inclusion of people with disabilities.
Disability, poverty and livelihoods
General figures… Ø 10% - 12% of the world’s population has some form of disabling impairment (over 600 million people) Ø 80% live in low-income countries Ø 82% of people with disabilities live below the poverty line Ø 80% of people with disabilities of working age are unemployed
… & Facts Ø Women with disabilities are generally worse off than men with disabilities ØThe majority of people with disabilities in developing countries live in rural areas ØThere is a higher rate of unemployment among people with disabilities than among the rest of the population
Link between poverty and disability Sources : DFID
Millennium Development Goals MDG 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Disability and poverty are mutually reinforcing and disabled people and their families represent a very substantial proportion of the poor, especially the extremely poor. MDG 2 Achieve universal primary education This is the only absolute goal and with 98% of disabled children in developing countries not in school it will be impossible to achieve unless they are explicitly brought into the equation. MDG 3 Promote gender equality and empower women Disabled women and girls face a complex and layered experience of discrimination and disadvantage. The target of eliminating gender inequality in all levels of education by 2015 will not be reached without taking disability into account. MDG 4 Reduce child mortality In the developing world, the mortality rate among disabled children under five can be as high as 80%. Sources : DFID
Millennium Development Goals MDG 5 Improve maternal health Disabling impairments associated with pregnancy and childbirth affect up to 20 million women a year. MDG 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Disabled people are particularly vulnerable to these diseases, which are also a major cause of disabling impairments. MDG 7 Ensure environmental sustainability Unsafe water can be the origin of Trachoma which can cause blindness MDG 8 Develop a global partnership for development National and international organisations in the world community, including Disabled Person’s Organisations (DPOs), have an important role to play in the raising awareness to disability issues, and empowering people with disabilities Sources : DFID & ACFID
Millennium Development Goals “If 20 % of the world’s poorest are persons with disabilities, then the Millennium Development Goals will only be achieved if explicit and specific efforts are undertaken to include them in programmes aimed at reaching the world’s poorest. ”
Specific services Whenever necessary Twin-track approach ! Access to mainstream services Whenever possible For an « equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms » United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities - 2006
The situation in Afghanistan Disability: a dormant factor… The impact of being a person with disabilities is felt when the situation starts improving … which does not affect people facing severe and chronic poverty. Sources : National disability survey in Afghanistan - 2005
Livelihood opportunities • Employment ØLack of opportunities in the job market • Social security resources / safety net ØExist in only some developed countries • Self-employment ØUsually the only option available : 80% of people with disabilities who have an economic activity are self-employed
Being self-employed ! Network Experience Skills Market opportunities Access to capital Good products & services Suppliers Conducive legal environment Access to capital is now considered one of the main elements of economic inclusion.
Access to capital Grants ØVery costly schemes and not very common ØTend to make away individual responsibility and make people dependent ØShould be limited to specific conditions Own capital Loans ØNeed saving capacity ØAccess to credit still very limited from formal and informal lenders, despite the demand For most MFIs, Pw. Ds represent between 0 and 2% of their clientèle
Conclusion ✓ People with disabilities suffer from high poverty levels and high rates of unemployment; yet employment is essential for earning a living, helping to support the family and improve self-esteem. ✓ Self-employment is often the only option open to many people with disabilities. In most cases, it is difficult for disabled people to find a formal job in developing countries. However, self-employment is not an option for everyone, since disabled people are a heterogeneous group. ✓ One of the main obstacles to self-employment is access to capital for start-ups or business enhancement.
Difficulties faced by people with disabilities in being selfemployed
Most people with disabilities… • Prefer not to apply for microcredit, even if it is available locally • Are able to adapt and learn quickly • Are risk-averse, afraid to lose what they have • Consider a loan as a last resort • Do not know how to approach an MFI • Have had unhappy experiences when approaching offices Mersland - 2005
Most people with disabilities… • Are misinformed about MFI and existing MF products • May wait for specific programmes • Who were denied the access to a loan believe it is because of their impairment (even if the real reason is business capacity) • May have higher operational costs in their activity Mersland - 2005