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Critical issues facing REDD+ CPA Conference. Global Mechanisms: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Critical issues facing REDD+ CPA Conference. Global Mechanisms: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), July 2010

Questions • What are the debates surrounding REDD+? • What issues are yet to Questions • What are the debates surrounding REDD+? • What issues are yet to be resolved? • What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be resolved? • How do we maintain momentum behind the discussions? • What opportunities does REDD+ offer parliamentarians and what should they do to support it?

What are the debates surrounding REDD+? • Broad agreement that deforestation and degradation (DD) What are the debates surrounding REDD+? • Broad agreement that deforestation and degradation (DD) contributes 11 -20% of global GHG emissions, so why is REDD+ contested? – Common but differentiated responsibilities: is it fair and will it distract from other mitigation measures? – ‘Cost-effective’ way to reduce emissions (Stern 2006), or is it? – Can REDD+ solve underlying DD drivers? – Can national sovereignty be respected? – How can effective international policy instruments be created? Source: Flickr, pasi

What issues are yet to be resolved? • Despite the debates, there is considerable What issues are yet to be resolved? • Despite the debates, there is considerable interest in REDD+ from both developed and developing countries, but many political and technical issues are still under debate: – Where REDD+ fits within the broader UNFCCC framework – Scale at which REDD+ is implemented – Financing sources and mechanisms – Environmental and social safeguards – How to assess performance (‘reference levels’) – Capturing experience from early actions

Drivers Examples of influence on actors’ positions on key REDD+ building blocks Economic benefits Drivers Examples of influence on actors’ positions on key REDD+ building blocks Economic benefits • Drives some developing country governments on potential expansion of REDD+ • Drives conservation NGO interest in inclusion of conservation areas in REDD+ • Drives private sector positions REDD+ carbon markets and projects Cost efficiency • Drives some developed country positions on use of REDD+ offsets and carbon markets Environmenta • Drives opposition from environmental NGOs on market based REDD+ l integrity • Drives positions of some developed country governments on use of REDD+ offsets and carbon markets National sovereignty • Drives many developing country government positions on offsets, scale, safeguards relating to indigenous peoples and development of MRV systems involving third parties Fairness and social justice • Drives pro-market NGO positions on the use of social safeguards for co-benefits in REDD+ • Drives anti-market NGO opposition to offsets and market based approaches • Drives local and indigenous peoples’ concerns for the development of social safeguards Political positioning and PR • Drives some developed country government positions (e. g. , desire to be seen as progressive) • Positive public relations drives private sector interest in systems (e. g. , standards) to demonstrate co-benefits some developed country government positions

What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be resolved? • Failing to What are the potential pitfalls and how can these be resolved? • Failing to address underlying DD drivers and demand side • Perverse impacts on governance and local peoples • Ensuring global additionality and avoiding leakage • Uncertainty in financing sources and reducing investment risks

How do we maintain momentum behind the discussions? • Paris-Oslo process: ‘Action track to How do we maintain momentum behind the discussions? • Paris-Oslo process: ‘Action track to supplement the UNFCCC negotiations track’ (Brattskar 2010) – Timely delivery on financial pledges • Pushing through domestic legislation in key countries (especially the U. S. ) • Demonstrate and communicate early results (e. g. Brazil) • Maintain flexibility in approach (e. g. ‘phased’ approach) • Regional or bilateral approaches to enhance demand • Engage with civil society organisations

What opportunities does REDD+ offer parliamentarians? • Potential to assist with broader development goals, What opportunities does REDD+ offer parliamentarians? • Potential to assist with broader development goals, through new streams of finance • Increased prominence of forest/environment issues in national policy processes (opportunity for sector reforms) • Improved information on sector and better monitoring • New policy instrument with strong performance element

What could parliamentarians do to support REDD+? • Support activities to address demand side What could parliamentarians do to support REDD+? • Support activities to address demand side drivers: – Illegal logging (national legislation in importer countries; legality verification etc. ) – Enhanced forest sector transparency (e. g. G 8 Forest Transparency Initiative) – Supporting sustainable forest management – Support sustainable agriculture (e. g. sustainability criteria) • National support in REDD+ countries: – Increasing the political profile of REDD+ – Promote appropriate legislative frameworks for REDD+ (monitoring systems; carbon rights definition; investment criteria; safeguards) – Promote policy coordination between forestry departments and other govt. departments – Promoting inclusive development of national REDD+ plans

Leo Peskett Research Fellow Overseas Development Institute l. peskett@odi. org. uk Leo Peskett Research Fellow Overseas Development Institute l. [email protected] org. uk