Creating Data Express Procedures TUTORIAL May 2 2002

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Creating Data. Express Procedures TUTORIAL May 2, 2002 This presentation is designed to walk Creating Data. Express Procedures TUTORIAL May 2, 2002 This presentation is designed to walk you through the basic steps of creating a Data. Express procedure.

Creating a Data. Express Procedure TERMINOLOGY Database Data Set Data Element Data Byte AA Creating a Data. Express Procedure TERMINOLOGY Database Data Set Data Element Data Byte AA data set consistsgroup ofof byte is a one-character piece AA database is a collection data element is a of related ofdata elements Itfor the thatunit information. is rapid relatedorganized(fields) a data bytes that identify smallest the contents as student ofdefine unit of such of a in information, information processing, searching, and a database. Aexamples all data name. Other example, of the record, for database consists retrieval. elements are STU-STREET, a data elements that identify Datarelatedare extracted using of bytes data sets. An STU-CITY, STU-ST, and STU student's of a writing is Data. Express bydatabase a SM example address. An -ZIP, which aredata set isthe example of a a few of computational expression. STU(Student Management). data (Student Detail) STU-D D elements in the SM click to continue data set in the SM database. click to continue

Creating a Data. Express Procedure BASIC STEPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Creating a Data. Express Procedure BASIC STEPS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identify the data sources (databases and data sets) you want to access. Select the desired data fields from the data sets to create a working set. • A working set consists of all fields required for sorting, selecting, computations, and ouput. Create and define any computational fields. Define the output file. • Select the data fields in the order they should appear in the report. • Identify the data fields to use for sorting. • Identify the data fields to use for summary functions and control breaks. • Identify the data fields to use for selection criteria. Specify the linkages between data sets. Identify the output format (ex: terminal display, report listing) Run the procedure. Save the procedure. click to continue

Creating a Basic Data. Express Procedure DATA SOURCES Before you go into Data. Express, Creating a Basic Data. Express Procedure DATA SOURCES Before you go into Data. Express, determine which databases, data sets, and data fields you need to produce the report you want. In this case you have determined that the data you need will be extracted from: Database: SM Data sets: CLASS-D, STU-YRQXREF-D, STU-D Data fields:

Creating a Basic Data. Express Procedure SORTS, SELECTIONS, CALCULATIONS, REPORT OUTPUT The following presentation Creating a Basic Data. Express Procedure SORTS, SELECTIONS, CALCULATIONS, REPORT OUTPUT The following presentation walks through the screen by screen steps for creating a basic Data. Express procedure. This sample procedure produces a report that depicts the following data: • Classes in the year quarters A 123 and A 124. • Item numbers in the 1000 number range. • The student cumulative GPA’s are represented showing average, low and high GPA’s by item number and for the entire report output. • A count of students by class and by report is provided. click to continue

From the Data. Express Main Menu, choose option 3 CREATE a new procedure. Once From the Data. Express Main Menu, choose option 3 CREATE a new procedure. Once you create a procedure, you use it to produce (or run) a report. NOTE: Option #1 displays a list of existing Data. Express procedures in a specified catalog. Option #2 runs an existing Data. Express procedure. Option #4 allows modifications to existing Data. Express procedures. Option #8 exits Data. Express. click to continue

From the CREATE a new procedure menu, choose option 1 (Use HP DICTIONARY definitions) From the CREATE a new procedure menu, choose option 1 (Use HP DICTIONARY definitions) to create most of your Data. Express procedures. All fields in FMS, PPMS, SMS, and FAS SAFERS databases are defined in the HP Dictionary. NOTE: Option #2 is used primarily for FAS NEEDnn databases. Option #3 is no longer used. Option #4 is used for accessing MPE, KSAM or self-describing files. Option #7 returns to the Main Menu. click to continue

From the Use HP DICTIONARY definitions menu, choose option 2 (Use HP IMAGE data From the Use HP DICTIONARY definitions menu, choose option 2 (Use HP IMAGE data base definitions) to extract data from the SBCTC-IT application databases (FMS, PPMS, SMS and FAS SAFERS). NOTE: Option #3 is used to extract data contained in files created during job scheduling or batch processing. Not all files listed are permanent files. Some files may be working files for the job process and will contain no data. click to continue

From the Use HP IMAGE data base definitions menu, choose option 2 (Select a From the Use HP IMAGE data base definitions menu, choose option 2 (Select a specific IMAGE data base). Note: While it is possible to link multiple databases and files, you can select only one database at a time. Others may be added later in the create process. Option #1 displays a list of the available IMAGE databases. Option #3 allows the selection of a single data set. click to continue

At the IMAGE data base name prompt, type the name of the application database At the IMAGE data base name prompt, type the name of the application database to be accessed (SM – based on your preparation before you launched Data. Express). NOTE: Additional databases or files will be added at the ADD MORE FIELDS OR FILES (N/y)? prompt later in the process. click to continue

At the Enter Data Set Selection prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas At the Enter Data Set Selection prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas - no spaces) of the datasets to be used in creating the procedure. NOTE: If possible, enter the data set numbers in the order that they are to be linked. This is not REQUIRED, but is helpful when selecting data elements that may appear in multiple files. Linking is also made less confusing. click to continue

Many databases will have multiple pages of listed data sets. To go to the Many databases will have multiple pages of listed data sets. To go to the next page without selecting anything on the current page, at the Enter Data Set Selection prompt, simply press Return. Note: When viewing Data. Express screens, read the information above the dotted line. Here you will find information about which menu is being viewed and which page of a multi-page selection menu is being displayed. click to continue

Again, you don’t need any fields on this page so press Return to go Again, you don’t need any fields on this page so press Return to go to the next screen. click to continue

To select the data fields you want from each data set, type the field To select the data fields you want from each data set, type the field menu numbers (separated by commas – no spaces) at the Enter Data Field Selection prompt. From the CLASS-D data set, you want fields 14 (CLASS-ITM-NUM), 23 (COURSE-ID), and 28 (COURSE-TITLE). Note: It is not necessary to select the data fields in any particular order. The fields you select are building the Working Set (fields you want in your report output as well as fields used for sorting, selecting, and computations). click to continue

At the Enter Data Set Selection prompt, continue selecting the fields to build the At the Enter Data Set Selection prompt, continue selecting the fields to build the Working Set: 4 (INSTR -NAME) and 45 (YRQ). Note: Read the information above the dotted line. This tells you from which data set you are selecting fields and which page you are on. click to continue

On page 3 of the CLASS-D data set, press Return (no more fields are On page 3 of the CLASS-D data set, press Return (no more fields are needed from this data set). click to continue

At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field to be added to the Working Set – 7 (DROP-DATE). Note: Reading the information above the dotted line, notice that Data. Express is now displaying the fields in the second dataset (STU-CLASS-D) in the selection. click to continue

At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field to be added to the Working Set – 1 (SID). Note: Data. Express is displaying the data sets in the order they were selected from the SM database selection menu. This screen displays the fields in STU-YRQ-XREF-D. click to continue

At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field to be added to the Working Set – 17 (CUM-GPA). Note: Data. Express is now displaying page 1 of 2 of the pages in the STU-D data set. click to continue

At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field At the Enter Data Field Selection prompt, type the menu number of the field to be added to the Working Set – 14 (STU-NAME). Note: Page 2 of the fields in the STU-D data set are now displayed. click to continue

Once you have finished selecting all the data fields (also called data elements) that Once you have finished selecting all the data fields (also called data elements) that you need for your procedure, at the Add More Fields Or Files prompt, press Return to continue building the procedure specifications. Note: The fields listed between the dotted lines, under the Define Output Specifications heading are referred to as the Working Set. A Working Set consists of all fields selected for output, sorting, selecting, and computations. If more fields or files were needed for the Working Set, the response to the Add More Fields Or Files prompt would be Y (yes). click to continue

At the Enter Field Definitions prompt, type Y (yes) to define a date subtype At the Enter Field Definitions prompt, type Y (yes) to define a date subtype for the DROP-DATE field. Note: All date fields should have date subtypes defined for them. For more information about what date subtypes are and how they function, click here : click to continue

By the Enter. Typethe previous prompt, the menu At typing “Y” at (J+) prompt, By the Enter. Typethe previous prompt, the menu At typing “Y” at (J+) prompt, type Data a Field Number type an ampersand (&). promptsthat corresponds with allowingfielddate that The ampersand is prompt, type prompts Data. Express number below areadisplayed, the date the to be At the Date Subtype symbol that the date subtype entry. subtypestored in the field (for example, to allow date DROP-DATE). modifieda(6 for data is entry. click to continue represents how click to continue click YYMMDD for 021231, December 31, 2002). to continue Note: The majority of the date-related fields in the SBCTC-IT applications are 6 character YYMMDD formatted fields. When adding date subtypes, you are defining how the data is stored, not how you want it to display. click to continue

Once you have defined all date subtypes for daterelated fields, at the Enter Field Once you have defined all date subtypes for daterelated fields, at the Enter Field Number prompt, press Return to continue to the next option. click to continue

At the Add Any Computational Fields prompt, press Return to accept the default of At the Add Any Computational Fields prompt, press Return to accept the default of N (no). Note: A Y (yes) reply at this prompt, allows the creation of computed values. Most typically, computational fields are comprised of either arithmetic expressions (ex: one field plus another field), or conditional statements (ex: return a particular value if a certain condition or value is found in the field record). click to continue

At the Include In Output prompt, type the field menu numbers (separated by commas At the Include In Output prompt, type the field menu numbers (separated by commas - no spaces) in the order that you want the fields to appear on the report in columnar format. Note: It is not necessary to include all fields from the Working Set in the report output. Often fields are selected for the Working Set to be used as sort fields, selection fields (for filtering specific records), or as fields to be used in computations. Helpful Hint: It is recommended that sort fields are the leftmost fields in the report. This creates a control break where summaries can be obtained. click to continue

At the Sort By prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas - no At the Sort By prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas - no spaces) of the fields that you want the report to be sorted by. In this case, you want the data first sorted by YRQ, then by CLASS-ITMNUM, and so forth. Note: In this report, by selecting all fields related to the class as sort fields, a blank will appear in each row for those fields until a change in value occurs. This gives a group appearance that is easier to read than listing the repeating values. click to continue

At the Summarize By prompt, type 0 to obtain report totals, followed by 1 At the Summarize By prompt, type 0 to obtain report totals, followed by 1 to obtain totals for each CLASSITM-NUM. Note: Fields specified as SUMMARIZE BY fields must also be SORT fields that produce a control break. A control break is the point at which the value in a sort field changes. At each control break, you can specify a summary function. click to continue

Under Enter Summary Field Selection For, at the report prompt, type 7 C, 8 Under Enter Summary Field Selection For, at the report prompt, type 7 C, 8 A, 8 H, 8 L to obtain report summaries as follows: Count SIDs, calculate the Average, High, and Low CUM-GPAs. Note: The report prompt relates to the SUMMARIZE BY entry of 0. When prompted for summary field selections, you can enter fields contained in the Working Set followed by operators of C (count), A (average), H (high), L (low), E (end or last value), and * (subtotal a numeric field). click to continue

Under Enter Summary Field Selection For at the CLASSITM-NUM prompt, type 7 C, 8 Under Enter Summary Field Selection For at the CLASSITM-NUM prompt, type 7 C, 8 A, 8 H, 8 L to obtain summaries by item number for: Count SID’s, calculate the Average, High, and Low CUM-GPA. click to continue

At the Suppress Detail Records press Return to accept the default of N (no). At the Suppress Detail Records press Return to accept the default of N (no). Note: When responding with a Y to this prompt, automatic summarization of numeric fields will occur, giving a summary line report. This will only happen where nonunique values in non-numeric fields appear. To see an example of a report displaying suppressed detail, click here: click to continue

At the Select By prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas - no At the Select By prompt, type the menu numbers (separated by commas - no spaces) for the fields that will be used to enter run-time values that will limit or filter the record output of the report. Note: Try to order the Select By fields in the order that they are found in the file linkage. In other words, select by those fields that come from the first data set first. If multiple fields from a single data set are used as selection fields, enter the key fields first. click to continue

At the Are The Specifications Correct prompt, press Return to accept the default of At the Are The Specifications Correct prompt, press Return to accept the default of Y (yes). Note: A N (no) reply will return to previous prompts for data re-entry. click to continue

At the File Access And Linkage Order prompt, type the data set numbers (separated At the File Access And Linkage Order prompt, type the data set numbers (separated by commas - no spaces) in the order they are to be accessed. 1 (CLASS -D), 2 (STU-CLASS-D), 3 (STU-YRQ-XREF-D), 4 (STU-D). Note: When files (data sets) are separated by commas, it is assumed that the link field is in the file immediately to the left of the file number. Above, the linkage reads as follows: file 1 links to file 2, file 2 links to file 3, file 3 links to file 4. For other examples of linking methods, click here: click to continue

At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to accept the Y (yes) default. Data. Express will then search for the link between CLASS-D and STU-CLASS-D as noted at the top of the screen. Note: When unsure of whether or not there is a defined path, press return. If there is not a defined path, Data. Express will return a warning message and allow the manual selection of the linking fields. click to continue

At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to accept the Y (yes) default. Data. Express will then search for the link between STU -CLASS-D and STU-YRQ-XREF-D as noted at the top of the screen. click to continue

At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to At the Is There A Defined Path Between Data Sets prompt, press Return to accept the Y (yes) default. Data. Express will then search for the link between STU -YRQ-XREF-D and STU-D as noted at the top of the screen. click to continue

At the Alternate Names For Selection Fields prompt, type Y (yes) and press Return At the Alternate Names For Selection Fields prompt, type Y (yes) and press Return to customize the run-time prompt for the YRQ selection field. Note: If fields are specified at the Select By prompt, you will receive this prompt. This allows the option of creating a customized prompt for the field which will be seen when the procedure is executed. This can be helpful if the field name is cryptic or the value to be entered is complex. click to continue

At the YRQ prompt, type a customized prompt for the Press return at the At the YRQ prompt, type a customized prompt for the Press return at the CLASS-ITM-NUM, COURSE-ID, YRQ field. This message will and DROP-DATE prompts. be seen when the procedure is executed (instead of the YRQ prompt). Press return at the CLASS-ITM-NUM, COURSE-ID, and DROP-DATE prompts. click to continue Note: It is particularly helpful to customize the prompt when selecting by date related fields. For example, instead of seeing STU-STRT-DATE, the prompt can be changed to read TYPE STUDENT START DATE (YYMMDD) indicating the appropriate format of the selection entry. click to continue

At the Edit Names/Locations Of Data Bases And Files prompt, press Return to accept At the Edit Names/Locations Of Data Bases And Files prompt, press Return to accept the N (no) default. Note: This prompt will always be displayed. Most of the time, the response will be the default of N (no). Only respond with a Y (yes) if group or account location of the databases or data sets needs to be requalified. This is sometimes necessary when sharing procedures from college to college which contain non-standard files (not defined by Dictionary 3000). click to continue

At the Include Database Password(s) In Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the N At the Include Database Password(s) In Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the N (no) default. Note: If the database passwords are entered here, they will be embedded in the procedure and the password will not be required at run-time. This will eliminate the security that the database passwords provide. It is not recommended that passwords be entered here. click to continue

At the Enter An Option Number prompt, press Return to provide the run-time option At the Enter An Option Number prompt, press Return to provide the run-time option of choosing the output format. Note: Unless the procedure is producing a file to be saved for use in a multi-pass procedure, it is recommended that you press Return to allow the run-time output option. click to continue

At the Run The Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the Y (yes) default. At the Run The Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the Y (yes) default. Note: Typing N (no) here will provide the option to save the procedure so that it can be executed at a later date. The procedure may also be saved after it is run. click to continue

At the Enter An Option Number prompt, press Return to accept the default of At the Enter An Option Number prompt, press Return to accept the default of a Report Listing output. A Report Listing is either sent to a printer or viewed on the screen. Note: This is a repeat of the screen seen earlier, but the procedure is now in run mode. Data. Express is offering the run-time option for output. Helpful Hint: Other common run-time options (for non-multi-pass procedures) are 27 (for Excel), 29 (for Access). click to continue

At the PASSWORD for SM prompt, type the database password for the SM database At the PASSWORD for SM prompt, type the database password for the SM database at your college. Be sure to type in all uppercase lettering. Note: As you type the password, the field will remain blank for security purposes. If you do not know the database password, see your system administrator, IT staff, systems security manager, or computing services staff. click to continue

At the TYPE VALID YEAR QUARTER/S prompt, Once the database password has prompt, Return At the TYPE VALID YEAR QUARTER/S prompt, Once the database password has prompt, Return to At the and CLASS-ITM-NUM been entered, [email protected] At the and COURSE-ID prompt, press 000000 (six and DROP-DATE prompt, type prompts (using to @ wildcard) to fields that records whose type A 123, A 124 only thosewere student’s will betheextract to extractlimit the extraction to only extract displayed for those ENGL 101) within YRQ zeros) all course id’s (ex: records where entered at those records whose class item criteria. falls within YRQ date in with athe is null. Note: values for inwill the Select Bythe class specified number single each the A 123, A 124 match CLASS-ITM-NUM range 0 the drop value prompt. By entering A 1000 the output click item number range. to continue field, to continuerecords are limited. click to continue 1000’s. work also. click to continue Note: When entering values for the selection fields, valid operators include: LT (less than), LE (less than or equal to), GT (greater than), GE (greater than or equal to), NE (not equal to), EQ (assumed - equal to). The connectors of AND, OR, and TO may also be used to designate ranges. The wildcard symbol @ may be used to specify any characters. The wildard symbol ? designates any single character. click to continue

Based on the selection criteria entered on the previous screen, the records will be Based on the selection criteria entered on the previous screen, the records will be read and extracted. At the List Report On Printer prompt, press Return to accept the N (no) default. The output will appear on the screen. Note: When specifying Y (yes) at the List Report On Printer prompt, you will be given the option to send the output to a system or terminal printer. click to continue

At the Page Parts, Multi-Line or Truncate prompt, press Return to accept the default At the Page Parts, Multi-Line or Truncate prompt, press Return to accept the default of P (page parts). This will display the report horizontally across the screen in multiple page parts when the report is wider than a single page. Note: The Multi-Line option prints the output to the screen on a single page, with multiple lines per record. This is difficult to read. The Truncate option crops the report to a single line per record on a single page horizontally. For a wide report, some fields will be lost from view. Page Parts is the most commonly used view. click to continue

The output will display on the screen. To navigate up and down use the The output will display on the screen. To navigate up and down use the F 1 (Forward) and F 2 (Backward) function keys. To navigate horizontally in the report, press the F 4 (Left) and F 5 (Right) functions keys. Note: SID’s have been blacked out for privacy Note: The fields for which summary totals were requested will have a <*> under them. Note: The total will appear under the field being summarized. Here, a COUNT of 10 SID’s for the item number. click to continue

By pressing the F 5 function key, the screen displays page 1 B of By pressing the F 5 function key, the screen displays page 1 B of 181. Note: Average, High, Low CUMGPA’s for this item number. click to continue

To view the report totals, at the Page Forward/Exit/Page-Back prompt, type the last report To view the report totals, at the Page Forward/Exit/Page-Back prompt, type the last report page number (which can be found in the upper right corner of the screen). click to continue

Press the F 4 function key to move to page 181 A and view Press the F 4 function key to move to page 181 A and view the report totals for the SID count. Note: Report totals will appear as the last records on the report - after the last item number summaries. click to continue

Press the F 8 EXIT key to exit the report listing view. Note: Report Press the F 8 EXIT key to exit the report listing view. Note: Report total SID count appears at the end of the report under the SID heading. click to continue

At the Reuse Extract File prompt, press Return to accept the N (no) default. At the Reuse Extract File prompt, press Return to accept the N (no) default. Note: A Y (yes) response allows you to reuse the data extract and either view it again, send it to a printer, or choose another output file format option. click to continue

At the Repeat Procedure Run prompt, press Return to accept default of N (no). At the Repeat Procedure Run prompt, press Return to accept default of N (no). Note: A Y (yes) response allows you to rerun the procedure and enter different selection values if desired. click to continue

At the Save Current Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the default of Y At the Save Current Procedure prompt, press Return to accept the default of Y (yes). Note: Is not necessary to save every created procedure. If saved, the procedure is stored in a procedure catalog so that it can be accessed and rerun at a later date. click to continue

At the Save Name prompt, type a 10 character procedure name. Note: The procedure At the Save Name prompt, type a 10 character procedure name. Note: The procedure name is user defined and can be anything you desire. Helpful Hint: Include something in the name that makes the procedure easy to find or wildcard search when perusing the catalog. click to continue

At the Description prompt, type a 50 character description that includes details about the At the Description prompt, type a 50 character description that includes details about the kind of procedure written. Note: This description appears in the procedure catalog. It is helpful to be as descriptive as possible. Use key words and try to include the select by fields. click to continue

At the Entry Access By User prompt, type the @ symbol. Note: The @ At the Entry Access By User prompt, type the @ symbol. Note: The @ symbol opens access to the procedure to all users who have MPE access to this catalog. Associated database passwords are still required. click to continue

At the Entry Password prompt, press Return, leaving the field blank. Note: The Entry At the Entry Password prompt, press Return, leaving the field blank. Note: The Entry Password allows the option of securing a particular procedure with a user defined password. This is only recommended for more extreme security issues. In most cases the database password will suffice. click to continue

At the Save Entry Into Local Catalog prompt, press Return to accept the default At the Save Entry Into Local Catalog prompt, press Return to accept the default of Y (yes). Note: The local catalog location is tied to the log-on locale. The most common local catalog is the GEN. Pnnn (where nnn is the college number) catalog. Most procedure are saved here. click to continue

At the Press <Enter> key to continue prompt, press the Return key to go At the Press key to continue prompt, press the Return key to go back to the Data. Express Main Menu. click to continue

WHOOO! By following this presentation, you created a Data. Express procedure that extracts class WHOOO! By following this presentation, you created a Data. Express procedure that extracts class rosters for specified year quarters and item numbers. The report also counts SID’s and reflects average, high, low GPA’s for each item number and for the report. CONGRATULATIONS!

DATE SUBTYPES • Define how date-related data is stored – not how you wish DATE SUBTYPES • Define how date-related data is stored – not how you wish data to appear • Enable correct sorting • Enable valid selection ranges • Ensure valid computations Date Examples 020614 (June 14, 2002) 981024 (October 24, 1998) • Current date fields are defined as text or numeric strings. • A date subtype applies a special data type to identify date formats such as YYMMDD. Click for more information

DATE SUBTYPES Century Delimiter • Delimits years to be treated as the twenty-first century DATE SUBTYPES Century Delimiter • Delimits years to be treated as the twenty-first century versus the twentieth century. SET AT 10 • Looks at the two-digit YY part of the date and says: • If the YY is 10 -99, then assume 1910 -1999 • If the YY is 00 -09, then assume 2000 -2009 19981024 (October 24, 1998) 20020614 (June 14, 2002) • Dates now sort, select, calculate properly. Click to return to presentation

DETAIL NOT SUPPRESSED Shows every line record for the student. DETAIL SUPPRESSED – AUTOMATIC DETAIL NOT SUPPRESSED Shows every line record for the student. DETAIL SUPPRESSED – AUTOMATIC SUMMARIZATION Remove unique detail information to obtain summary line total Click to return to presentation

OTHER LINKING EXAMPLES • Example: 1, 2, 1: 3 – Use a field from OTHER LINKING EXAMPLES • Example: 1, 2, 1: 3 – Use a field from file 1 to link to file 2. – Use a field from file 1 to link to file 3. – Read file 1 sequentially; for each record in file 1, read file 2 and extract corresponding records – For each record in file 1, read file 3 and extract corresponding records. • Example: 1, 2, : 3 – Use a field from file 1 to link to file 2. – Use a computed field to link from file 2 to file 3. The field is computed as soon as required data is read from the file. – Read file; for each record in file 1, read file 2 and extract corresponding records – For each record in file 2, read file 3 and extract corresponding records. Click for more information

SPECIAL CASES OF LINKING • You can modify linking formulas by using the following SPECIAL CASES OF LINKING • You can modify linking formulas by using the following symbols: – R (reverse) Example: 1 R, 2, 3 Read file 1 backwards – + (plus sign) Example: 1, +2 Selects all records in file 1 even if they do not have matching records in file 2. . – - (minus sign) Example, 1, -2 Selects only thos records in file 1 when there are no corresponding records in file 2. Click for more information

SUMMARY OF LINKING • Link from any field (data element) in the from (or SUMMARY OF LINKING • Link from any field (data element) in the from (or source) file. • Link only to a key field in the to (or target file). • When all fields in the from file re displayed, choose one as the linking field. • When all fields in the to file are displayed, choose the appropriate key field. MAXIMIZING PERFORMANCE • List files containing selection criteria data first in the linkage order. • If using MPE file, list them first in the linking sequence. Click to return to the presentation




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