Скачать презентацию CPCCBC 4012 A Read and interpret plans and Скачать презентацию CPCCBC 4012 A Read and interpret plans and

3483c9bfa194478ef7ea7d3269081e81.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 45

CPCCBC 4012 A Read and interpret plans and specifications 18740 Certificate IV Building & CPCCBC 4012 A Read and interpret plans and specifications 18740 Certificate IV Building & Construction (Building) Glenn P. Costin

Introduction Purpose • To develop the necessary skill and knowledge to read and interpret Introduction Purpose • To develop the necessary skill and knowledge to read and interpret construction plans and associated specifications and schedules. Architectural drafting is a language like any other: One must be fluent to understand its various nuances and peculiarities. Likewise, as a language it changes over time, so one must remain engaged. Glenn P. Costin

Standards and Codes Building Code of Australia (BCA) Calls for various Australian Standards: AS Standards and Codes Building Code of Australia (BCA) Calls for various Australian Standards: AS 1100. 101 – 1992 (and amendments) Technical Drawing – General Principles AS 1100. 301 – 1985 (and supplements) Architectural Drawing HB 47 – 1993 Dimensioning and Tolerances Glenn P. Costin

1. Types of Drawings Sketches Critical part of the initial design phase Glenn P. 1. Types of Drawings Sketches Critical part of the initial design phase Glenn P. Costin

Initial Sketches Glenn P. Costin Initial Sketches Glenn P. Costin

Sketch Plans or ‘Roughs’ Good design evolves from the doing, yet is reflective of Sketch Plans or ‘Roughs’ Good design evolves from the doing, yet is reflective of being “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us”. Winston Churchill Glenn P. Costin

Pictorial Drawings • Orthographic Vs Pictorial What we ‘see’ What we draw ‘orthographically’ Glenn Pictorial Drawings • Orthographic Vs Pictorial What we ‘see’ What we draw ‘orthographically’ Glenn P. Costin

Pictorial Types 30 o Isometric Shows 3 dimensions. All dimensions full length. Glenn P. Pictorial Types 30 o Isometric Shows 3 dimensions. All dimensions full length. Glenn P. Costin

Pictorial Types 45 o Oblique Shows 3 dimensions. Receding dimensions reduced (1/2 size). Glenn Pictorial Types 45 o Oblique Shows 3 dimensions. Receding dimensions reduced (1/2 size). Glenn P. Costin

Pictorial Types Drawing Plane Vanishing Point (VP) Horizon Line Ground Line Perspective Spectator Position Pictorial Types Drawing Plane Vanishing Point (VP) Horizon Line Ground Line Perspective Spectator Position (SP) Two Point Perspective Orthographic Glenn P. Costin

Pictorial Types Wright Frank Lloyd : Falling Water Mill Presentation Drawings Pictorial Types Wright Frank Lloyd : Falling Water Mill Presentation Drawings

Construction Drawings The ‘Plans’ • • • Orthographic Drawn to Scale Offer multiple views Construction Drawings The ‘Plans’ • • • Orthographic Drawn to Scale Offer multiple views and details Provide evidence of compliance Submitted to relevant authorities Show location of construction Used for quoting and tendering Allow off site manufacturing Legal documents (in disputes) Are the ‘construction manual’ Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Site and Location Plans • Small Scale (1: 1000) • Aspects of construction Plans Site and Location Plans • Small Scale (1: 1000) • Location Plans show where the building site is Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Site Plans • Make clear the location of the structure Aspects of construction Plans Site Plans • Make clear the location of the structure on the site • Show the lay of the land • Show Boundary lines • Building Orientation • Show Existing Structures, easements and the like. • Scale 1: 200 - 1: 500

Aspects of construction Plans Floor Plan • Arial view • Details horizontal dimensions • Aspects of construction Plans Floor Plan • Arial view • Details horizontal dimensions • Location of rooms • Position of fixtures • Roof outline • Thickness of walls • Scale 1: 100 Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Elevations • Side views of structure • Heights or ‘elevations’ Aspects of construction Plans Elevations • Side views of structure • Heights or ‘elevations’ • Not a lot of measured detail • Only height measurements offered • Scale 1: 100 South Elevation East Elevation Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Sections • Cut vertically through building • Location of cut Aspects of construction Plans Sections • Cut vertically through building • Location of cut a perspective shown on floor plan • Show inside of building • Show detail hidden from elevations • Often heavily annotated • Scale 1: 100 or larger Section A-A Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Bracing Plan • Recent addition • Show type and location Aspects of construction Plans Bracing Plan • Recent addition • Show type and location of bracing • Accompanied by bracing schedule Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Overlays • Simplified Floor Plan • Required for extensions and Aspects of construction Plans Overlays • Simplified Floor Plan • Required for extensions and renovations • Identify new work from old Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Details • Enlargements of key areas • Offer clearer picture Aspects of construction Plans Details • Enlargements of key areas • Offer clearer picture of how something is to go together • Show work that may differ from standard building practice • Often heavily annotated Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Schedules • May be stand alone or be accompanied by Aspects of construction Plans Schedules • May be stand alone or be accompanied by other drawings • Door & Window • Materials & Finishes • Bracing Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Service Details • Plumbing • Heating • Air conditioning • Aspects of construction Plans Service Details • Plumbing • Heating • Air conditioning • Electrical • Vary in scale and complexity depending upon requirements Glenn P. Costin

Aspects of construction Plans Amendment Drawings • Document revisions • May affect one or Aspects of construction Plans Amendment Drawings • Document revisions • May affect one or all drawings • Identified by revision block or number • Triangle points to revision Glenn P. Costin

2. Symbols and Abbreviations Symbols: An agreed array of objects, characters or figures Three 2. Symbols and Abbreviations Symbols: An agreed array of objects, characters or figures Three main types of symbols used • Drawing (material renderings, doors etc. ) • Fixture (sink, basin, stove, dishwasher) • Services (electrical, heating, cooling) Glenn P. Costin

Symbols and Abbreviations Be aware that some symbols are nation specific. E. g. : Symbols and Abbreviations Be aware that some symbols are nation specific. E. g. : Australia • door hinged on the right hand side. • window hinged at top (Awning sash) United Kingdom (Australia till late 1960 s) • door hinged on the left hand side • window hinged at bottom (hopper sash). Glenn P. Costin

Symbols and Abbreviations Common Line Types Continuous Dashed Centre Glenn P. Costin Symbols and Abbreviations Common Line Types Continuous Dashed Centre Glenn P. Costin

Symbols and Abbreviations Line Types Glenn P. Costin Symbols and Abbreviations Line Types Glenn P. Costin

Symbols and Abbreviations and Terms • WRC Western Red Cedar • KDHWD Kiln Dried Symbols and Abbreviations and Terms • WRC Western Red Cedar • KDHWD Kiln Dried Hard Wood • GAL Galvanised • GL Ground Line • USCL Underside Ceiling Line • FFL Finished Floor Line Glenn P. Costin

3. Key Features on Site Plan • • • Location & Orientation Datum Access 3. Key Features on Site Plan • • • Location & Orientation Datum Access & Egress Contours Slopes Geographical & Topographical Glenn P. Costin

Location & Orientation Hidde n Lan e Glenn P. Costin Location & Orientation Hidde n Lan e Glenn P. Costin

Important Terms Permanent Bench Mark Temporary Bench Mark Datum In this case Sea Level Important Terms Permanent Bench Mark Temporary Bench Mark Datum In this case Sea Level (PM or PBM) Often located in pavements (TBM) Usually positioned by a licensed surveyor Station Benchmarks: location of the levelling instrument are be Datum: Permanent which all other heights (may Station: The point to (PM) or Temporary (TBM) marks of known height above the ‘Station’ datum (sometimes used referenced (may be seaoriginal in height nominated more than one level or a a survey). as the datum with a nominated height). arbitrarily). Glenn P. Costin

Important Terms Rise: The increase in height between a location (Datum, peg, or mark) Important Terms Rise: The increase in height between a location (Datum, peg, or mark) and the one previous to it. Peg C records a Fall when sighted after Peg B records a rise when sighted after Peg A B C A Fall: The decrease in height between a location (Datum, peg, or mark) and the one previous to it Glenn P. Costin

Important Terms Reduced Level (R. L. ): The height of a location (datum, peg, Important Terms Reduced Level (R. L. ): The height of a location (datum, peg, or mark) relative to the nominated reference point (sea level, bench mark of given height, or the like). Foresight 1. 000 Backsight 1. 200 Sea Level or ‘Datum’ R. L. 0. 000 Peg A R. L. 75. 250 This means the ground at Peg A is 75. 250 m above sea level Ground rises 0. 200 m Peg B R. L. 75. 450 From Previous survey. The word ‘reduced’ is used in this case to mean ‘taken from’. Every R. L. is ‘taken from’ (reduced), and so has a relationship to, something else. Glenn P. Costin

Contour Lines 180 170 160 150 170 160 180 Glenn P. Costin Contour Lines 180 170 160 150 170 160 180 Glenn P. Costin

Glenn P. Costin Glenn P. Costin

Easements • Land that someone other than the ‘owner’ has legal right to access Easements • Land that someone other than the ‘owner’ has legal right to access • May limit or inhibit building • Will always be on title documents • Must be shown on site plan • Examples include sewer lines and other underground services, water courses, public rights of passage and the like. Glenn P. Costin

4. Key Features on Drawings Task: Using the plan set provided complete the table 4. Key Features on Drawings Task: Using the plan set provided complete the table in the notes. Glenn P. Costin

5. Specifications • Form part of contract documents • Have legal standing Specify: Materials 5. Specifications • Form part of contract documents • Have legal standing Specify: Materials Works to be undertaken Quality of work Obligations (Builder, Owner, Contractors) Standards and Codes to be adhered to Statutory requirements Glenn P. Costin

Specifications • Standard Specifications available (MBA, HIA, Natspec) • Builders/Architects/Designers may write their own Specifications • Standard Specifications available (MBA, HIA, Natspec) • Builders/Architects/Designers may write their own • Not all domestic construction will have a specifications ‘book’ • May include Provisional Sum (PS) and Prime Cost (PC) Items Glenn P. Costin

Provisional Sum Items Some work cannot be accurately quoted due to unknowns within the Provisional Sum Items Some work cannot be accurately quoted due to unknowns within the scope of that work E. g. : Rock Excavation, Landscaping, Retaining walls – May be higher or lower than the PS amount – To provide a quote for the full job an estimate amount is entered that ‘provides’ for the work. – Once work is completed the actual cost is documented and the client billed accordingly – This amount in original quote. – Builders should clearly identify PS items for themselves and to their clients Glenn P. Costin

Prime Cost Items • Applies to items and or materials which might not be Prime Cost Items • Applies to items and or materials which might not be chosen by the client until work has progressed. • Actual cost of items accounted in final statements to client. Prime Cost (PC) items might include: – – Tiles Sinks Taps Lights etc. Glenn P. Costin

Variations to Standard Specifications Clients can call for variations to the standard specification Variations Variations to Standard Specifications Clients can call for variations to the standard specification Variations can be to: • quality expected • Listed PC items • Materials and finishes Variations must be recorded (Addendum to Specifications or noted as variation to plans) Glenn P. Costin

Essential elements of Specifications broken into sections such as: • • • Introductory Section Essential elements of Specifications broken into sections such as: • • • Introductory Section Statutory Requirements Owners Obligations Plans, Permits, Fees Site Works Footings And many other sections covering specific trades such as Carpentry, Joinery, Roofing, Bricklaying and the like. Glenn P. Costin

Essential elements of Specifications • Many elements of construction are held within the Specifications Essential elements of Specifications • Many elements of construction are held within the Specifications only • Builders need to identify and interpret these elements for quoting and construction purposes • Builder needs to ensure client is aware of these elements. • Builder needs to ensure supervision on and off site covers these elements Glenn P. Costin

6. Non-Structural Aspects of Specifications Aspects that cover elements of structure that do not 6. Non-Structural Aspects of Specifications Aspects that cover elements of structure that do not carry load or resist force (uplift, wind forces, earth pressures etc. ) E. g. : Plumbing and electrical, fittings, appliances etc. • Client generally has input into selection of some nonstructural items, or elements of items (brick colour, face etc. ) • Builder may be called upon for advice • Builder should be aware of limitations to choice described by the Specifications (e. g. wind load capacity of glazing) Glenn P. Costin