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Course 2 Unit 4 Introduction to anaerobic treatment technologies [Part C only ] Part Course 2 Unit 4 Introduction to anaerobic treatment technologies [Part C only ] Part C – Examples and case studies (in this file) Lecturer: Dr. Elisabeth v. Münch e. [email protected] org 1

Course 2 Unit 4 Part C: Examples and case studies 2 Course 2 Unit 4 Part C: Examples and case studies 2

List of examples for Part C n n n n Example 1: India public List of examples for Part C n n n n Example 1: India public toilets (Navsarjan Trust, GTZ pilot project) Example 2: China household and agricultural waste digesters (CAAE (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering) Example 3: Lesotho household biogas plants (NGO TED, now supported by BORDA, Germany) Example 4: Durban household biogas plant, South Africa (pilot project) Example 5: Rwanda prisons Example 6: Germany, Waldmichelbacher Hof (restaurant and farm Example 7: Lübeck, Germany (residential area) Example 8: Blackwater treatment in Sneek, the Netherlands There are many, many more examples, world-wide! You may be able to send me project descriptions, files, powerpoint presentations from your own experiences? 3

Example 1: India public toilets n The following slides were provided by Christine Werner Example 1: India public toilets n The following slides were provided by Christine Werner (GTZ), who gave a presentation about ecosan in India at the Advanced Sanitation Conference in Aachen, Germany (12 -13 March 2007) n Her complete presentation is provided under Assigned Reading (pdf file of the paper) and Extra Materials (powerpoint presentation in two parts) 4

Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project – Dalit Shakti Kendra (DSK) vocational training institute Dalit Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project – Dalit Shakti Kendra (DSK) vocational training institute Dalit Shakti Kendra (DSK) source: Martin Wafler location: Nani Devti, Ahmedabad District, Gujarat State, India implementation period: 2005/2006 5

Course 2 Unit 4 Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project dung http: //www. alisontoon. co Course 2 Unit 4 Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project dung http: //www. alisontoon. co m< proposed system for the DSK Campus source separating toilet greywater (pre-treated) Biogas plant ornamental garden www. beefgonzo. de urine storage biogas sludge drying beds compost vegetable garden 6

toilet block with biogas plant source: esf Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project - DSK toilet block with biogas plant source: esf Navsarjan Trust ecosan pilot project - DSK UDD as „emergency toilets“ ladies urinal 7

Sketch map of the night-soil based biogas plant 22 toilet cabins arranged in 2 Sketch map of the night-soil based biogas plant 22 toilet cabins arranged in 2 semi-circles supplie a biogas reactor locatet in the center 1: mixing chamber for buffalo dung 2: inlet chamber toilet water (source: http: //www. ruralsanitation. com/) 3: outlet chamber „pour-flush“ squatting pan with „P“-trap 2 infiltration/evapotranspiration of wash-water in flowerbed 1 biogas plant 3 towards greywater garden for reuse of water 2 towards greywater garden for reuse of water towards sludge drying beds 8

source: esf source: seecon Construction of the night-soil based biogas plant inletchamber for toilet source: esf source: seecon Construction of the night-soil based biogas plant inletchamber for toilet water source: esf beginnig of construction biogasreactor in the center of the building almost finished toilet center Feb. 2007 9

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 2: China household and agricultural waste digesters n n Course 2 Unit 4 Example 2: China household and agricultural waste digesters n n The slides for this example were provided by Heinz-Peter Mang (he is with CAAE (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering)) I got them from him at the UNESCO-IHE Refresher Course in Nanjing, China (October 2005) – I have asked him for an update, but have not received an answer yet 10

Course 2 Unit 4 China: Northern “Four-in-One” Comprehensive utilization kitchen Pig-pen, toilet Green house Course 2 Unit 4 China: Northern “Four-in-One” Comprehensive utilization kitchen Pig-pen, toilet Green house food manure biogas fertilizer 11

China: Southern “Pig-Biogas-Fruit” Comprehensive utilization biogas Pig manure and toilet waste Liquid sludge Biogas China: Southern “Pig-Biogas-Fruit” Comprehensive utilization biogas Pig manure and toilet waste Liquid sludge Biogas digester 12

Course 2 Unit 4 China: Northwest “Five-Matches” Comprehensive utilization cooking Water heater Warm house Course 2 Unit 4 China: Northwest “Five-Matches” Comprehensive utilization cooking Water heater Warm house lighting orchard Sand sedimentation Water storage Biogas digester 13

Household biogas digester plants in China during 1973 – 2005 (total number, in 10, Household biogas digester plants in China during 1973 – 2005 (total number, in 10, 000) How many are there in your country? 20 05 Year 19 99 19 85 19 73 16, 000 16 million biogas plants 14

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 3: Lesotho household biogas plants n n I got Course 2 Unit 4 Example 3: Lesotho household biogas plants n n I got these slides from Mantopi Lebofa who works for the NGO TED, which is now also supported by BORDA, Germany A more detailed presentation for this example is provided under Extra Materials 15

Biogas system Feeding material. Gas taken to the house Methane producing organisms produce gas Biogas system Feeding material. Gas taken to the house Methane producing organisms produce gas Root Treatment System Water flowing into the expansion canal Irrigation by gravity Storage for irrigation water – H 20 could be pumped or irrigate gravitationally Sketch of biodigester replacing a septic tank. Wastewater as well as kitchen and garden waste enter the digester and are broken down to biogas and fertile water. The advantages: No more emptying of septic tank. Reuse of all water in the garden. Less cost on cooking energy. 16

Design details Fixed Dome Bio Digester, Size: z m 3 Gas storage capacity: xy Design details Fixed Dome Bio Digester, Size: z m 3 Gas storage capacity: xy m 3 All measurements in cm Not to scale Ventilation Pipe Principle of dry toilet connection and additional inlet Note: digester outlet at the bottom Gas Outlet Manhole Overflow Radiu s pipes of 1 m length 17

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 4: Durban household biogas plant, South Africa (pilot project) Course 2 Unit 4 Example 4: Durban household biogas plant, South Africa (pilot project) n n I took the photos on the following slide during the field trip organised as part of an international ecosan conference in Durban, South Africa (May 2005) This installation was just a single pilot installed provided by an NGO (I can’t remember the name of the NGO) 18

Toilet & shower Kitchen Household biogas plant in rural Durban, South Africa Digester receives Toilet & shower Kitchen Household biogas plant in rural Durban, South Africa Digester receives toilet water, greywater and collected manure from 2 -3 cows Left: Toilet (flush), connected to digester Middle: Digester with floating dome (biogas collection) Right: biogas pipe to house Storage and drying for digestate 19 (used as fertiliser)

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 5: Rwanda prisons n The information in the following Course 2 Unit 4 Example 5: Rwanda prisons n The information in the following slides was taken from the paper by Butare and Kimaro (2002) – this paper is also provided under Extra Materials 20

Biogas plant at Cyangugu Prison in Rwanda n n n Biogas plant treats toilet Biogas plant at Cyangugu Prison in Rwanda n n n Biogas plant treats toilet waste from prisoners by using fixed-dome anaerobic digesters Generation of biogas was achieved to generate energy for cooking - savings in kitchen fuel is around 80% Sustainable solution for the treatment of waste from 6, 000 prisoners Source: Butare and Kimaro (2002) 21

Design details n n n Bioreactor is fed through two toilet-waste flows: one comes Design details n n n Bioreactor is fed through two toilet-waste flows: one comes from 4, 500 prisoners and the other from 1, 500. 1 digester of V=150 m 3 (divided in 2 shells to improve performance); a storage capacity of 28 m 3; 2 holding tanks to further stabilize sludge. Production of 75, 000 CH 4 L/day 30 m of gas line which feeds 4 stoves of 1200 L. Plant life time 30 years Effluent from biogas plant is reused as fertilizer in crops inside prison (2 ha): bananas, coffee, soy, tomato, etc. Bioreactor split into 2 shells 22

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 6: Germany, Waldmichelbacher Hof (restaurant and farm) n n Course 2 Unit 4 Example 6: Germany, Waldmichelbacher Hof (restaurant and farm) n n The following slides are from a presentation I gave at the Durban ecosan conference (May 2005) More information: n n Separate presentation and paper under Extra Reading GTZ project datasheet: www. gtz. de/en/themen/umweltinfrastruktur/wasser/9399. htm 23

Course 2 Unit 4 Biogas plant with electricity generation at farm and restaurant in Course 2 Unit 4 Biogas plant with electricity generation at farm and restaurant in Germany Description: n Farm of 200 ha, with grazing land fodder crops n 280 hornless cattle n Restaurant with 250 seats (“Waldmichelbacher Hof”) n Slaughterhouse processing one cattle per week n Four families live and work on/from the farm & restaurant System components: n Low flush toilets for all buildings n Manure collection, and mixing channel under the cattle shed n Heated, insulated and fully mixed anaerobic digester with 280 m 3 volume (40 -44°C) n Anaerobic storage digester with 1500 m 3 n Two combined heat and power generator sets with 37 k. W (electricity) and 74 k. W (thermal energy / heat) each This is an example to show that conventional flush toilets (non-UD) can also be used in an ecosan project! 24

Key results n n n Annual savings in operating costs in 2004: n 20, Key results n n n Annual savings in operating costs in 2004: n 20, 000 €/year for not needing to purchase fertiliser n 23, 400 €/year due to electricity produced on-site (more than 50% of the electricity demand covered) n Heat for all residential houses and restaurant, and hot water n 5, 300 €/year is the income from selling excess electricity to the grid* Valuable liquid fertiliser (digested manure) produced Sanitisation of sewage by mesophilic digestion and long retention times Gas bladder of anaerobic digester no. 2 (not heated, not mixed; floating cover) * New German legislation forces energy companies to buy back such green energy from decentralised production for a fair price 25

Concept schematic of this closed-loop system H: heat, E: electricity, F: fodder, DM: digested Concept schematic of this closed-loop system H: heat, E: electricity, F: fodder, DM: digested manure, BG: biogas, W: waste(water) 26

Design drawing Floating cover Digester Gas withdrawal Stable/ cattle shed Digested manure Storage vessel Design drawing Floating cover Digester Gas withdrawal Stable/ cattle shed Digested manure Storage vessel Combined heat and power plant Heat to house electricity 27

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 7: Lübeck, Germany (residential area) n The information on Course 2 Unit 4 Example 7: Lübeck, Germany (residential area) n The information on the following slides was taken from the GTZ project datasheet on this project: n http: //www. gtz. de/de/dokumente/enecosan-pds-004 -germany-luebeckflintenbreite-2005. pdf 28

Housing estate with biogas plant in Lübeck-Flintenbreite (slide 1 of 2) n n Biogas Housing estate with biogas plant in Lübeck-Flintenbreite (slide 1 of 2) n n Biogas plant n Integrated sanitation system using vacuum toilets and biogas plant = production of energy + saving of water Foreseen for a community of 350 inhabitants Area of 3. 5 ha which was not connected to central sewerage Separate treatment of grey, black and storm water Digested anaerobic sludge is reused in agriculture 29

Course 2 Unit 4 Process schematic (slide 2 of 2) vacuum toilet Kitchen, shower Course 2 Unit 4 Process schematic (slide 2 of 2) vacuum toilet Kitchen, shower Storm water Blackwater Greywater (4. 8 L/cap/d) (56 L/cap/d) Biogas plant Kitchen residue Biogas wetlands Effluent infiltration Effluent 30

Course 2 Unit 4 Example 8: Blackwater treatment in Sneek, The Netherlands n The Course 2 Unit 4 Example 8: Blackwater treatment in Sneek, The Netherlands n The next slide is from myself and the remaining slides for this examples are from Brendo Meulman, Landustrie, the project leader (provided in Sept 2007) 31

Neighbourhood “UASB-septic tank” for blackwater in Sneek, The Netherlands • The “UASB-septic tank” is Neighbourhood “UASB-septic tank” for blackwater in Sneek, The Netherlands • The “UASB-septic tank” is located in this garage, together with storage tanks and other experimental process units • It treats the blackwater from 80 persons (400 – 500 L/d; 5. 6 L/cap/d; 1 L per flush) • Digester is heated to 20 or 30°C with hot water generated with biogas 32

General view of the housing area 33 General view of the housing area 33

How to get a concentrated organic fraction? n Vacuum toilets are used, they flush How to get a concentrated organic fraction? n Vacuum toilets are used, they flush with 1 L water and 100 L of air. Reduction of 36 L/cap/d water, is 25% of total water consumption Vacuum toilet Vacuum station (pump) 34

Course 2 Unit 4 References n n Butare, A and Kimaro, A (2002) Anaerobic Course 2 Unit 4 References n n Butare, A and Kimaro, A (2002) Anaerobic technology for toilet wastes management: the case study of the Cyangugu pilot project, World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education, Vol. 1, No. 1. http: //www. eng. monash. edu. au/uicee/worldtransactions/World Trans. Abstracts. Vol 1 No 1/Microsoft%20 Word%20%2032_Butare. pdf * Heeb, J. , Jenssen, P. , Gnanakan, K. & K. Conradin (2007): ecosan curriculum 2. 0. In cooperation with: Norwegian University of Life Sciences, ACTS Bangalore, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, German Agency for Technical Cooperation and the International Ecological Engineering Society. Partially available from www. seecon. ch and http: //www 2. gtz. de/dokumente/oe 44/ecosan/cb/en-m 23 ecosan-human-dignity-lecture-2006. ppt Tchobanoglous, G. , Burton, F. L. , Stensel, H. D. (2003) Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. , Mc. Graw. Hill, 4 th edition. This is a good book on conventional wastewater treatment Zhang Wudi et al. (2001): Comprehensive utilization of human and animal wastes. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ecological Sanitation in Nanning 2001, Eco. San. Res, China * Also under Extra Materials on the I-LE 35

Other organisations and websites for biogas plants n n n BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research Other organisations and websites for biogas plants n n n BORDA (Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association): www. borda-net. org - extensive experience with decentralised anaerobic wastewater treatment (mostly without source separation), e. g. Household biogas plants all over the world. See also their website to view the presentations at recent symposium “Business Unusual” Nov. 2006 Biogas for Better Life, An African Initiative (www. biogasafrica. org) – New initiative from May 2007, see next slide for more information Agency for renewable resources: www. fnr. de (Fachagentur für nachwachsende Rohstoffe; in German and English) Fachverband Biogas: www. biogas. org (in German only) Internationales Biogas und Biomasse Kompetenzzentrum (IBBK) (http: //www. biogaszentrum. de/ibbk/) – in German only 36

Some more information about the Biogas for Better Life Initiative n n Pan African Some more information about the Biogas for Better Life Initiative n n Pan African Biogas Initiative Launched : 31 May 2007 A large-scale biogas initiative has been launched to bring renewable energy to 20 million households in some 25 African countries. The initiative was approved at a conference entitled 'Biogas for Better Life: An African Initiative', held in Nairobi, Kenya on 22 May 2007. The initiative is being supported by a consortium consisting of African countries (including Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal and South Africa), implementing agencies, local NGOs and donors (including Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the Shell Foundation). Dutch partners in the initiative are the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and development organisations SNV and Hivos. The first national biogas programme – in Rwanda –has already begun. Similar programmes in Ethiopia and Uganda will begin later this year. These national programmes aim to construct the initiative’s first 50, 000 biogas plants. Biogas programmes are already operational in various parts of the world. SNV has worked on several successful programmes in Asia, especially in Nepal and Vietnam. A simple biogas plant can be operated by any family with at least two cows or four pigs. The family toilet can also often be connected to it. Such a plant will generate enough gas to power a stove and a lamp. A biogas plant costs from 300 to 400 euros (although in Africa it will initially cost more). But the expense can be recouped within a few years through savings on firewood. And the waste product can still be used as manure. 37