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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Chapter 12: Congress • The Representatives and Senators • Congressional Elections • How Congress Chapter 12: Congress • The Representatives and Senators • Congressional Elections • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Congressional Process • Understanding Congress • Summary Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • The Representatives and Senators • LO 12. 1: Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • The Representatives and Senators • LO 12. 1: Characterize the backgrounds of members of Congress and assess their impact on the ability of members of Congress to represent average Americans. • Congressional Elections • LO 12. 2: Identify the principal factors influencing the outcomes in congressional elections. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • LO 12. 3: Compare and contrast the House and Senate, and describe the roles of congressional leaders, committees, caucuses, and staff. • The Congressional Process • LO 12. 4: Outline the path of bills to passage and explain the influences on congressional decision making. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • Understanding Congress • LO 12. 5: Assess Congress’s Chapter Outline and Learning Objectives • Understanding Congress • LO 12. 5: Assess Congress’s role as a representative body and the impact of representation on the scope of government. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1: Characterize the backgrounds of members of Congress The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1: Characterize the backgrounds of members of Congress and assess their impact on the ability of members of Congress to represent average Americans. • The Members • Why Aren’t There More Women in Congress? To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 The Members • Despite public perceptions to The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 The Members • Despite public perceptions to the contrary, hard work is perhaps the most prominent characteristic of a member of Congress’ job. • The typical representative is a member of about six committees and subcommittees; a senator is a member of about ten. • There also attractions to the job. • The most important is power. Members of Congress make key decisions about important matters of public policy. • Members of Congress receive substantial salary and perquisites (“perks”). • These include travel expenses (domestic and foreign), pension and health care, personal staff, and franking Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • There are 535 members of Congress— The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • There are 535 members of Congress— 100 in the Senate (two from each state) and 435 in the House of Representatives. • HOUSE - The Constitution specifies only that members of the House must be at least 25 years old, American citizens for seven years, and must be residents of the states from which they are elected. • SENATE - Senators must be at least 30 years old, American citizens for nine years, and must be residents of the states from which they are elected. • Members come mostly from occupations with high status and usually have substantial incomes. Law and business are the dominant prior occupations, with other elite occupations also well represented. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the composition of the House and the Senate and the requirements • Describe the composition of the House and the Senate and the requirements to serve in each body: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

111 th Congress – 2009 -2010 LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 111 th Congress – 2009 -2010 LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Current Congress – 112 th (ended on Jan. 2, 2013) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Current Congress – 112 th (ended on Jan. 2, 2013) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 Types of Representation • Descriptive representation is The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 Types of Representation • Descriptive representation is representing constituents by mirroring their personal, politically relevant characteristics. • Substantive representation is representing the interests of groups. • Although members of Congress obviously cannot claim descriptive representation (representing their constituents by mirroring their personal, politically relevant characteristics), they may engage in substantive representation (representing the interests of groups). Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators Racial and Gender Diversity in Congress • 115 th Congress The Representatives and Senators Racial and Gender Diversity in Congress • 115 th Congress has 106 nonwhite members (highest number) and 104 women (tied with 114 th for most), and although these numbers are the highest in history, they are still far below distributions based on census data Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman LO 12. 1

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 African Americans • Less than 10% of The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 African Americans • Less than 10% of voting members of House are black (historic high of 49 in the 115 th Congress) (compared with about 13% of the total population) • Most African American members are elected from overwhelmingly black constituencies and the vast majority are Democrats, with 3 members of House and one senator that is Republican • There are 3 black members of the Senate – Cory Booker (D), who won a special election in New Jersey in October 2013, Tim Scott (R), who was appointed to a vacancy in South Carolina before winning special election in 2014, and Kamala Harris (D – CA) elected in 2016 (was zero for parts of Obama presidency) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Hispanics make up 15% of the The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Hispanics make up 15% of the total population, but constitute just over 7% of Congress (historic high of 38 in 115 th Congress) • There are 34 Hispanic House members (28 in the 113 th Congress) and 4 Senators are Hispanic. • Greater partisan divide among Hispanics in Congress than other ethnic groups . Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Asian Americans – constitute about 5% The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Asian Americans – constitute about 5% of the population, but only 15 Asian-Americans in Congress • 12 House members and 3 senators (historic high for both) • Native Americans – constitute about 1% of the population, but only 2 House members are enrolled with a tribe (both currently Republicans, but usually varies among very small number from both parties combined). To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Seat chart of ethnic minorities Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing • Seat chart of ethnic minorities Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LGBTQ • Members of the LGBTQ have a harder to determine percentage of the LGBTQ • Members of the LGBTQ have a harder to determine percentage of the population, but a much smaller proportion with only 6 House members and 1 Senate members Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Religious Diversity • Protestants make up the largest proportion, with 56% of members (48% Religious Diversity • Protestants make up the largest proportion, with 56% of members (48% of population) • Catholics have made gains to over 30%, Jewish membership has fallen to 6% (but up to 30 combined for 115 th Congress), and Mormons make up nearly 2. 5% • The 115 th Congress has 4 Hindus, 2 Muslims, 3 Buddhists, 5 Orthodox Christians, and several members that do not declare their faith or are atheists Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Religious Diversity Chart Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman • Religious Diversity Chart Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Religious Diversity Chart Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman • Religious Diversity Chart Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the demographic information and diversity of the members of Congress Copyright • Describe the demographic information and diversity of the members of Congress Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 1 The Representatives and Senators Women • Women make up more than LO 12. 1 The Representatives and Senators Women • Women make up more than 50% of the population, but only 19% of the members of Congress with 104 in total • 83 in the House (down from 84) and 21 senators (most ever in Senate) • Nancy Pelosi is the only woman to serve as Speaker of the House (currently the minority leader) and no woman has served as a party leader in the Senate Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Why Aren’t There More Women in The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • Why Aren’t There More Women in Congress? • Part of the reason for women’s underrepresentation is that fewer women than men become major party nominees for office. • For example, a female major-party nominee contested only 31 percent of the 435 House races in 2008. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • In a recent article, Fulton and The Representatives and Senators LO 12. 1 • In a recent article, Fulton and her coauthors report that women with children are significantly less ambitious about running for office than are their male counterparts, largely because of greater child care responsibilities; however, they find no gender disparity in ambition when looking at women without children. • The authors also suggest that women’s decisions to run are more sensitive than are men’s to their perceptions of the odds of winning because women are less likely than are men to run when they perceive their odds to be poor; however, they are more likely than are men to run when they detect a political opportunity. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 1 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the impact of gender on members of Congress and potential reasons • Describe the impact of gender on members of Congress and potential reasons for the difference from the general population: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2: Identify the principal factors influencing the outcomes in congressional Congressional Elections LO 12. 2: Identify the principal factors influencing the outcomes in congressional elections. • • • Who Wins Elections? The Advantages of Incumbency The Role of Party Identification Defeating Incumbents Open Seats Stability and Change To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 Who Wins Elections? • Incumbents are those already holding Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 Who Wins Elections? • Incumbents are those already holding office. • The most important fact about congressional elections is that incumbents usually win. • Even in a year of great political upheaval such as 1994, in which the Republicans gained eight seats in the Senate and 53 seats in the House, 92 percent of incumbent representatives won their bids for reelection. • National issues came to fore similarly in 2006, allowing Democrats to regain the majority of both houses, but few incumbents lost their seats. • Despite their success at reelection, incumbents have a strong feeling of vulnerability; thus, they have been raising and spending more campaign funds, sending more mail to their constituents, traveling more to their state and districts, and staffing more local offices Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • House of Representatives • Not only do more Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • House of Representatives • Not only do more than 90 percent of the incumbents seeking reelection to the House of Representatives win, but most of them win with more than 60 percent of the vote. • House districts can be drawn in ways that are advantageous for a particular party or incumbent through gerrymandering • Even when challengers’ positions on the issues are closer to the voters’ positions, incumbents still tend to win. • Thus, the most important resource to ensure an opponent’s defeat is simply to be the incumbent. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 Senate • Even though senators have a better-than-equal chance Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 Senate • Even though senators have a better-than-equal chance of reelection, senators typically win by narrower margins than House members. • One reason for the greater competition in the Senate is that an entire state is almost always more diverse than a congressional district and thus provides more of a base for opposition to an incumbent. • Senators have less personal contact with their constituents and receive more coverage in the media than representatives do (and are therefore more likely to be held accountable on controversial issues). • Senators tend to draw more visible challengers who are already known to voters and who have substantial financial backing. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 2 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 2 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the impact on incumbency on Congressional elections and why there are • Describe the impact on incumbency on Congressional elections and why there are differences in results between the House and Senate elections: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • The Advantages of Incumbency - Position • Voters Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • The Advantages of Incumbency - Position • Voters are not very aware of how their senators and representatives actually vote. • Stories of presidential coattails (the theory that other candidates could ride into office by clinging to presidential coattails) do not seem to hold up in practice. • Members of Congress do not gain or lose very much from the fluctuations of the economy. • Members of Congress engage in three primary activities that increase the probability of their reelections: advertising, credit claiming, and position taking. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Advertising • Most congressional advertising takes place between Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Advertising • Most congressional advertising takes place between elections and takes the form of contact with constituents: members concentrate on staying visible, and trips to the home district (or state) are frequent. • Franking privilege – ability to mail items to constituents regarding official business at no cost to member • New technologies are supplementing traditional contacts with sophisticated database management, emails, automated phone calls, etc. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Credit claiming -- Involves personal and district service. Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Credit claiming -- Involves personal and district service. • Casework is helping constituents as individuals, such as cutting through bureaucratic red tape. • The pork barrel refers to expenditures on federal projects, grants, and contracts for cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions. • Because credit claiming is so important to reelection, members of Congress rarely pass up the opportunity to increase federal spending in their state or district. • In recent years, more funds have been “earmarked, ” or dedicated to a specific district (about 15, 000 earmarks in 2005, amounting to $53 billion). To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 2 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 2 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Position taking -- Involves personal and district service. Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Position taking -- Involves personal and district service. • Members of Congress must also engage in position taking on matters of public policy when they vote on issues and when they respond to constituents’ questions about where they stand on issues. • The positions they take may make a difference in the outcome of an election, especially if the issues are on matters salient to voters and their stands are out of line with those of a majority of their constituents (especially in the Senate, where issues are likely to play a greater role than in House elections). To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the responsibilities/perks/opport unities held by members of Congress that give advantages • Describe the responsibilities/perks/opport unities held by members of Congress that give advantages to incumbents when running for reelection: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Election Advantages of Incumbency • Incumbents are likely Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Election Advantages of Incumbency • Incumbents are likely to face weak opponents, as most opponents are either not well known or well qualified and lack experience and organizational and financial backing. • Seeing the advantages of incumbency, potentially effective opponents often do not want to risk challenging members of the House. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Challengers have to raise large sums if they Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Challengers have to raise large sums if they hope to defeat an incumbent, and the more they spend, the more votes they receive. • Money buys them name recognition and a chance to be heard. • In both the Senate and House races in 2008, the typical incumbent outspent the typical challenger by a ratio of more than 3 to 1. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Role of Party Identification • Most Congress members Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Role of Party Identification • Most Congress members represent constituencies in which their party is in the clear majority. • Although party loyalty at the voting booth is not as strong as it was a generation ago, it is still a good predictor of voting behavior. • Most people identify with a party, and they reliably vote for their party’s candidates, as about 90% of voters who identify with a party vote for the House candidates of their party. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe some of the advantages incumbents have related to the opponents they • Describe some of the advantages incumbents have related to the opponents they face and the constituencies they represent in Congress when running for reelection: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Defeating Incumbents • An incumbent tarnished by scandal Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Defeating Incumbents • An incumbent tarnished by scandal or corruption becomes vulnerable. • Redistricting may weaken the incumbency advantage. • Congressional membership is reapportioned after each federal census, and incumbents may be redistricted out of their familiar base of support. • The majority party in the state legislature is more likely to move two of the opposition party’s representatives into the same district than two of its own. • Major political tidal wave may defeat incumbents. • Voters do take out their anger at the polls. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Open Seats • When an incumbent is not Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Open Seats • When an incumbent is not running for reelection and the seat is open, there is greater likelihood of competition. • Most of the turnover of the membership of Congress is the result of vacated seats, particularly in the House. • In open seats, the candidate who spends the most usually wins. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Stability and Change • As a result of Congressional Elections LO 12. 2 • Stability and Change • As a result of incumbents usually winning reelection, there is some stability in the membership of Congress. • This provides the opportunity for representatives and senators to gain some expertise in dealing with complex questions of public policy. • It also insulates them from political change and makes it more difficult for citizens to “send a message to Washington” with their votes. • Some reformers have proposed term limitations laws for senators and representatives. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the factors that can result in changes in congressional representation and • Describe the factors that can result in changes in congressional representation and the advantages and disadvantages of stability in Congress: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Foreign Relations Powers LO 12. 2 Congressional Power – Foreign Relations • The U. Foreign Relations Powers LO 12. 2 Congressional Power – Foreign Relations • The U. S. Congress has several powers outside of writing laws, particularly in foreign relations, although man of these are shared with the president over foreign and defense policy. • Congress (particularly the Senate), shares certain powers with the president as part of checks and balances • Senate must ratify treaties (2/3 vote) • Senate must confirm ambassadorial and cabinet nominations (simple majority) To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Foreign Relations Powers LO 12. 2 • Congress also though has sole authority over Foreign Relations Powers LO 12. 2 • Congress also though has sole authority over the following: • to declare war • raise and organize the armed forces • appropriate funds for national security activities (president only signs or vetoes the budget) • pass laws regarding foreign policy (president can only sign or veto them) • conduct oversight hearings regarding foreign relations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the powers of Congress in relation to foreign relations and national • Describe the powers of Congress in relation to foreign relations and national security: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy LO 12. 3: Compare and contrast the How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy LO 12. 3: Compare and contrast the House and Senate, and describe the roles of congressional leaders, committees, caucuses, and staff. American Bicameralism Congressional Leadership The Committees and Subcommittees Caucuses: The Informal Organization of Congress • Congressional Staff • • To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • American Bicameralism • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • American Bicameralism • A bicameral legislature is one divided into two houses. • The U. S. Congress and every American state legislature except Nebraska’s are bicameral. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Each state is LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Each state is guaranteed two senators in the U. S. Congress, with representation in the House of Representatives based on population. • For these reasons and to provide internal checks on power, responsibilities and powers were divided • The House (closest to the masses) was given the power of initiating all revenue bills and the ability to impeach officials (bringing people up on charges); • The Senate was given the “advice and consent power”, which gave them the responsibility for ratifying all treaties and for confirming important presidential nominations, and the power to hold the trial for impeached officials. The House and Senate each set their own agenda. Both use committees to narrow down the thousands of bills introduced. • The House and Senate each set their own agenda. Both use committees to narrow down the thousands of bills introduced. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 3 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The House is LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The House is much larger and more institutionalized than the Senate. • Party loyalty to leadership and party-line voting are more common than in the Senate. • Debate can be ended by a simple majority vote. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • House Rules Committee LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • House Rules Committee – The committee in the House that reviews most bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House. • This committee/institution is unique to the House • Each bill is given a “rule, ” which schedules the bill on the calendar, allots time for debate, and sometimes even specifies what kind of amendments may be offered. • Rules Committee is responsive to the House leadership because the Speaker of the House appoints the committee’s members. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy The Senate • The LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy The Senate • The Senate is less disciplined and less centralized than the House. • Today’s senators are more equal in power than representatives are due to Senate rules and the limited number of members. • Party leaders do for Senate scheduling what the Rules Committee does in the House. • Unlike the House, the Senate has specific responsibilities coordinating between Congress and the president due to the advice and consent power impacting treaties and nominations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Filibuster – A LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Filibuster – A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill. • In practice, this sometimes means that opponents of a bill may try to “talk it to death. ” • At the present time, 60 members present and voting can halt a filibuster by invoking cloture (closure) on debate. • The longest individual filibuster was by Strom Thurmond in 1957 protesting civil rights legislation • Filibusters now occur more rarely, due to Senate policies allowing the threat of filibuster to often slow legislation, leading to a dramatic increase in cloture votes Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the division of powers between the House and the Senate and • Describe the division of powers between the House and the Senate and different structures/procedures that have developed within each body of Congress: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Leadership • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Leadership • Much of the leadership in Congress is really party leadership. • Those who have the real power in the congressional hierarchy are those whose party put them there. • Power is no longer in the hands of a few key members of Congress who are insulated from the public. • Instead, power is widely dispersed, requiring leaders to appeal broadly for support. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The House • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The House • The Speaker of the House is second (after the vice president) in the line to succeed a president who resigns, dies in office, or is impeached. • At one time, the Speaker had almost autocratic powers. • Many of the powers were removed from the Speaker’s control in 1910 and given to committees; some of the powers were later restored. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Formal powers of LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Formal powers of the Speaker today include: presides over the House when it is in session; plays a major role in making committee assignments; appoints or plays a key role in appointing the party’s legislative leaders and the party leadership staff; exercises substantial control over which bills get assigned to which committees. • The Speaker also has a great deal of informal power both inside and outside Congress. • The Speaker’s principal partisan ally is the majority leader. • The majority leader is responsible for rounding up votes on party legislation and for scheduling bills in the House. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Whips – Party LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Whips – Party leaders work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand lean on those who are wavering for votes on bills favored by the party. • Also reports the views and complaints of the party rank-andfile back to the leadership. • Minority Leader – The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate. • The minority party is also organized (with a minority leader and whips), and is prepared to take over the key posts if it should win a majority in the House. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe how the leadership of the House of Representatives is organized: Copyright • Describe how the leadership of the House of Representatives is organized: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Senate • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Senate • The Constitution names the vice president as president of the Senate. • Vice presidents typically have little power or influence in the Senate, except in the rare case when their vote can break a tie. • Modern vice presidents are active in representing the president’s views to senators. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Senate majority LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Senate majority leader—aided by the majority whips—is the position of real power and authority in the Senate. • Majority leader rounds up votes, schedules the floor action, and influences committee assignments. • Similar to the House, there is a minority leader that leads the party that is not currently in power Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • President pro tempore LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • President pro tempore – This is the official that is supposed to preside over the Senate and is now third in line to assume the presidency after the vice president and the Speaker of the House • Traditionally the member of the majority party with the most seniority • President pro tempore typically does not preside, usually junior members of majority to help learn the rules Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 111 th Congress Leadership To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson LO 12. 3 111 th Congress Leadership To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

112 th Congress Leadership - House To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, 112 th Congress Leadership - House To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

112 th Congress Leadership – Senate To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, 112 th Congress Leadership – Senate To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe how the leadership of the Senate is organized: Copyright © 2011 • Describe how the leadership of the Senate is organized: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Leadership in LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Leadership in Perspective • The structure of Congress is so complex that it seems remarkable that legislation gets passed at all. Its bicameral division means that bills have two sets of committee hurdles to clear. Recent reforms have decentralized power, and so the job of leading Congress is more difficult than ever. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Despite their stature LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Despite their stature and power, congressional leaders cannot always move their troops. • Congressional leaders are not in the strong positions they occupied in the past. • Power in both houses of Congress is decentralized • Leaders are elected by their fellow party members and must remain responsive to them. • Party leadership—at least in the House—has been more effective in recent years. • Following the Republican takeover in 1995, Speaker Newt Gingrich began centralizing power and exercising vigorous legislative leadership. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the effectiveness of leadership within Congress and what factors impact or • Describe the effectiveness of leadership within Congress and what factors impact or limit their power: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committees and Subcommittees LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committees and Subcommittees • Most of the real work of Congress goes on in committees. • Committees dominate congressional policymaking. • They regularly hold hearings to investigate problems and possible wrongdoing, and to investigate the executive branch. • They control the congressional agenda and guide legislation from its introduction to its send-off for the president’s signature. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committees can be LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committees can be grouped into four types: standing committees (by far the most important), joint committees, conference committees, and select committees. • Standing committees are permanent subject-matter committees, formed to handle bills in different policy areas. • Each chamber has its own committees and subcommittees that regularly meet to conduct hearings on bills or voted upon proposed amendments. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 http: //www. house. gov/committees/ http: //www. senate. gov/pagelayout/committees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/committees_home. htm To Learning LO 12. 3 http: //www. house. gov/committees/ http: //www. senate. gov/pagelayout/committees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/committees_home. htm To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Conference committees are LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Conference committees are formed to work out the differences when different versions of a bill are passed by the two houses. • The committee is formed to specifically resolve differences on one specific bill • Membership is drawn from both houses based upon party representation and typically includes the sponsors and floor managers for bills or members of the standing committee where the bill had a hearing • Committee ends after crafting a compromise version to be voted upon by both houses Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Joint committees are LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Joint committees are study committees that exist in a few policy areas, with membership drawn from both the Senate and the House. • Select committees are appointed for a specific (“select”) purpose outside of the regular legislative process of conducting hearings and amending bills • Select committees can be temporary, such as the Senate select committee that looked into Watergate. • Select committees can be permanent, such as the House or the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence that receives special security briefings to help guide legislation and monitor covert actions Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the different types of committees (purpose, composition, duration): Copyright © 2011 • Describe the different types of committees (purpose, composition, duration): Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Committees at LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The Committees at Work: Legislation and Oversight • More than 9, 000 bills are submitted by members every two years, which must be sifted through and narrowed down by the committee process. • Every bill goes to a standing committee; . which has virtually the power of life and death over it, as usually only bills receiving a favorable committee report are considered by the whole House or Senate. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • New bills sent LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • New bills sent to a committee typically go directly to subcommittee, which can hold hearings on the bill. • The most important output of committees and subcommittees is the “marked-up” (revised and rewritten) bill, submitted to the full House or Senate for consideration. • Members of the committee will usually serve as “floor managers” of the bill when the bill leaves committee, helping party leaders secure votes for the legislation. • They will also be cue-givers to whom other members turn for advice. • When the two chambers pass different versions of the same bill, some committee members will be appointed to the conference committee. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the legislative roles and operations of committees: Copyright © 2011 Pearson • Describe the legislative roles and operations of committees: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy Legislative oversight—the process of LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy Legislative oversight—the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy—is one of the checks Congress can exercise on the executive branch. • Uses this power to ensure that the bureaucracy, large hierarchal organization of administrative offices in the executive branch under Cabinet departments of other commissions, properly carries out Congressional intent with laws • Oversight is handled primarily through hearings and investigations into an agency or action. • Members of committees constantly monitor how a bill is implemented and hold hearings into how a law has been carried into effect and issues with implementation Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The process enables LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The process enables Congress to exert pressure on executive agencies • Can use hearings or investigations to put public pressure on agency or presidential administrations • Can even threaten to cut their budgets (or actually do this) in order to secure compliance with congressional wishes. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Typically, the majority LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Typically, the majority party will determine whether or not to hold hearings, since it controls the majority of committee seats and the majority of votes on the floor. • Congressional oversight occasionally captures public attention, such as congressional investigations into the Watergate scandal and the 1987 Iran-Contra affair. • Congress keeps tabs on more routine activities of the executive branch through its committee staff members, who have specialized expertise in the fields and agencies that their committees oversee (and who maintain an extensive network of formal and informal contacts with the bureaucracy) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Oversight is much LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Oversight is much more intense when the president is from a different party than one or more houses of Congress, as members of Congress can use this to put pressure on or investigate the president/administration or to show the administration in a negative light. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the oversight roles and operations of committees and Congress in general: • Describe the oversight roles and operations of committees and Congress in general: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Getting on a LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Getting on a Committee • Just after election, new members write to the party’s congressional leaders and members of their state delegation, indicating their committee preferences. • Each party in each house has a slightly different way of picking its committee members, but party leaders almost always play a key role. • Members seek committee assignments that will help them achieve three goals: reelection, influence in Congress, and the opportunity to make policy in areas they think are important. • Although every committee includes members from both parties, a majority of each committee’s members—as well as its chair— come from the majority party. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committee chairs are LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committee chairs are the most important influencers of the committee agenda. • They play dominant—though no longer monopolistic— roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full House. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Seniority System – LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Seniority System – Members who have served on the committee the longest and whose party is the chamber majority typically become chair. • Until the 1970 s, committee chairs were always selected through the seniority system—the member of the majority party with the longest tenure on the committee would automatically be selected. • Chairs were so powerful that they could single-handedly “bottle up” legislation in committee. • The system also gave a decisive edge to members from “safe” districts, where members were seldom challenged for reelection. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • In the 1970 LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • In the 1970 s, Congress faced a revolt of its younger members. • Both parties in both houses permitted members to vote on committee chairs. • Today, seniority remains the general rule for selecting chairs, but there have been notable exceptions. • These and other reforms have somewhat reduced the clout of the chairs. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the process and importance of being on committees and how their • Describe the process and importance of being on committees and how their leadership is chosen: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Caucuses: The Informal LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Caucuses: The Informal Organization of Congress • Caucus (congressional) – a grouping of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic, such as the Black Caucus, the Hispanic Caucus, the Congresswomen’s Caucus, and the Sunbelt Caucuses include regional groupings, ideological groupings, and economic groupings. • Caucuses can be composed of members from both parties and from both houses and their goal is to promote the interests around which they are formed. • Composed of legislative insiders who share similar concerns, the caucuses exert a much greater influence on policymaking than most citizen based interest groups can. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • In recent years, LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • In recent years, a growing number of caucuses have dominated these traditional informal groups. • The proliferation of congressional caucuses (currently more than 300 of them) gives members of Congress an informal, yet powerful, means of shaping the policy agenda. • This has made the representation of interests in Congress a more direct process (sometimes cutting out the middleman, the lobbyist). Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 3 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the role of caucuses in Congress: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, • Describe the role of caucuses in Congress: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Staff • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Congressional Staff • Personal staff – They provide constituent service and help with legislation. • Most staff members work in the personal offices of individual members. • In total, about 12, 000 individuals serve on the personal staffs of members of Congress. • Nearly one-half of these House staffers and nearly onethird of the Senate personal staff work in members’ offices in their constituencies, not in Washington. • This makes it easier for people to make contact with the staff. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committee staff • LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Committee staff • The committees of the House and Senate employ another 2, 000 staff members. • These staff members organize hearings, research legislative options, draft committee reports on bills, write legislation, and keep tabs on the activities of the executive branch. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Staff Agencies – LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • Staff Agencies – Congress has three important staff agencies that aid it in its work, as the CRS, GAO, and CBO provide specific information to Congress. • The Congressional Research Service (CRS) is administered by the Library of Congress. • The CRS uses researchers, many with advanced degrees and highly developed expertise, to respond to more than 250, 000 requests yearly for information. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The General Accounting LO 12. 3 How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • The General Accounting Office (GAO), with more than 3, 200 employees, helps Congress perform its oversight functions by reviewing the activities of the executive branch to see if it is following the congressional intent of laws and by investigating the efficiency and effectiveness of policy implementation. • The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) analyzes the president’s budget and makes economic projections about the performance of the economy, the costs of proposed policies, and the economic effects of taxing and spending alternatives. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the types of staff that support members of Congress and their • Describe the types of staff that support members of Congress and their roles in the legislative process and serving constituents: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

The Congressional Process LO 12. 4: Outline the path of bills to passage and The Congressional Process LO 12. 4: Outline the path of bills to passage and explain the influences on congressional decision making. • Presidents and Congress: Partners and Protagonists • Party, Constituency, and Ideology • Lobbyists and Interest Groups To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Bills • Approximately 9, 000 bills are LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Bills • Approximately 9, 000 bills are introduced each Congress. • A bill is a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. • Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the Congress can introduce a bill. • Only members of the House or Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration. • The White House and interest groups are common sources of bills. • Most bills are quietly killed off early in the legislative process. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • I’m Just a Bill • http: //www. LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • I’m Just a Bill • http: //www. you tube. com/watc h? v=He. YBZFEzf 8 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Steps for how a Bill Becomes a LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Steps for how a Bill Becomes a Law • Bill Introduction • Bill is introduced by a member and assigned to a committee, which usually refers it to a subcommittee. • The vast majority of bills can be introduced in either the House or the Senate, but revenue bills that would impact taxation and budget/spending bills must start in House of Representations To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Committee Action • Subcommittee performs studies, holds LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Committee Action • Subcommittee performs studies, holds hearings, and makes revisions. • If approved, the bill goes to the full committee. • Full committee may amend or rewrite the bill, before deciding whether to send it to the House/Senate floor • Bill is voted on to recommend its approval and consideration by the whole body or the bill can be defeated • Committee can also “kill” a bill by not holding a hearing or vote on the bill, having it “die in committee” • If approved, the bill is reported to the full House and placed on the calendar. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Floor Action • After being approved in LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Floor Action • After being approved in committee, the bill is reported to the full House and placed on the calendar for debate and voting on the floor • House Rules Committee issues a rule governing debate on the House floor and sends the bill to full House. • Senate leaders of both parties schedule the time for Senate debate on the bill, with the real power held by the majority leader and members of the majority party • Bill is debated by full House/Senate, amendments are offered, and a vote is taken. • If the bill passes, it is sent to the other house for consideration and the process begins again from introduction, to committee hearings, to floor action Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Conference Action • If the bill passes LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Conference Action • If the bill passes in both houses but in different versions, it is sent to a conference committee (sent directly to the president for consideration if not amended by the second house to vote on the bill). • Conference committee composed of members of both House and Senate meet to iron out differences between the bills. • The compromise bill is returned to both the House and Senate for a vote. Full House and Full Senate vote on conference committee version. • If it passes, the bill is sent to the president. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process Presidential Decision • President signs a bill into LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process Presidential Decision • President signs a bill into being a law or vetoes the bill (rejects in its entirety). • Congress may override a veto by a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate. • Bills may become a law after 10 days, even if the president does not sign, as long as the president does not veto • Pocket veto – Congress adjourns during the 10 day period the president is given to make a decision on whether to sign the bill and the bill dies without any action by the president Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman To Learning Objectives

LO 12. 4 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 4 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the process by which a bill can become a law (and • Describe the process by which a bill can become a law (and why it might not): Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents and Congress: Partners and Protagonists • LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents and Congress: Partners and Protagonists • Presidents are partners with Congress in the legislative process, but all presidents are also Congress’ adversaries in the struggle to control legislative outcomes. • Presidents have their own legislative agenda, based in part on their party’s platform and their electoral coalition. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents attempt to persuade Congress that what LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents attempt to persuade Congress that what they want is what Congress wants. • Political scientists sometimes call the president the chief legislator; the president’s task is to persuade Congress that his agenda should also be Congress’ agenda. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents have many resources to influence Congress. LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidents have many resources to influence Congress. • They may try to influence members directly, but more often will leave White House lobbying to the congressional liaison office and work primarily through regular meetings with the party’s leaders in the House and Senate. • Rather than creating the conditions for important shifts in public policy, an effective president is a facilitator, who works at the margins of coalition building to recognize and exploit opportunities presented by a favorable configuration of political forces. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidential success rates for influencing congressional votes LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Presidential success rates for influencing congressional votes vary widely among presidents and within a president’s tenure in office. • Presidents are usually most successful early in their tenures and when their party has a majority in one or both houses of Congress. • Regardless, in almost any year, the president will lose on many issues. • Presidents must win at least 10 times during the process to have their issue passed and their leadership of Congress is at the margins. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the role of the president in the legislative process and the • Describe the role of the president in the legislative process and the level of influence that they have: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Party, Constituency, and Ideology • Party Influence LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Party, Constituency, and Ideology • Party Influence – Party leaders cannot force party members to vote a particular way, but many do vote along party lines. • Parties are most cohesive when Congress is electing its official leaders. • A vote for the Speaker of the House is a straight party-line vote. • On other issues, the party coalition may not stick together. Votes on issues like civil rights have shown deep divisions within each party. • Differences between the parties are sharpest on questions of social welfare and economic policy. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Polarized Politics – Differences between Democrats and LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Polarized Politics – Differences between Democrats and Republicans in Congress have grown considerably since 1980. • Congress has become more ideologically polarized and more likely to vote according to the two party lines. • There are fewer conservative Democrats (often in the South) who often sided with Republicans, and fewer moderate Republicans (often in the Northeast) who would occasionally side with Democrats. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Party leaders in Congress are limited in LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Party leaders in Congress are limited in their powers to obtain support from party members. • They cannot remove a recalcitrant member from the party, although they do have some influence (such as committee assignments). • Recently, the parties—especially the Republicans—have been a growing source of money for congressional campaigns. • However, compared to multiparty parliamentary systems such as the Israeli Knesset, the majority party has the ability to lead in a stable and consistent fashion—until, at least, the next election. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as LO 12. 4 To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the impact of party politics on Congressional action and leadership: Copyright • Describe the impact of party politics on Congressional action and leadership: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Constituency Opinion Versus Member Ideology • There LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Constituency Opinion Versus Member Ideology • There a variety of views concerning how members of Congress should fulfill their function of representation. • The eighteenth-century English legislator Sir Edmund Burke favored the concept of legislators as trustees, using their best judgment to make policy in the interests of the people. • The concept of representatives as instructed delegates calls for representatives to mirror the preferences of their constituents. • Members of Congress are actually politicos, combining the trustee and instructed delegate roles as they attempt to be both representatives and policymakers. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Winners of congressional elections tend to vote LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Winners of congressional elections tend to vote on roll calls pretty much as they said they would, based on their ideology • The most effective way for constituents to influence congressional voting is to elect candidates who match their policy positions. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • On some controversial issues, it is perilous LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • On some controversial issues, it is perilous for a legislator to ignore constituent opinion. • Representatives and senators have recently been concerned about the many new single-issue groups that will vote exclusively on a candidate’s position on a single issue (such as gun control), and not on the member’s total record. • Members of Congress do pay attention to voters, especially on visible issues, but most issues do not interest voters. • However, it is difficult for legislators to know what the people want. • On less visible issues, other factors (such as lobbyists and the member’s individual ideologies) influence policy decisions. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the different factors that impact how members of Congress conduct their • Describe the different factors that impact how members of Congress conduct their actions, votes, and overall view of representation of their citizens: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Lobbyists and Interest Groups • Lobbyists—some of LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Lobbyists and Interest Groups • Lobbyists—some of them former members of Congress— represent the interests of their organization. • Lobbyists try to influence legislators’ votes. • They also can provide legislators with crucial information, and often can give assurances of financial aid in the next campaign. • There are more than 35, 000 individuals in Washington representing 12, 000 organizations. • The bigger the issue, the more lobbyists are involved in it. • Congress can ignore, reject, and regulate the lobbyists. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Paid lobbyists whose principal purpose is to LO 12. 4 The Congressional Process • Paid lobbyists whose principal purpose is to influence or defeat legislation must register and file reports with the secretary of the Senate and the clerk of the House. • A 1995 lobbyist regulation law requires anyone hired to lobby members of Congress, congressional staff members, White House officials, and federal agencies to report what issues they were seeking to influence, how much they were spending on the effort, and the identities of their clients. • In theory, the disclosure requirements would prevent shady deals and curb the influence of special interests. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the impact of lobbyists on members of Congress and restrictions on • Describe the impact of lobbyists on members of Congress and restrictions on the actions of lobbyists: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

Understanding Congress LO 12. 5: Assess Congress’s role as a representative body and the Understanding Congress LO 12. 5: Assess Congress’s role as a representative body and the impact of representation on the scope of government. • Congress and Democracy • Congress and the Scope of Government To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Congress and Democracy • In a large democracy, LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Congress and Democracy • In a large democracy, the success of democratic government depends on the quality of representation. • Congress clearly has some undemocratic and unrepresentative features: • its members are an American elite • its leadership is chosen by its own members • voters have little direct influence over the people who chair key committees or lead congressional parties. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • There is also evidence to support the view LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • There is also evidence to support the view that Congress is representative: Congress does try to listen to the American people; the election does make a difference in how votes turn out; which party is in power affects policies; linkage institutions do link voters to policymakers. • Members of Congress are responsive to the people, if the people make clear what they want. • Reformers have tried to promote a more open, democratic Congress and to a large degree, they have succeeded. • In the 1950 s, the real power was at the top. Committee chairs were automatically selected by seniority, and their power on the committee was unquestioned. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Representativeness Versus Effectiveness • The central legislative dilemma LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Representativeness Versus Effectiveness • The central legislative dilemma for Congress is combining the faithful representation of constituents with the making of effective public policy. • Supporters see Congress as a forum in which many interests compete for a spot on the policy agenda and over the form of a particular policy (as the founders intended). • Critics wonder if Congress is so responsive to so many interests that policy is too uncoordinated, fragmented, and decentralized. • Some observers feel that Congress is so representative that it is incapable of taking decisive action to deal with difficult problems. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the issues impacting the effectiveness and results of Congress regarding representation • Describe the issues impacting the effectiveness and results of Congress regarding representation of Americans? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Congress and the Scope of Government • Americans LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Congress and the Scope of Government • Americans have contradictory preferences regarding public policy. • They want to balance the budget and pay low taxes, but they also support most government programs. • More policies by Congress means more service to constituencies. • More programs that get created, the bigger the government gets. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Why the contradiction? – Everybody wants government programs LO 12. 5 Understanding Congress • Why the contradiction? – Everybody wants government programs cut, but just not their programs. • These contradictory preferences may help explain the pervasive ticket splitting in national elections, which has frequently led to divided government. • Big government helps members of Congress get reelected and even gives them good reason to support making it bigger. • However, Congress does not impose programs on a reluctant public; instead, it responds to the public’s demands for them. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • List of diverse group of Congress related terms online: • http: //www. • List of diverse group of Congress related terms online: • http: //www. thecapitol. net/glossary/index. html Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

 • Describe the impact of Congress on the scope of government: Copyright © • Describe the impact of Congress on the scope of government: Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 1 Summary • The Representatives and Senators • Congress has proportionately more LO 12. 1 Summary • The Representatives and Senators • Congress has proportionately more whites and males than the general population, and members of Congress are wealthier and better educated than the average American. • Although they are not descriptively representative of Americans, they may engage in substantive representation. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 2 Summary • Congressional Elections • Incumbents usually win reelection, because they LO 12. 2 Summary • Congressional Elections • Incumbents usually win reelection, because they usually draw weak opponents, are usually better known and better funded than their opponents, typically represent constituencies where a clear majority share their party affiliation, and can claim credit for aiding their constituents. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 2 Summary • Congressional Elections (cont. ) • However, incumbents can lose LO 12. 2 Summary • Congressional Elections (cont. ) • However, incumbents can lose if they are involved in a scandal, if their policy positions are substantially out of line with their constituents, or if the boundaries of their districts are redrawn to reduce the percentage of their constituents identifying with their party. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • House LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy • House is larger, characterized by greater centralization of power in the party leadership, and has more party discipline than the Senate. • Senators are more equal in power and may exercise the option of the filibuster to stop a majority from passing a bill. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy (cont. ) LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy (cont. ) • Congressional leaders are elected by their party members and must remain responsive to them. • Congressional leaders cannot always depend on the votes of the members of their party. • Committees consider legislation and oversee administration of policy. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy (cont. ) LO 12. 3 Summary • How Congress Is Organized to Make Policy (cont. ) • Committees chairs have the power to set their committees’ agendas. • Congressional Caucuses are composed of members of Congress who have a shared interest or characteristic. • Personal, committee, and agency staff provide policy expertise and constituency service. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 Summary • The Congressional Process • The process for considering a LO 12. 4 Summary • The Congressional Process • The process for considering a bill has many stages. • Presidents try to persuade Congress to support their policies, which usually earn space on the congressional agenda. • Parties are more homogeneous and polarized and provide an important pull on members on most issues. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 4 Summary • The Congressional Process (cont. ) • Constituencies have influence LO 12. 4 Summary • The Congressional Process (cont. ) • Constituencies have influence on congressional decision making on a few visible issues, while members’ own ideologies exert more influence on less visible issues. • Interest groups play a key role in informing Congress and sometimes the threat of their opposition influences vote outcomes. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Summary • Understanding Congress • Congress is an elite institution and LO 12. 5 Summary • Understanding Congress • Congress is an elite institution and responsive to the public when the public makes its wishes clear. • Congress is open to influence, which makes it responsive to many interests but also may reduce its ability to make good public policy. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman

LO 12. 5 Summary • Understanding Congress (cont. ) • Members of Congress often LO 12. 5 Summary • Understanding Congress (cont. ) • Members of Congress often support expanding government to aid their constituents, generally in response to public demands for policy, but many also fight to limit the scope of government. To Learning Objectives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman