Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing

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Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Political. Science Interactive Magleby & LightCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Political. Science Interactive Magleby & Light Government by the People Chapter 1 Constitutional Democracy

Brainstorm DEMOCRACY Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Brainstorm DEMOCRACY Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Defining Democracy Government by the People.Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Defining Democracy Government by the People. Demos (The People) Kratos (authority) The Athenians are here, Sire, with an offer to back us with ships, money, arms, and men—and, of course, their usual lectures about democracy.

Read Aloud Birth of The Constitution Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as LongmanRead Aloud Birth of The Constitution Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Theories of Democracy Government by theCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Theories of Democracy Government by the people, either directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections Direct Democracy Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials more directly Representative Democracy Government that derives its powers indirectly from the people, who elect those who will govern Constitutional Democracy Government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Constitutional Democracy Government by the peopleCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Constitutional Democracy Government by the people requires faith in our common human enterprise Constitutional democracy requires constant attention to protecting the rights and opinions of others Constitutional democracy means government by representative politicians Thomas Jefferson, one of our best-known champions of constitutional democracy

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy The peaceful transfer ofCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy The peaceful transfer of political power through elections A student from Chicago casts an early vote in the 2008 Illinois presidential primary.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy In 2000, Democrat AlCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy In 2000, Democrat Al Gore won the popular vote, but George W. Bush was declared winner by the Electoral College. Still, Gore graciously conceded defeat. “ I say to president-elect Bush that what remains of partisan rancor must now be put aside, and may God bless his stewardship of this country. Neither he nor I anticipated this long and difficult road. Certainly neither of us wanted it to happen. Yet it came, and now it has ended, resolved, as it must be resolved, through the honored institutions of our democracy. ” -Al Gore

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy In 2008, many DemocratsCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. Constitutional Democracy In 2008, many Democrats still felt cheated by the process that occurred in 2000, and Republican nominee John Mc. Cain warned that there would be dire economic and national security consequences if Democratic nominee Barack Obama was elected. Yet following Obama’s victory, Republican president George W. Bush did not attempt to prolong his time in office, and Mc. Cain and his supporters did not take up arms or go underground to plan a revolution. Similarly, neither Obama nor his supporters seriously thought about punishing Mc. Cain and his supporters.

English Philosophers John Locke – “Second Treatise of Government” – Social Contract – Natural Rights –English Philosophers John Locke – “Second Treatise of Government” – Social Contract – Natural Rights – Consent of the Governed Thomas Hobbes Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

The Federalist #10 The Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay Written to defendThe Federalist #10 The Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay Written to defend the Constitution The constitutional principles guard against the dangers of direct democracy Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Turn-and-Talk Politics Government Political Science Democracy Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as LongmanTurn-and-Talk Politics Government Political Science Democracy Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Conditions Conducive to Constitutional Democracy EducationalCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Conditions Conducive to Constitutional Democracy Educational Conditions Democracy puts a premium on education Economic Conditions Extremes of poverty and wealth undermine the possibilities for a healthy constitutional democracy

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Conditions Conducive to Constitutional Democracy SocialCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Conditions Conducive to Constitutional Democracy Social Conditions Overlapping associations and groupings, so that allegiance to one group is not overpowering Ideological conditions Acceptance of the ideals of democracy and a willingness from the majority to proceed democratically

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of InteractingCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of Interacting Values Equality of Opportunity Popular Consent Personal Liberty Respect for the Individual These basic values of democracy do not always coexist happily.

Democratic Values Personal Liberty – Individuals must have the opportunity to realize their own goals. Democratic Values Personal Liberty – Individuals must have the opportunity to realize their own goals. Respect for the Individual – Rights for the individual; potential for common sense, rationality and fairness. Equality of Opportunity – “All men are created equal…. life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” Popular Consent – Government derives it’s power from the consent of the people. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of InterrelatedCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of Interrelated Political Processes Free and fair elections Majority rule Freedom of expression The right to assemble and protest A student from Chicago casts an early vote in the 2008 Illinois presidential primary.

Majority vs. Plurality Majority – more than half of the votes Plurality – the most votesMajority vs. Plurality Majority – more than half of the votes Plurality – the most votes (3 candidates or more) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Word Splash Unity Diversity Stability Dissent Order Liberty Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  PublishingWord Splash Unity Diversity Stability Dissent Order Liberty Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Colonial Beginnings  Mayflower CompactCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Colonial Beginnings Mayflower Compact – Legalized the Pilgrim’s position as a body politic Colonial assemblies – Every colony in the New World had an assembly

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Rise of Revolutionary Fervor TheCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Rise of Revolutionary Fervor The Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Toward Unity and Order Goal: ToCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Toward Unity and Order Goal: To bring the thirteen states together while allowing each state to remain independent Adopted on March 1, 1781 The Articles of Confederation Under the Articles, each state issued its own currency

Weakness of the Articles? Raise (levy) taxes Regulate Trade Coin Money Raise an Army Copyright 2009Weakness of the Articles? Raise (levy) taxes Regulate Trade Coin Money Raise an Army Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Shays’s Rebellion – Economic depression ofCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Shays’s Rebellion – Economic depression of mid-1780 s Daniel Shays – Rallied farmers to demand change from government

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. The Constitutional Convention of 1787: TheCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. The Constitutional Convention of 1787: The Delegates 55 Delegates – Educated – Wealthy – Experienced in state/local government – White – Male To encourage open debate, the proceedings were kept secret.

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. The Constitutional Convention of 1787: ConsensusCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. The Constitutional Convention of 1787: Consensus The common philosophy accepted by most of the delegates was that of balanced government – national government

Charles Beard “ An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution” – 1913 Argues that the founders wereCharles Beard “ An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution” – 1913 Argues that the founders were influenced by their own personal interest when writing the Constitution. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Reading and Reflection “ The American Political Tradition” –Richard Hofstadter Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,Reading and Reflection “ The American Political Tradition” –Richard Hofstadter Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

The Making of the Constitution Brainstorm Activity Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing asThe Making of the Constitution Brainstorm Activity Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Conflict and Compromise Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Northwest Ordinance ofConflict and Compromise Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Northwest Ordinance of

Issues Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism Taxation of Foreign Commerce Large vs. Small States Counting of Slaves DirectIssues Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism Taxation of Foreign Commerce Large vs. Small States Counting of Slaves Direct Vote of Representatives Landowners Only-? Election of the President Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

1. Virginia Plan 2. New Jersey Plan 3. Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise) 4. Three-Fifths Compromise Copyright1. Virginia Plan 2. New Jersey Plan 3. Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise) 4. Three-Fifths Compromise Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Compromises

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: ConflictCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: Conflict and Compromise The Virginia Plan National government would be supreme over the states 2 Chambers (Bi-cameral) Direct Voter Elections Votes based on population Favored by large /populous states The New Jersey Plan “ Confederation model” 1 Chamber (Unicameral) Each state has the same number of votes regardless of population Favored by smaller states 2 competing plans

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Great Compromise Bicameral Chambers UpperCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Great Compromise Bicameral Chambers Upper House – Senate (2 per State) Lower House – House of Representatives (based on population) Direct Vote of Representatives States decided voter requirements The Connecticut Plan

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: ConflictCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: Conflict and Compromise The Conflict State-based approach versus an individual-based approach The Compromise House of Representatives: Proportional; Senate: Equal number of representatives from each state The Conflict The fact that Northerners hated slavery worried Southerners, who feared that their greater representation in Congress would be used to end slavery The Compromise Slaves counted as three-fifths of a free person; protection of the Atlantic Slave Trade for at least 20 years

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: ConflictCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Constitutional Convention of 1787: Conflict and Compromise The Conflict Southerners feared that the North’s greater representation in Congress would be used to end slavery The Compromise Slaves counted as three-fifths of a free person in determining representation in the House of Representatives; protection of the Atlantic slave trade for at least 20 years

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Electoral College Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Electoral College

Reading and Reflection “ Federalist #16 and #17”  - Alexander Hamilton Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,Reading and Reflection “ Federalist #16 and #17” — Alexander Hamilton Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Amending and Ratification Articles of Confederation – Amendments must be by unanimous vote by State LegislatureAmending and Ratification Articles of Confederation – Amendments must be by unanimous vote by State Legislature (Article XIII) Constitution – Nine States through State Convention (by the people…) Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Let the arguing begin…… Federalist City-DwellersCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Let the arguing begin…… Federalist City-Dwellers Seaboard Dwellers Rich / Educated Supported Strong Nat’l Gov Loose interpretation of constitution Strong Navy National Debt Small States Anti-Federalist Poor Farmer Country Dweller Supported States Rights Strict interpretation of constitution Small Navy State Debt Large States

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Federalists versus Anti-Federalists • The FederalistCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Federalists versus Anti-Federalists • The Federalist Papers — Publius – James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay – 84 Essays The “Brutus” Essays – Author Unknown – believed to be the Governor of New York – 16 Essays

Arguments Against Ratification No Bill of Rights Impose Barriers No rotation of officials Not concerned withArguments Against Ratification No Bill of Rights Impose Barriers No rotation of officials Not concerned with local issues / needs Feared Congress would use delegated powers in abusive manner Subdued natural rights Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Argument Against Bill of Rights not listed could be denied No power to regulate certain issuesArgument Against Bill of Rights not listed could be denied No power to regulate certain issues 10 th Amendment – States Rights “ Necessary and Proper” Clause, Article I, Section #8, Clause #18 George Washington promises Bill of Rights Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman. The Politics of Ratification Patrick Henry’sCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman. The Politics of Ratification Patrick Henry’s famous cry, “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death!” Ratification of the Constitution

1. Federalist #10 2. Federalist #51 3. Federalist #78 Major Arguments Author Due Monday Copyright 20091. Federalist #10 2. Federalist #51 3. Federalist #78 Major Arguments Author Due Monday Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman The Federalist Papers

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,  Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of InterdependentCopyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , Publishing as Longman Democracy as a System of Interdependent Political Structures The five distinctive elements of the U. S. constitutional system Federalism Separation of Powers Bicameralism Checks and Balances Bill of Rights