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Copyright  © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill TechnologyCopyright © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill Technology Education Introduction to Computer Administration

Operating System Basics • Operating System Objectives • Layers of Computer Systems • Services Provided byOperating System Basics • Operating System Objectives • Layers of Computer Systems • Services Provided by the Operating System • Functions of Operating Systems • Types of Operating Systems • Enhancing an OS

Operating System • A program that controls the execution of application programs • An interface betweenOperating System • A program that controls the execution of application programs • An interface between applications and hardware

Operating System Objectives • Convenience – Makes the computer more convenient to use • Efficiency –Operating System Objectives • Convenience – Makes the computer more convenient to use • Efficiency – Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner • Ability to evolve – Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service

Layers of Computer System Layers of Computer System

Services Provided by the Operating System • Program development – Editors and debuggers • Program executionServices Provided by the Operating System • Program development – Editors and debuggers • Program execution • Access to I/O devices • Controlled access to files • System access

Services Provided by the Operating System • Error detection and response – internal and external hardwareServices Provided by the Operating System • Error detection and response – internal and external hardware errors • memory error • device failure – software errors • arithmetic overflow • access forbidden memory locations – operating system cannot grant request of application

Services Provided by the Operating System • Accounting – collect statistics – monitor performance – usedServices Provided by the Operating System • Accounting – collect statistics – monitor performance – used to anticipate future enhancements – used for billing users

Copyright  © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill TechnologyCopyright © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill Technology Education Operating System Basics Ref Book: Chapter # 7: Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton Mc. Graw-Hill. www. mhhe. com/peternorton

7 A- 10 Functions of Operating Systems • Provide a user interface • Run programs •7 A- 10 Functions of Operating Systems • Provide a user interface • Run programs • Manage hardware devices • Organized file storage

Providing a User Interface • User interface – How a user interacts with a computer –Providing a User Interface • User interface – How a user interacts with a computer – Require different skill sets

Providing a User Interface • Graphical user interface (GUI) – Most common interface • Windows, OSProviding a User Interface • Graphical user interface (GUI) – Most common interface • Windows, OS X, Gnome, KDE – Uses a mouse to control objects – Uses a desktop metaphor – Shortcuts open programs or documents – Open documents have additional objects – Task switching – Dialog boxes allow directed input

Graphical User Interface Graphical User Interface

Providing a User Interface • Command line interfaces – Older interface • DOS, Linux, UNIX –Providing a User Interface • Command line interfaces – Older interface • DOS, Linux, UNIX – User types commands at a prompt – User must remember all commands – Included in all GUIs

Command Line Interface Command Line Interface

Running Programs • Many different applications supported • System call – Provides consistent access to OSRunning Programs • Many different applications supported • System call – Provides consistent access to OS features • Share information between programs – Copy and paste – Object Linking and Embedding

Managing Hardware • Programs need to access hardware • Interrupts – CPU is stopped – HardwareManaging Hardware • Programs need to access hardware • Interrupts – CPU is stopped – Hardware device is accessed • Device drivers control the hardware

Organizing Files and Folders • Organized storage • Long file names • Folders can be createdOrganizing Files and Folders • Organized storage • Long file names • Folders can be created and nested • All storage devices work consistently

Types of Operating Systems • Real-time operating system – Very fast small OS – Built intoTypes of Operating Systems • Real-time operating system – Very fast small OS – Built into a device – Respond quickly to user input – MP 3 players, Medical devices

Types of Operating Systems • Single user/Single tasking OS – One user works on the systemTypes of Operating Systems • Single user/Single tasking OS – One user works on the system – Performs one task at a time – MS-DOS and Palm OS – Take up little space on disk – Run on inexpensive computers

Single Tasking • Operating System cannot be able to take control back from the running process/task/applicationSingle Tasking • Operating System cannot be able to take control back from the running process/task/application • In case if a process call an I/O Instruction then Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding

Types of Operating Systems • Single user/Multitasking OS – User performs many tasks at once –Types of Operating Systems • Single user/Multitasking OS – User performs many tasks at once – Most common form of OS – Windows XP and OS X – Require expensive computers – Tend to be complex

Multitasking • Operating System can take control back from the running process and can give itMultitasking • Operating System can take control back from the running process and can give it to other. • When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job

Types of Operating Systems • Multi user/Multitasking OS – Many users connect to one computer –Types of Operating Systems • Multi user/Multitasking OS – Many users connect to one computer – Each user has a unique session – UNIX, Linux, and VMS – Maintenance can be easy – Requires a powerful computer

Multi user/Multi tasking OS Multi user/Multi tasking OS

Enhancing an OS • Utilities – Provide services not included with OS – Goes beyond theEnhancing an OS • Utilities – Provide services not included with OS – Goes beyond the four functions – Firewall, anti-virus and compression – Prices vary

Enhancing an OS • Backup software – Archives files onto removable media – Ensures data integrityEnhancing an OS • Backup software – Archives files onto removable media – Ensures data integrity – Most OS include a backup package – Many third party packages exist

Backup Software Backup Software

Enhancing an OS • Anti-virus software – Crucial utility – Finds, blocks and removes viruses –Enhancing an OS • Anti-virus software – Crucial utility – Finds, blocks and removes viruses – Must be updated regularly – Mc. Afee and Norton Anti-Virus

Enhancing an OS • Firewall – Crucial utility – Protects your computer from intruders – MakesEnhancing an OS • Firewall – Crucial utility – Protects your computer from intruders – Makes computer invisible to hackers – Zone Labs is a home firewall – Cisco sells hardware firewalls

Enhancing an OS • Intrusion detection – Often part of a firewall package – Announces attemptsEnhancing an OS • Intrusion detection – Often part of a firewall package – Announces attempts to breach security – Snort is a Linux based package

Enhancing an OS • Screen savers – Crucial utility for command line systems • Prevents burnEnhancing an OS • Screen savers – Crucial utility for command line systems • Prevents burn in – Merely fun for GUI systems – Screen saver decorates idle screens

Copyright  © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill TechnologyCopyright © 2006 by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mc. Graw-Hill Technology Education Reference Book: Introduction to Computers , Peter Norton Mc. Graw-Hill. www. mhhe. com/peternorton