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Описание презентации Content s. History and origin Symbols and по слайдам
Content s. History and origin Symbols and traditions Thanksgiving around the world
History and origin • In 1620 more than one hundred people sailed across the Atlantic ocean to settle in the New World. They left their old country England because they couldn’t pray the way they wanted. The people were called Pilgrims. The Pilgrims sailed to America from Plymouth, England, in September 1620.
The name of their ship was the Mayflower. It was approximately 25 feet wide and 90 feet long. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, in what is now the state of Massachusetts, in December 1620.
Their were people living in America before the pilgrims arrived. These people were the Native American Indians. The Indians began settling in America about 25, 000 years ago. They hunted, fished and farmed to survive. There were many regional groups, or tribes, each had its own customs and beliefs.
The Pilgrims’ first winter in the New World was difficult. They had arrived too late to grow any crops. Without fresh food half of the Pilgrims died. The following spring the Indians taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, plant and survive in America. The crops did well, and in the fall of 1621 the Pilgrims had a great harvest. They were thankful and decided to celebrate it with a Thanksgiving feast.
The first Thanksgiving lasted three days. Governor Bradford sent men to the forest to bring wild turkeys, geese, ducks. The Pilgrims invited the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, Massasoit, and 90 of his braves. The Indians brought five deer. Thy prepared dinner of meat, seafood, vegetables, wild fruits, corn. There was popcorn too! The work for preparing the feast – for 91 Indians and 56 settlers – fell to only 4 Pilgrim women and 2 teenage girls.
The militia under the leadership of Captain Myles Standish drilled and fired their muskets and cannon to entertain their guests, and in turn the Wampanoag delighted their hosts with demonstrations of their traditional dances. The men also competed in jumping, running and other athletic contests. And after the Indians displayed their accuracy with bow and arrow, the Pilgrim soldiers took part in a parade and exhibited their skills in shooting. The women and girls spent most of their time cooking and serving.
The Pilgrims had so much to be thankful for. The long, hard, terrible year was over. They gave thanks for good friends, new homes, and plenty of food. They gave thanks for the new life they had begun in Plymouth.
Symbols and traditions
Turkey is a part of the traditional Thanksgiving dinner, since it is believed that the Pilgrims and the Native Americans had turkey at their feast.
Sweet-sour cranberry sauce, or cranberry jelly, was on the first Thanksgiving table and is still served today. The cranberry is a small, sour berry. It grows in bogs, or muddy areas, in Massachusetts and other New England states. The Indians used the fruit to treat infections. They used the juice to dye their rugs and blankets. They taught the colonists how to cook the berries with sweetener and water to make a sauce. The Indians called it «ibimi» which means «bitter berry. » When the colonists saw it, they named it «crane-berry» because the flowers of the berry bent the stalk over, and it resembled the long-necked bird called a crane. The berries are still grown in New England. Very few people know, however, that before the berries are put in bags to be sent to the rest of the country, each individual berry must bounce at least four inches high to make sure they are not too ripe!
The horn of plenty, or the cornucopia, is a familiar Thanksgiving symbol. It is a symbol of the earth bounty, and reminds us that our food comes from the earth.
Indian corn is used as a decoration. . The American Indians taught the Pilgrims how to plant corn, which the Pilgrims used to survive their first winter.
This holiday has such national entertainment as Thanksgiving Day Parade and a professional football game broadcast on TV. The Gimbel Brothers started the parade tradition with a parade of toys in Philadelphia in 1920. Macy’s department store holds famous Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City. Celebrities, Floats, bands and balloons shaped like famous storybook and cartoon characters appear in the parade. Santa Claus arrives at the end. His coming marks the beginning of the Christmas season.
Throughout history many cultures have given thanks for a bountiful harvest. They might differ in their forms and presentations. But their spirit — setting aside a date to reflect on life’s blessings, remains the same. Catch a glimpse of the spectra of colors and shades that tinge thankful celebrations from around the world! As evident from most of the cultures people would associate these with harvest festivals in gratitude of the God who protects them and their crops. Harvest festivals and thanksgiving celebrations held by the ancient Greeks, the Romans, the Hebrews, the Chinese, and the Egyptians all reflect the similar spirit. The Kaleidoscope here depicts the spectra of celebration as practiced by these different cultures. The First Americans The Greeks The Hebrews The Egyptians The Romans
Even in prehistoric times, the first Americans observed many rituals and ceremonies to express gratitude to a higher power for life itself. A Seneca Indian ritual, for example, states, «Our Creator. . . Shall continue to dwell above the sky, and this is where those on the earth will end their thanksgiving. » Another quotation of the American Indians attributed to a later period. But that too was well before the day the Europeans came to know about America. It was: «The plant has its nourishment from the earth and its limbs go up this way, in praise of its Maker. . . like the limbs of a tree. » The First Americans
On the first day of the festival married women would build leafy shelters and furnish them with couches made with plants. On the second day they fasted. On the third day a feast was held and offerings to the goddess Demeter were made — gifts of seed corn, cakes, fruit, and pigs. It was hoped that Demeter’s gratitude would grant them a good harvest. The ancient Greeks worshipped Demeter as their goddess of all grains. Each autumn the festival of Thesmosphoria was held to honor the goddess. The Greeks
Sukkoth has derived its name from the huts (succots) that Moses and the Israelites lived in as they wandered the desert for 40 years before they reached the Promised Land. These huts were made of branches and were easy to assemble, take apart, and carry as the Israelites wandered through the desert. The festival coprises two main events — Hag ha Succot — the Feast of the Tabernacles and Hag ha Asif — the Feast of Ingathering. For over 3000 years Jewish families have been celebrating an autumnal harvest festival called Sukkoth begins on the 15 th day of the Hebrew month of Tishri, 5 days after Yom Kippur the most solemn day of the Jewish year. The Hebrews Part II
During this 8 -day long festival the Jews build small huts of branches which recall the tabernacles of their ancestors. These huts are constructed as temporary shelters, as the branches are not driven into the ground and the roof is covered with foliage which is spaced to let the light in. Inside the huts are hung fruits and vegetables, including apples, grapes, corn, and pomegranates. On the first two nights of Sukkoth the families eat their meals in the huts under the evening sky. The Hebrews
The celebration of the spring-time harvest festival by the ancient Egyptians was dedicated to the honor of Min, their god of vegetation and fertility. Spring being the harvest season of the Egyptian’s the festival was held during this season. The festival featured a parade in which the Pharaoh took part. After the parade a great feast was held. Music, dancing, and sports were also part of the celebration. When the Egyptian farmers harvested their corn, they wept and pretended to be grief-stricken. This was to deceive the spirit which they believed lived in the corn. The Egyptians
The Roman celebration of Cerelia, a harvest festival, was dedicated to the honor of Ceres was their goddess of corn (from which the word cereal comes). It was also an autumnal festival held each year on October 4 th. Offerings of the first fruits of the harvest and pigs were made to Ceres. The celebration included music, parades, games and sports and a thanksgiving feast. The Romans