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Content n n n Health care Classical vs alternative medicine Human body The most frequent people´s diseases What are your symptoms? In the ambulance Describing pictures The principles of healthy lifestyle Role plays Worksheet 1 Worksheet 2
Health care in Slovakia n n n n n Everybody in our country has the right to choose a doctor and many people go to one family doctor. At present two types of health facilities operate in this country: state and private ones. Medical care is provided for our citizens from birth to death. There is so called prenatal care which includes medical check-ups before the child is born and then maternity ward services. Soon after the birth each child is vaccinated against such illnesses as tuberculosis (TB), tetanus, whooping cough, polio and later smallpox. Each school child is under medical supervision which means that he or she has to undergo a series of preventive medical and dental check-ups where his body is examined, his teeth checked and eyesight tested. We must go through many types of vaccination during our lives. Each person should undergo a regular check-up at least once a year. The Health insurance system is undergoing some changes at present. Employers pay health insurance for their employees but everybody can pay extra money for his/her health insurance.
Classical & alternative medicine Classical medicine n Offers treatment with painkillers. n It fights against illness and disease with drugs and surgery by which doctors can save millions of people. n It is very important in accidents and emergencies. n BUT on the other hand, taking a lot of medicine can destroy other organs of your body. Alternative medicine n Looks at the whole person, not just the illness. n Types of alternative medicine: n Acupuncture – the use of needles to make a person’s energy to flow in a more balanced way n Homeopathy – uses natural plants and flowers to beat the illness n Osteopathy – is a system of movements which correct problems with the bones and muscles
Human body n n The human body consists of a bony skeleton and muscles. The three parts of the body are The head The trunk The limbs
The head n n n Contains the brain, the centre of the nervous system The face – forehead, the temples, the eyebrows, the eyes, the ears, the nose, the mouth, the cheeks, the jaw, the chin The eyes are protected by the eyelids and eyelashes. The eyes are the organs of sight. The nose of smell, the ears are organs of hearing. Those who cannot see are blind, who cannot hear are deaf, and those who cannot speak are dumb. The nerves of the skin are the organs of touch. The five senses are: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. The main parts of the mouth are lips, the tongue, the teeth (milk, permanent teeth, false teeth), the palate and the gums.
The trunk n n n The head is attached to the trunk by neck. The trunk includes the chest, the back, the shoulders and the abdomen. The internal organs are the lungs, the stomach, the liver with the gall-bladder, the spleen, the kidneys and the bowels. We breathe with our lungs. The heart pumps the blood through our body.
The limbs n n n n The arms and legs are called the limbs. The leg is composed of the thigh, the knee, the calf, the shin, and the foot. Each foot has a heel, a sole, and five toes. The arm consists of the upper and lower arm, the elbow, the wrist and the hand. The inner side of the hand is the palm. On each hand are four fingers and one thumb. The finger nails protect the finger tips. The movement of our body is produced by the expansion and contraction of the muscles. Muscles are connected with the bones by sinews, the bones are bound together by ligaments. There are 230 bones in the human body.
Make the list of the most common children diseases, infections and serious diseases.
The most frequent diseases n n n Common children diseases: measles, chicken pox, mumps, otitis Common infections: clod, flu, angina, indigestion, diarrhea, constipation, headache, stomachache Serious diseases: pneumonia, tuberculosis, leukemia, diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer, AIDS – the last two are incurable
What are your symptoms? n 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Match the diseases with their symptoms. Flu Pneumonia Rheumatism Chicken pox Mumps An ulcer swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain on eating burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating rash starting on body, slightly raised temperature dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement
What do doctors do? What might the doctor ask you?
What do doctors do? n n n n n They take your temperature Listen to your chest Look in your eyes Examine you Take your blood pressure Take throat culture Put our blood or urine through lab-tests to take for example a blood-count Ask you some questions and weigh and measure you before sending you to the hospital for further test They may X-ray our lungs or bones They prescribe some medicine to us What might the doctor ask you? n Do you have health insurance? n Are you taking any medication? n Have you ever had any operation? n Are you allergic to anything?
Look at the pictures. What can be done to help those people?
Food and health are closely connected. Your health often depends on well-balanced diet. What does it mean?
Food And Health Our food must contain: proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and minerals. n n n n n PROTEINS - they can be found in meat, in eggs, cheese, yoghurt, and other dairy products. CARBOHYDRATES - they can be found in bread, pasta, pastry, cakes and chocolates FAT - it can be found in bacon VITAMINS - can be found in fruit and veg FIBRE - can be found in cereals and porridge. MINERALS - can be found in mineral water, in vegetables, e. g. beans contain a lot of calcium, which is very important for our bones and teeth, or spinach is full of iron. Some people overeat and they are overweight or obese. Lot of people eat fast food, which is often called junk food. These are hamburgers, hot dogs, pizza, and fish and chips. On the other hand, there are some health nuts. They buy foods only in health shops. A Slovak proverb says: Have a breakfast like a king, have a lunch like a citizen and have dinner like a pauper.
Health is essential if we want to live to the fullest. Healthy people feel better and live longer. Our health depends on our lifestyle. We are, therefore, responsible for our own health. What can we do for better health?
A new start to a healthier lifestyle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Nutrition. Have a balanced diet that will provide the needed minerals, vitamins and nutrients. Fresh foods are the best, including plenty of vegetables and fruits. Fatty, dried or sugary foods should be limited. Eat on regular schedule, but not too late in the evening. Exercise. Set aside time for daily exercise. You will be less prone to illness and obesity, feel fitter and stronger. Water. Drink enough liquid every day – such as water, herb teas or juices. Sun-smartness. Limit your time in the sun to avoid skin damage. Thinking. Keep your mind in good order. Try to be happy, smile more. Air. Spend some time outdoors each day and breathe in fresh clean air. Rest. Have about 8 hours of sleep every night to avoid feeling tired, weak or irritable during the day. Turning away from health risks. Avoid any health destroying substances such as drugs, tobacco or alcohol. Which of these tips are you already practicing?
Role plays 1. 2. 3. 4. You/your partner is pregnant. Your doctor asks you if you want to have an ultra-sound to find out if the baby is a boy or a girl. Tell your doctor yes or no and why. Your father is sick and in the hospital. Ask the doctor how he is doing. You are at the pharmacy. Ask the pharmacist how often you should take your pills and if there is anything else you need to know about your medicine. Call your dentist and make an appointment for the regular check-up.
Worksheet 1 – going to hospital 1. 2. 3.
Worksheet 2 – illness and pain 1. 2.
Writing Write an article to a school magazine about what the main principles of a healthy lifestyle are. Your article should not exceed 250 words. You may use your notes from the lesson.
Thank you for your attention. Mgr. Ľ. Vašková