- Количество слайдов: 38
Conflict in the Middle East
Background Ground Zero for Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. Judaism: Israel = Biblical “Promised Land” n Occupied by Moses and Hebrews around 1000 B. C. Invaded and occupied by Philistines n Greeks and Romans call it “Land of Philistines”, which becomes Palestine. Region of Jesus Christ’s birth, ministry, and death. “Ownership” changes hands frequently. Muslims capture in 640 n built Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691 n Spot where Mohammed stopped on his way to heaven. n Holiest site in Islam outside Saudi Arabia. Ottoman Turks control from 1500’s-1900’s.
Balfour Declaration European Jews face persecution in late 1800’s. n Founded movement called Zionism to establish Jewish homeland in Palestine. n Begin establishing communities in Palestine prior to World War One. British Foreign Secretary Balfour supported the idea of a “national home” for the Jews. n n Hoped to gain Jewish support for World War One. Balfour Declaration endorses this homeland as well as an independent state for Arabs.
The British Mandate Ottoman Turks Lose in WW I =British gain control of Palestine in 1920. n 90 k Jews move in Palestinians and Jews begin arming themselves and conducting terrorist attacks against their counterparts. Rise of Nazism brings flood of new Jewish settlers to Palestine from Europe in 1930’s. UN votes to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab states in 1947, giving the Jews 55% of the land west of the Jordan River and designating Jerusalem as an international enclave.
Arab-Israeli War of 1948 14 May 1948: Zionist leader David Ben-Gurion declares that Israel is an independent state. Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq invade on 15 May. Fighting continues until Jan 1949. Israel prevails and gains territory in Galilee to the north and the Negev Desert to the south. Jerusalem is divided between Israel and Jordan. Fate of 700 k Palestinian refugees is left undecided.
Arab-Israeli War of 1956 USSR signs arms agreement with Egypt in 1955. Israelis feel threatened by arms build up and launch pre-emptive strike against Egypt. n Attack and seize the Sinai and Gaza Strip. n Relinquished in 1957. French and British retake Suez Canal which Egypt had seized several months earlier. UN establishes peace keeping force in Sinai that is still in place today.
Arafat and the PLO Arafat forms Al-Fatah (Palestinian National Liberation Front) in 1959. n Goal was to liberate Palestine from Israel through guerilla warfare. Variety of Palestinian factions form the Palestinian Liberation Organization in 1964. n n Arafat becomes chairman in 1969. Charter calls for elimination of state of Israel. Hussein feels threatened and expels PLO from Jordan in 1970. n n Arafat moves HQ to Lebanon. PLO driven out of Lebanon by Israel in 1982.
Six Day War June 5 -10 1967 Egypt, Jordan, and Syria begin military mobilization. Israel launches surprise pre-emptive strike. n Destroys most of Egyptian Air Force on the ground. n n Knocked out 350 aircraft in first three hours. Armored forces supported by air and infantry quickly take Sinai, Golan Heights, West Bank (including Arab portion of Jerusalem, and Gaza. n Destroyed over 200 Arab tanks in two days. UN arranges cease-fire, but terms did not specify exactly what land Israel was required to give up.
Yom Kippur War 6 Oct 1973 Egypt and Syria launch surprise attack on holiest day of Jewish year. IDF not fully mobilized and is initially pushed back. Arab integrated air defenses and anti-tank missiles take heavy toll on IDF. 10 -14 Oct IDF pushed Syrians out of Golan and entered Syria. 15 -24 Oct IDF pushes Egyptians back across the Suez. n n Soviets threaten to intervene when Egyptians are surrounded. Kissinger/US convince Israel to accept truce. Israeli invincibility brought into question; Arabs emboldened. n OPEC doubles oil prices and embargoes Israeli supporters.
Lebanon Israel launches air strikes against PLO positions in Lebanon in retaliation for terrorist attacks. Subsequently invades Lebanon and surrounds Beirut in 1982. n US-led UN coalition establishes presence ashore to keep the peace. n n Departs after bombing of barracks. PLO agrees to leave Beirut. Israel completes withdrawal of its troops from Lebanon in May 2000. n Nearly 1 k IDF soldiers killed during 22 year occupation.
Peace Accords Camp David 1979 n n n Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist. Israel returns Sinai to Egypt. Leads to Sadat’s assassination in 1981. Oslo Accords 1993 n n Israel and PLO accept each other’s right to exist. Allows limited Palestinian self-rule in Gaza and Jericho. Establishes framework for settlement of Gaza and West Bank issues. Leads to Rabin’s assassination in 1995.
Peace Accords Wye River Accords 1998 Arafat agrees to crack down on terrorists. n Israeli will pull troops back from occupied territories. n 14. 2 percent of the West Bank land will be transferred to Palestinian control. n Safe passage corridors will be established for Palestinians between Gaza and the West Bank. n 750 Palestinians will be released from Israeli prisons. n
Israel / Palestine: Arab / Jewish Population (1914 -2000)
West Bank (2004) 86% 14% *Includes 190, 000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and 180, 000 Jewish Settlers in East Jerusalem
Gaza Strip (2004) 99% 1%
The Green Line marks the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip which were conquered from Jordan and Egypt during the 1967 war. These territories comprise 22% of pre-1948 Palestine. LEGEND The green line Palestinian territory Israeli territory
Following the outbreak of the Intifada in 2000, more and more Israelis supported complete physical separation from the Palestinians. The majority of the Israeli public assumed that the Separation Wall would follow the Green Line and become the border between Israel and Palestine. However, due to pressure from the extreme right wing in Israel, the route of the Separation Wall was changed to include Israeli settlements. LEGEND The green line Palestinian territory Israeli territory Wall under construction
The government of Ariel Sharon claimed that the Separation Wall is a security project. Upon completion, the Separation Wall is projected to be 788 kilometers long, twice the length of the Green Line. LEGEND The green line Palestinian territory Israeli territory Wall under construction Approved path of the wall Suggested path of the wall
The Eastern Barrier will be the last major phase of the Separation Wall. This part of the Wall will ensure that Israel will control all Palestinian contacts with the outside world, including entries and exits, as well as aerial and electromagnetic space. 1. 5 million Palestinians will be inside the Wall. Another 500, 000 Palestinians will be find themselves between the Wall and the Green Line. LEGEND The green line Palestinian territory Israeli territory Wall under construction Approved path of the wall Suggested path of the wall
The planned and suggested path of the Wall will leave some 500, 000 Palestinians outside the Wall, but inside the Green Line. In order to prevent these Palestinians from moving freely outside the Wall, a sub-system of smaller enclaves will be constructed outside the main Wall. Palestinians who live in these small enclaves will be allowed in or out of them only according to the instructions of the Israeli army. LEGEND The green line Palestinian territory Israeli territory Wall under construction Approved path of the wall Suggested path of the wall Enclave under construction Suggested enclave
What does the wall look like? Here it is!
Israel Puts up a wall around Palestinian areas to prevent terrorist from moving into Israeli areas
Security Wall Temporary security measure? Route to further annexation of “Palestinian land”? Justifiable? Just?
Hamas Victory in Palestinian Elections Fundamentalist group that wants to establish an Islamic state on what it considers "historic Palestine, " including modern-day Israel. Political wing won a landslide victory in Palestinian parliamentary elections Charter calls for Israel’s destruction Should Hamas be recognized by the international community?
On-going violence since 2000 According to BBC: n n 3, 300 Palestinians killed by Israelis 1, 000 Israelis killed by Palestinians Most Pal. deaths by Israeli military Most Israeli deaths by acts of terrorism Can peace be made while violence persists? What will stop the violence?
Why Americans Should Care $96, 765, 000
How Should the U. S. Effectively Use its Power? Policeman? n Enforcer of laws Nation-builder? n Democratization Humanitarian? Imperialist? Peace Keeper? n Disinterested 3 rd Party Stay out!